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N O T E 

The Fourth Volume of the New Series of Proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society, herewith presented, includes the proceedings 
of four regular meetings, from October, 1885, to April, 1887, inclu- 
sive. The stated meetings of the Council, held during the same time, 
have fortunately been occupied only with routine matters and with 
shaping the business of the meetings of the Society. The reports of the 
Council contain, in addition to memorial notices of deceased members, 
essays by the gentlemen charged with their preparation, upon subjects 
of general interest. The Rev. Dr. Peabody treats, in his charming 
manner, of the Fallacies of History. Mr. Samuel S. Green shows that 
both Pilgrims and Puritans supported their ministers by voluntary 
contributions; and this, too, largely from principle rather than from 
convenience merely. Dr. Charles Deane refutes some broad charges 
which have at various times been brought against Massachusetts in 
the matter of the slave-trade. And in a discussion of the Great 
Charitable Trusts of Great Britain, Mr. Charles A. Chase brings out 
some facts about the origin as well as the financial condition of the 
universities, the great schools, the hospitals and certain other trusts. 

In the autumn of 1885 " Lechford's Note-book" was published as 
Vol. VII. of the "Transactions." The history of this work, and the 
manner in which it came into the Society's hands, are described by the 
ltev. Dr. Hale on page 6, et seq. of the current volume. 

Thomas Wentworth Iligginson, Edward H. Thompson (U. S. Consul^ 
at Merida, Yucatan), J. Evarts Greene, and Prof. Franklin B. Dexter 
furnish elaborate papers, and Prof. Frederick W. Putnam and Andrew 
McF. Davis make interesting communications. At the April, 1887, 
meeting, President Hoar laid before the Society three manuscript let- 
ters of Earl Percy, and read from Watterston's Gallery of American 
Portraits a discriminating sketch of one of our former Presidents, the 
Hon. John Davis. 

The reports of the Treasurer, besides setting forth the income of 
the invested funds, furnish a list of the investments with their par 
and market values, and also the condition of the various funds as 
affected by the income and expenditure. The resources of the Society 
have been increased by the geuerous addition, by Stephen Salisbury, 
Esq., of the sum of $5,000 to the building fund established and main- 
tained by his honored father; and the Rev. Robert C. Waterston, 

vi Note. 

unable to attend one of the meetings, sent as his substitute the sura 
of one hundred dollars " for the addition of any books to any depart- 
ment of the library." 

The maintenance and enlargement of the Library is the special 
work of the Society, and the reports of the Librarian will show the 
success which has been attained, through the thoughtfulness of friends 
and with the limited means at our command. 

The Index has been prepared by the Librarian and Mr. Reuben 


, * Colton, his assistant 

Wokckstek, February I, 1388. 

EliUA TA. 

Page 140, line 10 from bottom, for 1770 read / 7 7.7. 

Page 155, line 10 from bottom, for 1 77 H read / 777. 

Page 100, line 10 of note, from bottom, for Nidi rend Nettl. y 

Page 20."), line 27, for Joseph Sewall read Jvtlf/e Sewall. 

Page 210, line 15 of note, for Judge Lowell read Judge ISetoaU. 

Page 250, line 5, for lhuiberl read Herbert. 

Page 311, line 13, for Lamsoil read Lampson. 

Page 310, note 1, for Gould read (loohl. 

Page 340, line 12, for Gvokin* read (luokin. Same line, for Weld read Welde, 



Proceedings at tiik Meeting-: Lech ford Note-book; Ohio ' 

Mounds. . ■ . i 

Report of the Council : The Fallacies of History. Andrew "" 

P. Peabody 11 

REPORT or the Treasurer 30 

Report of the Librarian 30 

Donors and Donations 51 


Proceedings at tub Meeting: Central American Jades .... 01 
Report of the Council : Voluntary /System in the Maintenance of 

Ministers. Samuel S. Green . 00 

Report of the Treasurer ... 127 

Report of the Librarian . . 134 

Donors and Donations 148 

English Sources of American Dialect. Thomas W. Higginsou . 150 

ANNUAL MEETING, October 21, 1886. 
Proceedings at the Meeting : The Slave-trade ; Orderly Books; 

The Franklin rapers 107 

Report of the Council. The connection of Massachusetts with 

Slavery and the Slave-trade Charles Deane 178 

Report of the Treasurer 223 

Reportage the Librarian 228 

Donors and Donations 23i) 

Arch eological Research in Yucatan. Edward II. Thompson . 248 

vin Contents. 

Proceedings at the Meeting : Cy pres ; Earl Percy Letters ; 

Sketch of Hon. John Davis ; Colony of Nox 255 

Report of the Council : The Great Charitable Trusts of England. 

Charles A. Chase . 271 

Pliny Earle Chase. Samuel S. Green 310 

Report of the Treasurer 322 

Report of the Librarian 327 

Donors and Donations . . . . 339 

The Roxbury Latin School. J. Evarts Greene ......... 348 

Selections from Letters received by David Daggett, 1780- 

1802. Franklin B. Dexter 3G7 

Explorations in Yucatan. Edward H. Thompson 37'J 

Index to Vol. IV. . 387 

VqtJtlV. . 

American 3intiquarian Society, 

Neav Series. 

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GY TffE 

OCTOBEE 21 1885 

311 Mais Stbee: 
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1' It C E KIH N - 

A>MAL MELTI3TG. OcTOfitk ;I. Otf, AT T II L IlAlJ. kj\ THE 

Tue P. client, Hon. Gholge F. Boa LL.D.. in u^e 


The following members were present (the name* being 
arranged in on! Jority of membership) : George E. 

El 1U, Edward E. Hale, Charles Deane, George F. Hoar, 
William S. Barton, J. Hammond TrumUill, Andrew P. 

Pealjody. Chandler, I . Bacon, Nathaniel 

Paine, Joseph Sargent. Stephen Salisbury, P. Fmiwj 
Aldrk-h, Samuel A. Green, Elijah B. Stoddard, George - 
Paine, Edward L. Davis, William A. Smith, Francis H. 
James F. Hunnewell. John D. Washburn, Edward 
BL Hall, Reuljen A. Guild, Charles C. Smith, Edmund M. 
Bartou, Thomas L. >> :-L*>n, Lucius R. Paige, Charles A. 
Chase, Sanmc S een, Justin Winsor, Henry W. 

Haynes, Edward I. Thomas, Frederick W. 
Solomon Lincoln, Andrew McF. Davis. J. Everts Gi 
Henr - House, William L. Wt^den, Daniel 
Daniel C. Gilman, Reubeu Cokon, Ruben: X. I _ t : 
Henry H. F 

The Recording Secretary read the records of the last 
meeting, which were appro\ ed. The same officer commu- 
nicate 1 the recommendation by the Council of the following 
ijentlemen tor niemWr^hip in the Socie: 

Geixdaij. Reynolds, A.M.. of Concord, Man. 
1 ard Chaxmcng. Ph.D.. of Canibriti. 

2 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Each of these gentlemen was declared elected, a separate 
ballot having been taken on each name. 

Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, D.D., read the report which 
had been prepared by him and adopted by the Council as a 
part of their report to the Society. 

Nathaniel Paine, Esq., Treasurer, and Edmund M. 
Barton, Esq., Librarian, read their reports. 

All the above reports, as together constituting the 
Report of the Council, were accepted, and on motion of 
Prof. Henry W. Haynes referred to the Committee of 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., in seconding the motion, 
said he had in his possession a copy of a letter from Wash- 
ington, dated either at Valley Forge or Morristown, asking 
the result of a lottery drawing in Philadelphia, in which he 
held tickets. Sparks, in his life of Washington, omitted 
the sentence of the letter which referred to the lottery. 
Judge P. Emory Aldrich said, as to the connection of 
Washington or of Harvard College with a lottery, that a 
misapprehension seemed to exist. He said that an act only 
became a crime, or an offence, when it was prohibited. A 
lottery may be praiseworthy in a generation which has not 
reached a point which makes it a nuisance. The difference 
between a trespass and a crime is that the former is an 
injury to an individual, while the latter affects the public. 
When the lottery came to be treated as a crime it was 
because the manner of the drawing became an injury to the 
public. Judge Aldrich said he could not see why any 
man, with any knowledge of criminal law, should hesitate 
for a moment to say that Washington or Harvard College, 
for a good purpose, established a lottery. It was no crime 
in a time when society had not risen to regard it as a crime. 
Librarian Barton said a lottery was once projected by the 
Society, but was abandoned, 

Hon. George F. Hoar, LL.D., was then elected Presi- 
dent by ballot, and accepted the office. He said : 

1885.] Proceedings . 3 

I thank you for this renewed honor. The opinion, 
expressed last year, that the interest of the Society 
requires a President who can give to its service more time 
than I can command has been confirmed by experience. 
But I will, if it be desired, perform the duties of the office 
as well as I can for another year. The Society was never 
more prosperous than to-day. But to maintain its rank 
among the learned associations of the country it needs 
some addition to its resources. The library depends almost 
wholly upon voluntary contribution for its increase. We 
cannot expect, now that so large a number of libraries are 
established all over the country, that ours will be so 
exclusively preferred as a depository for valuable material 
for history as it has been. It is to be desired that students 
who come here for special investigations may find in our 
library the means of making them complete. To this end 
we need a considerable fund for the purchase of books.. 
The care of the library so enlarged, and the giving neces- 
sary aid and advice to persons who consult it will require 
all the time of our accomplished Librarian. Mr. Barton's 
unfailing courtesy and hi-s great familiarity with the library 
have already largely increased its value to the public. A 
public library, nowadays, is not more than one half books 
to one half librarian. 

We ought also to have in our service, if the Librarian 
and his assistants are engrossed by the care and increase of 
such collections as we need, some person who shall direct 
and pursue the original investigations for which, in part, 
the Society was established, — such a person as Mr. Haven 
was, such a person as George P. Marsh would have been, 
if he had lived to come home and pursue his studies in his 
old age. To a fund for the salary of a Secretary of Publi- 
cation and Research should be added an increase of our 
present means for publication. \V ithout something of this 
sort the Society cannot maintain its old place at the head of 
American institutions devoted to its special objects. It 

4 American Antiquarian Society. [Ocl. 

cannot even long maintain a respectable rank among the 
numerous local societies that are springing up; and there 
is danger that it may in future times itself become an 
object of antiquarian research. 

The Recording Secretary in a few words supported the 
views expressed by the President. 

Rev. George E. Ellis, D.D., gave some personal 
reminiscences of Rev. Dr. Bancroft and Governor Davis, 
and spoke of others who were his' early associates in the 

Chaules Deane, LL.D., during the absence of the 
nominating committee, referred briefly to the subject of a 
memoir of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of which Dr. Peabody 
had made mention in his report. He said : 

I noticed, Mr. President, near the conclusion of the 
Council's Report, that the speaker said he had looked in 
vain for a memoir of the Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D., of 
Hamilton, Mass., and he expressed some surprise that none 
hud been published of him. Undoubtedly this is a great 
omission. Dr. Cutler is clearly entitled to recognition as a 
man of science, and as a statesman of enlarged patriotism. 
Dr. Asa Gray, in a note to me enclosing a scrap of paper, 
and enquiring if the writing on it was in Dr. Cutler's hand, 
called him "our first (earliest) New England botanist;" 
while our associate, Mr. William F. Poole, of Chicago, 
in an interesting article in the North American Review, for 
April, 1876, has shown that the country was largely 
indebted to Dr. Cutler for securing the Ordinance of 
1787, with its enlightened and merciful provisions. His 
life was crowded with a diversity of employment. It has 
been for many years understood that a memoir of Dr. 
Cutler was in preparation by a gentleman of Providence, 
R. I., who had been entrusted with family manuscripts, 
including a diary, for this purpose; but it is believed that 
nothing was written, and the long deferred hope of a 
memoir from that source is now cut off by death. But I 

1885.] Proceedings . 5 

am told that the manuscripts of which I have spoken — 
Dr. Cutler's manuscripts — have been reclaimed by his 
descendants at Marietta, and that a memoir of Dr. Cutler 
is now preparing by a member of the family. 

Dr. Cutler was an early member of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, having been chosen in 1792. But he 
resigned several years before his death. For that reason 
,iio memoir of him appeared in that society's publications. 
In sending in his resignation he said, in a letter preserved 
on tile, that he was unable by ill health to attend the 
meetings, and he also found it inconvenient to pay the 
annual tax, which was three dollars. It may be added 
that a sketch of Dr. Cutler's life, comprised in some half 
a dozen pages, is contained in Dr. Felt's History of 
Ipswich, Essex and Hamilton, published in 1834. 

The Committee on Nominations for the remaining officers, 
consisting of Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., Reuben A. 
Guild, LL.D., and J. Evarts Greene, Esq., made the 
following report : 

For Vice-Presidents : 

Hon. George Bancroft, LL.D., of Newport, R. I. 
Stephen Salisbury, A.M., of Worcester. 

Councillors : 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Boston. 

Joseph Sargent, M.D., of Worcester. 

Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., of Boston. 

Hon. P. Emory Aldricii, of Worcester. 

Rev. Egbert C. Smyth, D.D., of Andover. 

Samuel S. Green, A.M., of Worcester. 

Rev. Andrew P. Peabodv, D.D., of Cambridge. 

Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 

Hon. Edward L. Davis, of Worcester. 

Prof. Franklin B. Dexter, of New Haven, Ct. 


6 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

Secretary of Foreign Correspondence : 
Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull, LL.D., of Hartford, Ct. 

Secretary of Domestic Correspondence : 
Charles Deane, LL.D., of Cambridge. 

Recording Secretary : 
Hon. John D. Washburn, LL.B., of Worcester. 

Treasurer : 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of Worcester. 

Committee of Publication : 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Boston. 
Charles Deane, LL.D., of Cambridge. 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of Worcester. 
Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 

Auditors : 

Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 
William A. Smith, A.B., of Worcester. 

The report was accepted and all the gentlemen above 
named were elected lo the respective offices by ballot. 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., made the following 
report, on behalf of the Committee of Publication, on 
Lechford's Note-book, this day published as Vol. VII. of 
the Transactions of the Society : — 

Thomas Lechford's manuscript Note-book has long been 
in the possession of our associate, Mr. Samuel Jennison. 
It came to him from his father to whom it had been given 
by a friend (Mr. Edward W. Ridgway). Mr. Jennison 
the elder had made a beginning upon the work of publica- 
tion and editing, which was ended, however, by his death. 
Some work was also done some time since by our asso- 
ciate, Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull, but he turned his 

1885.] Proceedings. 7 

attention to Lechford's Plain Dealing, and although he 
used the Note-book frequently in the valuable edition of 
the Plain Dealing prepared by him for Wiggin and Lunt 
he did not complete his valuable labors in annotating it. 
Subsequently our late associate, Judge Dwight Foster, 
turned his attention to the Note-book and desiring to pub- 
lish it for the Society, he began work upon it but was 
unable to continue on account of his professional labors, 
and therefore committed the Note-book to the care of Mr. 
Edward E. Hale, Jr., who has finished the work of editing 
and publishing it under the supervision of your Publish- 
ing Committee. Copies of the book are now r ready for 

It will be of interest to the members of the Society to 
note the particular field covered by the Note-book. Its 
date is 1638-1041. It was kept, as you know, by Thomas 
Lechford, the first, or rather the earliest, Boston lawyer. 
It is the daily record of the business done by him while he 
staid in the Colony. The papers drawn up by him are 
here, either at length or suggested by a memorandum, and 
the other business done by him rinds note or mention. 

The class of people who seem to have constituted the 
larger part of Lechford's clients shows us the direction in 
which the Note-book will prove useful. They will be seen 
to be almost entirely of that class immediately below the 
magistracy. As is well known, Lechford was no favorite 
with the rulers of the Colony, and it is not therefore sur- 
prising that we find the more prominent historical names 
are not frequently noted. For instance, the four most 
important ministers in and about Boston are mentioned 
only in the most cursory manner. John Cotton is alluded 
to three times. John Wilson is named twice, John Norton 
but once, Samuel Shephard twice. In the case of the 
magistracy of the time, Winthrop, Dudley and Bellingham, 
each of these Governors during Lechford's stay arc men- 
tioned a number of times, usually as signing certificates of 

8 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

one sort or another. But of the assistants, the name of 
Endicott occurs but three times, that of Nowell but live 
times, Bradstreet but three, Humfrey seven, Stoughton 
four and Saltonstall but three times. So if we should look 
to the Note-book for information as to the public affairs of 
the Colony we should be disappointed. On the other hand, 
of the class immediately below the magistracy and clergy, 
the notice is especially full. The selectmen of the Town 
" of Boston during Lechford's stay all appear in the Note- 

book, most of them many times, so too with the deputies 
to the General Court. These men, the more prominent of 
the townsmen, were among Lechford's more constant clients. 
And, in looking over the Town Eecords and noting every 
name that occurs during Lechford's residence in the Town 
we find that forty-two per cent, of the names may be found 
in the Note-book. In the same way, in looking over the 
list of property-holders in the Book of Possessions (K5J5) 
we shall -find thirty-six per cent, of the names in the Note- 
book. And had I a list of the townsmen appointed con- 
stables, fence viewers, water bailiifs, allotters (of land), 
surveyors of highways, fold keepers and to other ofiicial 
. positions in the little community, I have little doubt that 
ninety per cent, of them would turn out to be Lechford's 
most prominent clients. So that our knowledge of the 
well-to-do and solid part of the community would become 
very complete should we follow out all the hints to be 
found in the Note-book. Besides these names, more or less 
well-known, the genealogist will find not a few names 
which do not exist in Savage's dictionary. 

As for the contents of the book, the sort of entries or 
papers we may look for, the Society may take this as an 
incomplete list : We have letters of attorney, certificates, 
depositions, indentures, leases, bills of exchange, petitions 
to the general court, in one case a medical recipe, commis- 
sions to magistrates or to merchants, passports so to speak, 
articles of agreement or of apprenticeship, articles of 

1885.] Proceedings . 9 

complaint, bonds, accounts, deeds, warrants, etc. But 
particularly valuable will be found that class of papers, 
such as wills, letters of attorney, bills of exchange, etc., 
showing connection between persons and families in New 
England and Old England. There are also several short- 
hand letters throwing light upon Lechford's private affairs 
and his dealings with the rulers of the Colony. These, 
however, had already been deciphered and made use of by 
our associate, Dr. Trumbull, in his introduction to the 
Plain Dealing. 

William S. Bahton, Esq., of Worcester, read some 
extracts from early diaries kept by his father, the late Hon. 
Ira M. Barton, accompanying the same by explanatory 

Mr. Putnam gave a brief account of the continued explo- 
rations of the mounds in Ohio by Dr. Charles L. Metz and 
himself; calling particular attention to the discovery of a 
mound under which was a peculiar V-shaped arrangement 
of stones extending to the depth of about five feet and at 
the bottom of which was a stone cist containing the remains 
of a human skeleton extended at full length. The space 
above this grave between the sloping sides, walled with 
large fiat stones, was tilled with earth on which, and cover- 
ing the edge of the sloping walls, were many stones forming 
a regular oblong structure. At one end of this structure 
was a small stone cist containing burnt human bones and a 
clay vessel. In the mound also were four stone graves 
made of large Hat limestones put on edge and covered with 
Hat stones. On the original surface under the mound was 
a large hearth, made of stones set on edge, on which was a 
thick layer of ashes containing burnt bones, and below the 
ashes was a long Hint point. Over these interesting 
structures and graves a small mound of earth, about live 
feet high, had been formed. 

Mr. Putnam dwelt on the importance of this particular 
mound, the discovery of which was due to Dr. Metz, in 

10 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

showing how much there was yet to be learned about the 
mounds of this country and the importance of conducting 
the explorations in a thorough and systematic manner. 
He also called attention to some other important and novel 
discoveries which had been made by the workers of the 
Peabody Museum, and to the great advance which had 
taken place during the past few years in American Archae- 
ology, which was at last being studied in a way due to its 
importance, by a few earnest workers who were pursuing 
the investigation with all the methods of science. 
The meeting was then dissolved. 


Recording Secretary. 

18S5.J Report of the Council. 11 


Suck our semi-annual meeting we have lost by death 
(August 11), one foreign member, Lord Houghton, better 
known in the literary world as the Bight Honorable Richard 
Monckton Milnes. D.C.L., F.R.S., whose memory has 
special claims on our reverence and gratitude for his earn- 
est, persistent and active sympathy with our country in the 
War of the Rebellion, a sympathy shared with him, indeed, 
by many Englishmen of commanding reputation and influ- 
ence, but by very few of the hereditary aristocracy, and, 
so far as we know, by but one member of the House of 
Lords. He was born June 19, 1809. He entered Parlia- 
ment in 1*37, and continued to represent the same constit- 
uency till 1663, when a patent of nobility transferred him 
to the upper house. A statesman rather than a politician, 
he was at the outset a liberal conservative, and in later 
years has been reckoned as a conservative member of the 
Liberal party, — never casting a party-vote as such, but 
uniformly the advocate of freedom, education and progress. 
He has labored largely and succes>fully for improvements 
in the treatment and measures for the reformation of crimi- 
nals, and has been a pioneer or a diligent helper in numer- 
ous philanthropic movements, in behalf of other nations, no 
less than of his own. His literary activity covered a wide 
range. He has written many articles on a great variety of 
subjects for the Westminster Review and for other periodi- 
cals. His narratives of travel in Greece and in the L 
were in their time of surpassing interest and merit, and if 
they are no longer much read, it i- because in works of that 
class freshness is an essential factor of their popularity, and 

12 American AMiquarian Society. 

in part, at least, of their actual value. He was, alio, the 
biographer ami editor of K He will be heat known 

to posterity by hi* poem*, and would be still better known 
bad they been fewer. Some of hi* poem* most lire, and 
aa for the rest, if they lack anything, it i* that poetic ire, 
which, if it lie not innate, neither genius, nor culture, nor 

Had the writer known at an earlier period that the 

::' ...■--. :.. - : •..: : ' ..- C _, . ■ . .. : ;.-„- . ; - 

him, be would hare selected, aa is usual, some tO|*c of 
historical research, and bare employed whatever abifity he 
bad in the attempt to do it justice. But as he was a*ked 
to perform this duty only on the tenth of August, with 
the certainty of spending a large part and the 
of spending nearly half of the interremm 
could hare access neither to his own nor to any other 
library, he has been compelled to evolve a report, if not 

bow history, whether written or 

the outset, that I include 

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nanus of history, of which, 

I ihafl att 

-:. -- 

before I dose, it i* not the fc 


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of history. In a-tronomk: 

u .-....:.. .:....-. 

- ■ _: ; 

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utmost aeca re.iuireil, 

allowance fa *1< 

: :.: 

the observer* personal ec 

guation, — for the ascm 

degree of promptness and pr 

-:-.: . in Li* ;■ 


ties, so that the same ngures reported by 

two asa 

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c and 

registration at the hand of 1 

heir principal. 


is almost aftwupi a large one 

. :_, _ .- .; ... 

;: . • ± -: ._ .-•.-: 

1885.] Report of the Council. 13 

The pun on Macaulay's History of England, by which it 
was said to be his story, meant to satirize him, ought to 
be generalized as a well-nigh universal law. The story of 
a nation, an epoch, an individual man or woman, is almost 
always to a considerable extent an autobiography, and 
sometimes tells us more of the author than of his subject. 
Thus, to take an extreme case, Bos well's Johnson is but a 
caricature of the man whose mind the author was utterly 
incapable of sounding or measuring ; but it gives us a life- 
like picture of the jackall biographer himself. 

Great men equally with small men depict themselves in 
their histories. Our eminent associate, Bancroft, second 
to no historian in the thoroughness of his investigation, in 
conscientious accuracy of detail, and in artistical skill and 
pictorial power, yet cannot but look on every important 
personage or event With his own eyes. His may be the 
right view ; yet in many cases it is a view which he would 
not have taken but for the combined influence of his famil- 
iarity with the ancient republics and his sympathy with the 
democratic party in our own. 

We all want chiaroscuro in the histories that we read; 
but the lights and shadows can be transferred to the printed 
page only from the writer's own mind, and though he does 
not make the facts, he does create, if not purposely, yet 
spontaneously and inevitably, the higher or lower relief in 
which they are severally presented to us. We must then 
apply the necessary reduction as we read. We are greatly 
aided in this by reading historians of diverse — when possi- 
ble, of opposite — opinions and feelings. They often define, 
and sometimes neutralize each other's equations, and thus 
bring us much nearer the actual truth than either of them 
can have been. It must be always borne in mind that it is 
the very histories that are most worth reading — those 
written by men of strong opinions, attachments and sympa- 
thies — that most need to be controlled by parallel authori- 
ties, or, when that cannot be, by the careful estimate of 

14 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the writer's own position, of his mental parallax, of the 
deflection from a perfectly just view, inevitable lor him, 
he being precisely the man he is. 

Hence the paramount value to the historical student of 
a class of books that to the ordinary reader are dry as dust, 
— of annals, and journals or diaries. No man with imagi- 
nation enough to give him a personal equation writes 
annals ; and he who keeps a copious diary of events as they 
pass, though he be a partisan, a one-idea man, or bitterly 
prejudiced, can hardly fail to make an accurate record of 
facts in detail, because at the moment of their occurrence 
they stand out in their proper form, without perspective or 
coloring ; while when they have happened long enough to 
be grouped, they may be placed in a light so strong or a 
shadow so deep as to throw them entirely out of line. 
Thus John Quincy Adams, with his intense capacity of 
scorn, contempt and antipathy, if he had written a history 
of his time, would have drowned fact in feeling, and would 
have exaggerated every human portrait that he drew ; yet 
in his journal, emotional as it often is, the events of the 
passing day, even those that ailected him most deeply, are 
related with unmistakable tokens of careful accuracy and 
authenticity ; though this faithful record is often given of 
events or actors in them that, even in the not distant 
future, would have seemed to him other than they were. 

To take another instance : SewalPs Diary in every 
significant entry shows the writer's often whimsical and 
absurd, often intense eccentricities ; yet facts stand there 
as plain as they would in an official and unimpassioned 
record. He abhorred episcopacy hardly less than he 
abhorred Satan, and if in the last years of his life he had 
written a history of the birth and infancy of the Episcopal 
Church in Boston, the facts and characters involved in it 
would have been so thoroughly steeped and sodden in 
Puritanic prejudice as to have lost all traces of verisimili- 
tude. But the most kindly historian of the Episcopal 

1885.] Report of the Council. 15 

Church might find in Sewall's Diary his perfectly trust- 
worthy authority for dates, numbers, incidents, and details 
with reference to ministers, worshippers, the degree of 
influence of the Church in its early days, the impression 
made by its special observances, and its actual relation to 
the pre-existing churches and to the community. The 
Judge, indeed, makes his own comments on these things. 
On the text, " Their drink offerings of blood will I not 
oiler," he takes occasion to "dehort" his children from 
keeping Christmas. Yet we learn from him who did and 
who did not keep it, and he is even at pains to count the 
loads of wood and the market carts to ascertain whether 
the dreaded infection of the. obnoxious holiday has spread 
into the neighboring towns and corrupted bucolic house- 
holds. In fine, in such a journal the personal equation is 
not wanting, — very far from it; but it stands by itself, 
and can be easily eliminated ; while in a formal history it 
is incorporated in the body of the work, and needs, some- 
times defies and baflies, skill and care in its separation-. 
In the diary fact and feeling, the objective and the subjec- 
tive, are like the fraudulent grocer's sugar and sand before 
they are mixed, side by side yet apart. In the history 
they are mixed, to the unpractised sense have become 
homogeneous, and, unlike the sanded sugar, have for the 
mixture a more vivid and appetizing savor. 

As regards the entries honestly made in a journal, the 
only question is as to events beyond the writer's own 
personal cognizance, and learned by hearsay. As to these 
the writer may be credulous, and if so, lie can be trusted 
only so far as he knows ; or he may have a curious, investi- 
gating mind, indisposed to regard mere rumor as authentic, 
and always trying the witnesses and comparing their testi- 
mony when it can be done. This last seems to have been 
Se wall's habit. Credulous as to the super or extra natural, 
on the plane of common life he is wary, cautious, even 
judicial in his treatment of what comes to him from others, 

16 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

and records for the most part what he not only believes, 
but knows. On the other hand, I could, were it proper, 
name a journal writer, whose manuscript will one day 
come to light, rigidly, conscientiously, minutely accurate 
as to all within his own immediate knowledge, yet in his 
simplicity of heart believing everything told to him, and 
so blending observation and report as often to make it 
difficult to discriminate between them. 

Nearly allied to diaries are local and family traditions, I 
will not say unwritten (for everything appertaining to the 
past now finds its way to the press), but such as were 
simply oral till the present age of print. The credibility 
of a tradition — other things being equal — is in proportion 
to the number of persons to whom it properly belongs. A 
tradition which is in the keeping of a community, or of any 
considerable number of persons or families, is likely to 
suffer little or no change with the lapse of time. If it 
relates to persons, there are always those who feel interested 
in checking deviations from truth and fact, some unwilling 
to confer more and others resisting the conferring of less 
than due credit and importance on the prominent actor or 
actors, and thus by a balanced force preventing the original 
story from being tampered with in cither direction. So 
too, with regard to places, houses, sites of events, there 
are equally those who feel intimately concerned in having 
the utmost possible told and believed, and those who are 
ready to resist and gainsay any such exaggeration. Then 
too, by frequent repetition in one another's hearing different 
narrators learn to tell the story in the same way, even in 
the same words, so that there grows up a common narra- 
tive hardly less precise in details and in terms than if it 
had been committed to writing. Commemorative dis- 
courses too, in many such cases, have served the purpose 
of fixing facts in the public memory. To be sure, the 
centennials and bi-centennials, which have drawn vast mul- 
titudes together, are of comparatively recent date, as are 

18 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

ever been received for what it falsely purports to be ; for 
there must have been fair show of evidence in its behalf 
prior to its acceptance, and if there had been counter- 
evidence, traces of it would still remain in the public mind. 
But the case is very different as to articles in the possession 
of a family. As to these it is fully as probable that the 
story attached to them grew out of them as that it originally 
belonged to them. An old bureau or chest of drawers is 
among the possessions of an old family. It may have 
belonged to some ancestor that had a place in history. 
The secret drawee in it may have been the depository of 
some document which needed concealment. This is the 
hypothesis of one generation. In the next the potential 
mood is changed into the past tense of the indicative, and 
in the next following there is a coherent story of the docu- 
ment, its hiding and its discovery. The unnumbered chairs 
that were brought over in the Mayflower gained that 
distinction in this way. A century ago, it was thought 
b i rely possible that a very odd old chair might have 
formed a part of the freight of that most capacious of 
vessels ; for the owner's grandfather's cousin had married 
the cousin of a descendant of one of the Pilgrim Fathers. 
It took some thirty years to determine deiinitely the stages 
of transmission, and perhaps thirty more to consolidate 
them into a chapter of family history, which now it is 
treasonable to call in question. On the other hand, the 
articles of furniture in Pilgrim Hall are probably all of 
them what they are said to be ; for their history did not 
orow up under the careful nursing of a fond family, but 
was investigated by skilled antiquaries, who would have 
faithfully tested the validity even of general repute instead 
of yielding easy credence to private opinion. An individ- 
ual may be easily deceived, while a society of intelligent 
men is duped with difficulty. In saying this I am reminded 
of a case in point. A lady eminent for her philanthropy, 
a few years ago, sent to the Massachusetts Historical 

1885.] Report of the Council. 19 

Society a small piece of coarse cotton print which she said 
that she had obtained at Mount Vernon, and had ascertained 
to her entire satisfaction that it was a part of the curtains 
of Washington's death-bed. Had she kept it and trans- 
mitted it, her heirs or assigns would have cherished it 
as a most precious relic. But as it was passed round for 
inspection, one member called attention to the device which 
constituted the figure of the print, namely, Fame blowing 
her trumpet, and a scroll proceeding from it with the name 
of Washington. Now as so modest a man as Washington 
would rather have died than live under such a curtain ; 
and as if he died under it he must have lived under it, the 
Society of course regarded the relic as supposititious. 

To take another illustrative instance, the president's 
chair at Cambridge must needs have a history. It is so 
stately, ornate, and skilfully wrought, that it may well 
have been a throne, and can never have been of plebeian 
destination or ownership. Yet because it has been the 
property of an intelligent corporation, no one knows whence 
it came or how. Had it been private property as long, we 
should by this time have learned when it was made, what 
court it had graced, which of the owner's ancestors had 
brought it to America, and how it came into his possession. 
In fine, we may safely say, in general, that a memorial of 
any kind made, erected or acquired by a community or a 
body of men, is a trustworthy historical document ; while 
one that has been transmitted in a family for several genera- 
tions very probably gave birth to the chapter of history 
which it is supposed to commemorate. 

To pass to another topic, the numbers in history very 
often crave allowance for the personal equation. The 
ancients, in the infancy of history, had no conception of the 
meaning and the power of numbers, and there are cases 
in which a reduction of ninety per cent, would not be 
excessive. We also encounter in some quarters, as among 
the Hebrews, superstitious notions as to the impiety of 

20 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

counting, and numbers from such sources are of of 
no historical value. There are many cases in which honest 
and careful writers show the marks, without the numbers, 
of authenticity. Critics of the Colenso school entirely 
overshoot their aim in impugning the antiquity of the 
Hebrew records on the ground of loose numerical state- 
ments. The more closely this argument is pressed, the 
more strongly does it tell in favor of the very great age, 
and therefore of the historical value, of books in which no 
one now imagines that the numbers were divinely dictated, 
but in which the writers may have related facts for which 
they had good authority, yet with utterly vague notions 
about the numbers connected with them. In modern 
history numbers are often very pliant, and take shape from 
the author's unconscious cerebration. Especially is this 
the case as to battles and military operations. In the 
history of Indian warfare our fathers undoubtedly often 
magnified the numbers of their savage foes, especially as 
their rapid and versatile movements must by multiplied 
reappearances have often largely increased their force in 
the estimate of those whom they assailed. But of regular 
troops, of which it might seem by no means difficult to 
obtain a nearly accurate enumeration, the two parties 
commonly give widely different reports, both of numbers 
and of casualties, and the truth is undoubtedly in most 
cases nearly midway between them. 

I would next speak of the false perspective almost 
inseparable from history. The world, the race, the nation, 
the community at any one time always deserves a fairer 
record than history gives it. History deals with events, 
the greater part of which are disturbances, a very large 
proportion calamities, — with specific states of public feel- 
ing, oftener than not of discontent, — with men in conspic- 
uous and commanding positions, of whom it is the best 
that require to have the least said about them, the worst 
that fill page after page with their evil counsel and ill- 

1885.] Report of the Council. 21 

doing, — with wars, as to which the reader is so placed as 
to foreshorten to his eye the intervals of peace, and to 
keep the garment rolled in blood always in sight. Scanty 
record is made of the happy homes, quiet lives, kindly 
social relations, philanthropic services within a limited 
sphere, upright men, honorable women, well-ordered fami- 
lies, that have been scattered, and not sparsely, over a 
land or an age of which we know familiarly all the oppres- 
sion and wrong, strife and guilt, want and woe. It must 
be remembered that the consequences of great crimes and 
of atrocious series of crimes have been of comparatively 
small extent. The vilest of the Roman emperors made, 
indeed, and multiplied illustrious victims, most of them 
illustrious, but chiefly in Rome ; while in the provinces 
they were not only innoxious, but the subjects of certain 
kinds and amounts of panegyric, and some of them were 
popular even in the imperial city, in those more obscure 
social strata where cupidity, suspicion and malice found 
no prey worth their pursuit. So has it been in all time, 

— not that there has been any lack of evil purpose among 
the scourges of their race ; but there are in the very 
constitution of society and in the power for evil of individ- 
ual men metes and bounds which verify the words of the 
Hebrew poet-seer, "The remainder of wrath He will 

As to war in its moral aspects I cannot express as 
strongly as I feel its intrinsic absurdity and barbarity ; and 
if holy prophecy is ever to become history, as I believe it 
will, the age when a usurping emperor and an ambitious 
prime minister could procure the sacrifice of myriads of 
human lives in a dispute without merit on either side will 
be regarded in the same category — if not on a lower plane 

— with the epochs of the far less atrocious slaughters in 
cannibal warfare. Yet war, with all its horrors, affects the 
homes, the social condition, the actual prosperity of a 
country, much less in fact than in history. The battle- 

22 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

fields and the tracks of desolating armies, though on the 
printed page they occupy a large place, are but a very 
small part of a great country. Then, too, the cost of war 
consists more in the transfer than in the destruction of 
values, and of the values destroyed, food and clothing 
would be equally consumed in peace, though under differ- 
ent conditions. The money that goes so lavishly from the 
public treasury goes for the most part to citizens of the 
country, many of whom it makes suddenly rich ; while, if 
funds be borrowed for use in war, tjiey are a present 
source of wealth ; for while a country's credit is good, 
incurring a national debt is simply using in advance the 
gains of future years, to the detriment, it may be, of pos- 
terity, but to the .abnormal profit of those concerned in 
spending it. It must be remembered also that the wealth 
on which a nation depends for comfortable living is not its 
hoarded capital, but what is raised and produced from year 
to year, so that as to mere subsistence a famine would be a 
greater calamity than a war. War also stimulates industry 
and enterprise, and while persons of fixed incomes com- 
plain of war-prices, those very prices are to large classes 
of the community a token and a means of prosperity. Our 
war of the Rebellion was disastrous, indeed, to the South, 
yet not as a war, but as a revolution, annihilating what had 
been the chief element and instrument of productive indus- 
try. Had not slavery been abolished, a large amount of 
property would have changed hands, but there would have 
been no general or permanent distress or impoverishment. 
On ethical grounds we might well wish that prolific nature 
and elastic humanity would not so strenuously resist and so 
vigorously repair the ravages of war ; for in that case wars 
would not last so long, or be renewed on so trivial pre- 
tences. But it is the province of history to describe things 
as they are, not as it were well that they should be. More- 
over, in this matter history has infected ethics ; for in the 
diatribes against war the chief stress is laid on the physical 

1885.] Report of the Council. 23 

harm which it inflicts, not on the divine law of nature 
and of revelation, "Thou shalt do no murder," which, if 
incumbent on men individually, is no less so on them col- 
lectively, and in either case can be superseded only by the 
necessity which is its own law, and under which society 
has the right to defend itself against crime, and the state to 
defend its own existence against destructive forces from 
without and from within. 

Another fallacy of history attaches itself to prominent 
historical personages of resplendent merit and of signal 
demerit. Such characters become mythical. Even what 
calls itself biography dares not to put in the shadows or the 
lights that would bring their subject within the limitations 
in one or the other direction of actual humanity. Thus the 
Washington of American history is an ideal man, and he 
has almost ceased to interest the present generation because 
he is incommensurable with the best men they know, and 
therefore inconceivable. A few years ago I had some 
correspondence with one of his grand-nephews, who sent 
me, a^s an autograph and a precious memorial of his uncle, 
a ticket of the Mountain Road Lottery, bearing date 1768, 
and signed by George Washington as manager. It was 
only to his credit that, at a time when lotteries were sanc- 
tioned by the best public opinion, this young Virginian 
should have been selected for so responsible a charge. 
Yet now that lotteries are rightly under the ban of a more 
enlightened sentiment, no historian would venture to con- 
nect that revered name with the outlawed wheel of fortune, 
though the record would be a noteworthy waymark of the 
progress of society, and though nearly a half-century later 
Harvard College raised funds by a lottery, of which I have 
a ticket signed by a venerable clergyman of unimpeacln <1 
standing as manager. There lingered in the families of 
early members of Congress traditions of Washington which 
were never committed to writing, which only exalt his 
character by showing that he had passions like those of 

24 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

other men, which he had brought under mastery only by 
the most resolute and persevering self-discipline,— that he 
had fought and won in a more arduous conflict than that of 
the battle-field, in the warfire and victory within his own 
soul. In his case, however, there can be no excess of 
eulogy ; only we would prefer a life-like picture of the 
greatest and best man of his age to a drawing out of line 
of a non-human nondescript. 

But it may be questioned whether there has not been an 
exaggerated laudation in the case of some of his distin- 
guished fellow soldiers and patriots. Hamilton's services 
to the country have not been overrated; but as to his 
personal character he owes much of his posthumous reputa- 
tion to his good fortune in being slain by a worse man 
than himself, who yet would not have had the opportunity 
of killing him, had the two men not been too nearly on the 
same moral plane to exempt Hamilton from the insult of a 
challenge or to permit him to refuse it on the ground of 
principle. As for Burr, whose name certainly deserves 
enduring ignominy, there is no vice attached to his memory, 
debauchee and duellist as he already was, which did not 
equally stain his character when he received the same 
number of votes with Jefferson for the Presidency of the 
United States, and when in the House of Representatives he 
received eleven out of twelve Massachusetts votes. As for 
his subsequent treason (so-called), I doubt whether it can 
be proved to be different in kind from the certainly extra- 
legal enterprises which issued in the annexation of Texas, 
received the sanction of the government, and were defended 
by the war with Mexico. Burr was doomed to exceptional 
infamy, because, being a very bad man, he had sold him- 
self to and had been sold by both political parties, and thus 
had neither to whitewash him or to apologize for him. 

The mention of Hamilton and Burr reminds me of the 
difficulty in the way of authentic history growing out of 
strong party animosity. No attempt is made to write a 

1885.] Reportof the Council. 25 

permanent history of events as they pass ; but contempo- 
rary documents furnish the materials on which the future 
historian must rely, and those documents may be mere 
travesties of facts and gross caricatures of persons. Thus 
the more honest and impartial the historian, the less worthy 
of conlidence his history may be. The authorities for 
a portion of the early history of our country after the 
adoption of the Constitution are, for the most part, news- 
papers compared with which the vilest journals of our day 
are clean and pure, and pamphlets of which it is hard to 
say whether virulence or vulgarity is the predominant 
characteristic. The men whom we have most admired are 
placed before us in a garb in which we cannot recognize 
them ; and had they been what they are made to appear, 
our government would have collapsed and perished for lack 
V of men fit to administer it, in the life-time of the genera- 
tion that witnessed its birth. A vessel heaped with filth 
from one of the city sewers would be as fair a representa- 
tion of the soil of Worcester as these documents give of 
American life and character at the close of the last and the 
beginning of the present century. Meanwhile, the actual 
history of the Federalist party, which, whatever may have 
been its errors, had in it more of public virtue and of 
private worth than any party that has succeeded it, 
remains unwritten, while those who remember its latter 
days and its great men who survived it are fast passing 

It may be doubted whether a perfectly fair history of 
our great Rebellion will ever be written. From the South 
we can not expect it. But what Northern historian will 
dare to tell, as it ought to be told, the shameful story of 
the sycophancy of Northern statesmen which by base com- 
promises and concessions nursed the slave-power into its 
capacity of rebellion? Nor yet shall we want posterity to 
know that, notwithstanding the patently adverse meaning 
of the Constitution, the right of secession was claimed by 

26 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

our best and most patriotic men during the last war with 
Great Britain, that even as late as the admission of Texas 
it was not regarded with disfavor, and that at all Southern 
seminaries of learning the prior claim of the state over the 
nation to the allegiance of its citizens had been still incul- 
cated as incontrovertibly sound doctrine. These consid- 
erations do not, indeed, absolve the leaders of the Rebellion 
of their manifold truculence and treachery ; but they do 
exculpate the multitudes of peaceable and well-meaning 
citizens, and even the officers in the army and navy, who, 
when on the actual secession of a State the conflict of 
allegiance arose, did what they had always been taught to 
regard as their duty even more than their right. Instances 
of this kind within our own familiar knowledge may well 
lead us to question the authenticity of portions of earlier 
history that belong to periods of civil strife, whether of 
words or of arms. The very conditions of such times can 
hardly have failed in a greater or less degree to corrupt 
the original sources from which historians have been com- 
pelled to draw. 

If there be truth in what has been said, there is at best 
only limited and approximate truth in what calls itself 
history. But let me say, and it will be my last topic in a 
paper already long enough, the most authentic and instruc- 
tive form of history is biography, — the journals or auto- 
biography of men too wise to deceive themselves and too 
honest to deceive others, and lives of distinguished or 
representative men written by competent and dispassionate 
biographers. A man who holds in his time and community 
a foremost place so enters into relation with all the phases 
of society and of public life, is brought into intercourse 
with so many persons, is so affected by passing events, or 
so aids in bringing them to pass, that a sketch of him is a 
negative of his surroundings, from which they may be 
photographed with the nearest approach to accuracy. Then 
too, such a man is made by antecedent history, and helps 

1885.] Report of the Council. 27 

to make subsequent history, so that the photograph reaches 
in both directions beyond his lifetime. Thus Plutarch's 
Lives are the best ancient histories that we have, because, 
instead of chronicling events, they show us what we are 
most concerned to know, — man in history, how history 
made men, how men made history. We have, especially 
under the authorship and editorship of Mr. Sparks, a not 
dissimilar service performed for American history ; for not 
only in his Washington and Franklin, but in the numerous 
memoirs, prepared under his direction, of lesser, yet impor- 
tant and influential men in various departments of life, we 
have more exact and realizable views of society and of 
events than the best formal history can possibly give us. 
In this respect our mother country is preeminently rich, 
and I do not know an epoch or section of English history 
which I cannot read the most instructively in the lives of 
those who bore part in it ; while such series as Campbell's 
Chief Justices, or Hook's Archbishops of Canterbury — both 
of these, indeed, needing large allowance for the personal 
equation — might almost take the place of works purporting 
to be continuous history. 

As a familiar instance of the relation which biography 
bears to history, I might again refer to that marvellous 
autobiography, Sewall's Diary. This for the time that it 
covers is almost a history of Massachusetts, and it gives 
some realistic and instructive pictures, the like of which we 
can find nowhere else. When we learn that, though he 
was, perhaps, the richest man in Boston, his ink froze in 
his wife's room while he was writing; when we find that, 
not for pleasure, but for business, the water-passage 
between Boston and Cambridge was often resorted to, and 
are told of instances when the vessel, with reverend and 
honored freight, was cast away on this passage under 
circumstances of imminent peril, — we can imagine how 
hard life was in New England a century and a half ago, — 
of how little worth in point of comfort and enjoyment this 

28 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

earthly existence must have seemed; and we are better 
able to account for and to excuse the indifference to life 
manifested in the sanguinary laws of our fathers, and in 
modes of thought, feeling and action in accordance with 
these laws. 

At this point I was intending to close my report by an 
illustration of the wealth of materials which a single biogra- 
phy may furnish for general history, in the case of a 
biography which I believe to be in existence, and which I 
supposed to be in print till I sought for it in vain in our 
libraries, — that of a former member of this society, whom 
I recollect as having seen in my early boyhood, Rev. 
Manasseh Cutler. The son of a New England farmer, first 
a lawyer, engaged for a time in the whale fishery, chaplain 
in the army of the Revolution ; an honorary member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, and as such, assisting in 
post mortem examinations conducted by some of the most 
distinguished members of the faculty : the earliest of Ameri- 
can botanists, making some important and permanent addi- 
tions to the pharmacopoeia in the department of medical 
botany, and utilizing the silk of the common Asclcpias or 
silk- weed in ways which would not have fallen out of use 
but for the increased production of cotton; reading before 
the American Academy papers on transits and eclipses, and 
furnishing for that body minute and carefully tabulated 
meteorological observations ; lobbying with the Continental 
Congress for the Ohio grant, and superintending its settle- 
ment in person ; a member of the Congress of the United 
States for two successive terms in the earlier years of the 
present century ; for more than half a century exercising 
the functions and practising the generous hospitality of a 
country clergyman ; intimate with men in public otiice and 
with men of science from Franklin downward ; always, even 
in old age, in advance of his time, keeping, too, a journal 
covering, I think, nearly his whole life, certainly its most 
important portions, — he came into contact with almost 

1885.] Beportof the Council. 29 

every interest of which history takes cognizance, and his 
life, if we had it, would at many points teach us more, and 
more vividly and impressively, than we could by any 
possibility learn from the most elaborate and faithfully 
written impersonal history. 

For the Council, 


30 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 


The Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society sub- 
mits his semi-annual report, made up to October 20, 1885. 

The Librarian's and General Fund shows a balance of 
$40,137.80, a slight increase over that reported in April 

The Collection and Research Fund, which at the time the 
last report was presented showed a balance of $18,078.03, 
now amounts to $18, ODD. 68, the income of the Fund being 
enough to meet the charges for the six months and show a 
slight increase in the aggregate. 

The Bookbinding Fund now amounts to $6,373.04, an 
increase of about two hundred dollars over the sum reported 
in April last. The charges to this Fund have usually been 
more than the income, but as no binding has been done the 
past six months and it has not been necessary to charge to 
it any part of the salary of the Assistant-Librarian (as has 
been the custom), the Treasurer is able to report the above 
named increase. 

The Publishing Fund is now $19,541.75, but from this 
there will soon have to be taken the expense of printing 
the last number of our Proceedings. The sum of five 
hundred dollars has been given to this Fund for the pur- 
pose of enabling the Society to pay any balance due for 
the publication of the Lechford Note-book. It will be 
remembered that a special subscription was made for this 
object, about nine hundred dollars having been subscribed 
of which amount $721). 00 has been paid in. It is estimated 
that the cost of the publication will be about $1,500, so 
that it will be necessary to raise about $100 more to pre- 
vent drawing upon the principal of the Fund. 

The gift above referred to comes from the estate of the 

1885.] Report of the Treasurer. 31 

late Robert Water ston, of Boston, from a fund left by him 
for distribution by his Executors, and was transmitted by 
our associate Charles Deane, LL.D. 

The Isaac Davis Booh Fund after a charge of $57.37 for 
the purchase of books now amounts to $1,576.90. 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund is $2,282.97. 

The Benjamin F. Thomas Local History Fund now 
amounts to $1,177.50. A small sum has been taken from 
this Fund for the purchase of local histories. 

The Salisbury Building Fund is now $234.30. 

The Alden Fund now amounts to $1,151.26, after 
charging about $100 for expenses incurred in the prepara- 
tion of manuscripts and broadsides for cataloguing. 

The Tenney Fund is now $5,125, the 'income of which 
will be carried to the Publishing Fund as has been the 
custom heretofore. 4 

The Haven Fund now amounts to $1,123.58, and The 
George Chandler Fund to $509.39. Small amounts have 
been taken from the income of each of these Funds for the 
purchase of books. 

The aggregate of the various Funds as shown by the 
detailed statement of receipts and disbursements submitted 
herewith is $97,333.77. 

The cash on hand, including the subscriptions to the 
Lechford Note-book, and after deducting $500 paid to J. 
Wilson & Son on account of printing, is $11,579.80. The 
cash balance is on interest at a low rate, but the larger 
portion of it will be invested as soon as the Finance Com- 
mittee shall be able to do so with promise; of safety. 
Statement of the condition of the several Fund.-.. 
The Librarian's and General Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of Fund, $10,116.10 

1885, Oct. 20. Assessments to date, 215.00 

Income from investments, 1,109.00 

Paid for salaries and incidental expenses,.. 1,332.30 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund, $10,137.80 

32 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Invested in : 

Bank Stock, $9,000.00 

Railroad Stock,.... 2,000 00 

Railroad Batiste, 9,200.00 

Gas Co. Stock, 500.00 

Mortgage Notes, 19,300.00 

Cash, 137.80 


The Collection and Research Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of Fund, $18,078.01} 

1885, Oct. 20. Income from investments, 393.25 

1885, Oct. 20. Books sold,.... 90.95 


Paid part of salaries of Assistant-Librarians, $449.27 

For books and other Collections, 19.28 


1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund, $18,099.68 

Invested in : 

Bank Stock, $5,800.00 

Railroad Stock, 5,300.00 

Railroad Bonds, 4,000.00 

Mortgage Note, 2,150.00 

Cash, 849.68 


The Bookbinding Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of the Fund, $6,140.14 

1885. Oct. 20. Income from investments, 233.50 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund, $6,373.64 

Invested in: 

Bank Stock $2,700.00 

Railroad Stock, 800.00 

Railroad Bonds, 2,600.00 

Cash, '**-*& 


1885.] Report of the Treasurer. 33 

The Publishing Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of the Fund, $18,688.99 

1885, Oct. 20. Income from investments, 390.76 

1885, Oct. 20. For Publications sold, 17.75 

1885, Oct. 20. Gift to the Fund, 500.00 

Paid on account of Publications, 61.75 


Invested in : 

Bank Stock, $2,100.00 

Railroad Bonds, 5,500.00 

City Bond, 1,000.00 

Mortgage Notes, 1 ,800.00 

Cash, 9,141.75 


The Isaac Davis Book Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of Fund, $1,601.77 

1885, Oct. 20. Income to date, 32.50 

$] ,634.27 
Paid for Books, 57.37 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund, $1,576.90 

Invested in : 

Bank Stock, $700.00 

Railroad Stock, ... 800.00 

Cash, '. 76.90 


The Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of the Fund, $2,241.97 

1885, Oct. 20. Income to date, 38.00 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund, $2,282.97 

Invested in : 

Bank Stock, $2,100.00 

Cash, 182.97 



34 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

The Benjamin F. Thomas Local Ilistoi-y Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of Fund, #1,151. 'JO 

1885, Oct. 20. Interest to date, 35.00 


Paid for local histories, 9.40 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund, $1,177.50 

Invested in : 

liailroad Bond, $1,000.00 

Cash, 177.50 


The Alden Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of Fund, $1,216.88 

1885, Oct. 20. Income to date, 35.00 

Paid on account of cataloguing, 100.G2 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund, $1,151.20 

Invested in : 

Railroad Bond, $1,000.00 

Cash, 151.26 


The Salisbui-y Building Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of Fund, $256.80 

Interest, 2.50 

$250. ;>o 
Paid for work on building, 25.00 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund (in cash) , $234.30 

The Tenney Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of Fund, $5,000.00 

1885, Oct. 20. Income to date, 125.00 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund, $5,125.00 

Invested in: 

Mortgage Notes, $5,000.00 

Cash, 125.00 



1885.] Report of the Treasurer. 35 

The Haven Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of Fund, $1,125.05 

1885, Oct. 20. Interest, 22.28 


Paid for books, 23.75 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund (deposited in 

Savings Bank), $1,123.58 

The George Chandler Fund. 

1885, April 18. Balance of Fund, $517.74 

1S85, Oct. 20. Interest to date, 10.20 

Paid for books, 18.55 

1885, Oct. 20. Present amount of the Fund (in Savings 

Bank), $909.88 

Total of the twelve Funds, $97,333.77 

Cash on hand, included in foregoing statement : 

Librarian's and General Fund, ... $137.80 

Collection and Research Fund, 849.68 

Bookbinding Fund, 273.04 

Publishing Fund, 9,141.75 

Isaac Davis Book Fund 70.90 

Lincoln Legacy Fund, 182.97 

B. F. Tbomas Local History Fund, 177.50 

Alden Fund, • • 151.20 

Salisbury Building Fund, 234.30 

Tenney Fund, 125.00 

For Publication of Lechf ord Note-book, 229.00 

Total cash, $11,579.80 

Worcester, October 20, 1885. 

Respectfully submitted, 

NATAL. PAINE, Treasurer. 

Worcester, October 27, 18S5. 

The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian Society, hereby 
certify that we have examined the report of the Treasurer, made up to October 
20, 1885, and hud the same to be correct and properly vouched; that the securi- 
ties held by him for the several Funds are as stated, and that the balance of 
cash on hand is accounted for. 



36 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 


It would, perhaps, remind us of the ripe age to which our 
American Antiquarian Society has arrived, if your Libra- 
rian were to follow the almost universal custom and refer 
to the present as the seventy-third annual or the one 
hundred and forty-sixth semi-annual report upon its 
library. He will not, however, allow a statement of the 
length of time which his elapsed since the incorporation, 
October twenty-fourth, A. D., 1812, to suggest the possi- 
ble trial of your patience by a too long report. 

As we take some of our best lessons from the past, and 
often do not think to acknowledge them, your Librarian 
would at this time, just fifty years from the death of our 
third librarian, Christopher Columbus Baldwin, make 
grateful mention of the many helpful evidences of our 
indebtedness to his scholarship, industry and good sense. 
Serving from 1827, when he was elected both a member of 
the Society and its Librarian, until 1830, when he with- 
drew for a short period; he again took the position just 
after President Thomas's death in 1831, and faithfully held 
it until his sudden death at Norwich, Ohio, August 20, 
1835, at the early age of thirty-five. He was the son of 
Eden Baldwin, of Templeton, Mass., and was born August 
1, 1800. Both the picture by Chester Harding, which 
adorns these walls, and the pen-portrait by his devoted 
friend and co-worker, William Lincoln, which appears in 
a memorial address read at the Society's annual meeting, 
October 23, 1835, are pronounced true to the life by the 
few early friends who survive him. Mr. Baldwin's reports 
appear to have been generally spread upon the records, 

1885.] Report of the Librarian. 37 

but not to have been printed, except possibly in the news- 
papers of the time. A fragment of his last report — for 
April, 1835 — we have recently found in a box of his 
papers. As it was written but three months before his 
death, is not recorded, and contains wise counsel for us 
to-day, I shall ask that he may thus speak to us. He 
says : 

"The Librarian, at the annual meeting on the 23rd 
October, last (1834), indulged the belief that he should be 
able to complete the catalogue of the library before the 
semi-annual meeting in May ; in this, however, he has 
been disappointed. Since the meeting in October he has 
been engaged in transcribing and preparing it for publica- 
tion. Between this and the meeting in October, he 
expects to be able to complete the transcript and to com- 
pare each publication described on the catalogue with each 
publication in the library. It was one of the objects of 
the liberal founder of the institution that its library should 
contain a complete collection of the productions of Ameri- 
can authors. In pursuance of this plan, the Librarian has 
bestowed as much time as could be spared from other 
duties in collecting publications of American origin. It 
is believed that no institution in the country has proposed 
the accomplishment of a similar object. The materials of 
history are found originally in pamphlets, newspapers and 
publications of this description. These exist in great 
abundance in every part of the community, and are per- 
mitted to perish from the impression that no use can be 
made of them. They are, however, indispensably neces- 
sary to the successful accomplishment of the labors of the 
historian. It is feared that a great number of those pub- 
lished in the early settlement of the country are irrevocably 
lost. Until within a few years past no place had been 
provided for their reception and preservation. Individuals 
had, in some instances, attempted to make collections and 
succeeded to a certain extent, but the result of their indus- 
try in this respect has availed little, from the fact that at 
their decease their collections have been distributed among 
heirs like other property. This was the case with the 
voluminous collections of the Mathers, and those of Thomas 
Prince which he began when he was . in college, have 

38 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

shared a fate but little better. It is believed that the 
collections now in the Historical Society, derived from the 
industry of this indefatigable collector, comprise only a 
fragment of the whole which he left at his death. A large 
quantity of his manuscripts and books were sold at auction 
about 1800, in the County of Worcester, and are now so 
scattered as to forbid all hope of their recovery. This 
was, undoubtedly, the largest collection that had been 
made in the country at that time and the destruction of so 
great a portion of it is now much to be lamented." 

We have lately been obliged to decline, with regret, on 
account of the lack of funds which could be devoted to 
that purpose, unusual opportunities for procuring both 
Northern and Southern periodicals relating to the War of 
the Rebellion. Within a month a war hie of the New 
York Herald, in binding, has been offered to us for one 
hundred dollars, and within a week we have been asked by 
one of our members, who was a colonel in the Confederate 
service, to secure the Richmond Daily Sentinel complete, 
*. e., from March 11, 1803, to April 1, 18G5, and the 
Despatch, Enquirer, Examiner, and Whig — all of Rich- 
mond — for the months of May, June and July, 1864. 
These we can have "at such prices as the purchaser may 
deem reasonable." What if we could put along-side our 
New York Tribune story of the war, that of the Herald 
and World, adding to them files of Richmond and Charles- 
ton newspapers of the same period ! How grateful the 
future Bancroft, McMaster or Fiske would be to us as a 
society, or to the founder of a society fund the use of 
which should preserve to them and to remote posterity, the 
history of American Slavery and of the Great Rebellion 
upon which it was based. As for some unexplained reason 
our newspaper files from 1830 to 1840 are not what 
they should be, so the same may be said of the Avar period 
from 1861 to 1865. Our alcove of rebellion and slavery 
literature is almost wholly indebted to exchanges and gifts 
for its present flourishing condition. Is it not possible 

1885.] Report of the Librarian . 3 9 

that among our American members there is some one who 
is to endow it so handsomely that his name shall be placed 
over it in letters of gold ? May the name and the means 
soon be ours to acknowledge ! 

The importance of our collection of public documents 
has been well tested during the past few months by George 
S. Taft, Esq., in his preparation of a Digest of Senate Con- 
tested Election Cases, under the direction of Senator Hoar. 
Some of the smaller gaps which have been brought to light 
have been promptly lilled through Senator Hoar and 
Congressman Rice. It is high time that a regular and 

© © © 

wise system for the distribution of such government mate- 
rial was adopted, and then faithfully and patiently carried 
out. When that is done, not only the recent call of the 
United States Department of the Interior for duplicate 
Congressional Globes and Records will everywhere be 
honored, but a further call which should be made for all 
extra copies of all United Stites public documents, to be 
distributed to needy libraries — first tilling the small gaps 
in some of the larger ones — would also be answered. 
Little is hazarded in saying that our own duplicate room 
would afford rare material which could not easily be found, 
either in the libraries of Washington or elsewhere. We 
have sent, by way of exchange, to the Maine Historical 
Society all our duplicate Maine newspapers ; to the Town 
Library of Lancaster, Mass., the remainder of our Lancas- 
ter Gazettes, and to the Boston Athemeum all surplus 
copies of their publications. It was a pleasure to be 
credited by the librarian of the Athenteum with sending 
one of their exhibition catalogues which had disappeared 
from their collections. Having undertaken, at the request 
of the editor, the care of an interleaved copy of the Har- 
vard Quinquennial Catalogue of 1885, we .shall be most 
happy to receive and carefully enter additions, corrections 
and suggestions, especially from the graduates of Harvard. 
The appearance of the Index to the last volume ot 

40 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the Society's Proceedings again reminds us of the great 
amount of time and patience which might be saved, if 
writers would give the full names of persons cited as 

It should be noted as a matter of record, that anions the 
minor improvements which, in the interest of security and 
comfort, our Library Committee has provided since the 
last meeting, are an iron gate of graceful proportions for 
the protection of the Highland Street entrance to the Hall, 
and a cement floor for the boiler and coal room. 

Before giving the usual statistical summary, it may be 
well to say that if at any time a donor fails to receive a 
prompt acknowledgment of his mailed gift, it is generally 
safe to infer, either that it has gone astray or that both the 
donor's name and the government post-mark — the latter 
required by law — are wanting, leaving us entirely igno- 
rant as to the name and address of the person to whom we 
are indebted. We are always glad to preserve the auto- 
graph wrapper address with the gift, but prefer a presenta- 
tion entry upon the fly-leaf or title-page. 

The record of donations furnishes the following as to the 
growth of the library since the last report. By gifts nine 
hundred and fifty-nine books, four thousand and twelve 
pamphlets, two bound and one hundred and thirty-two 
unbound volumes of newspapers, one hundred photo- 
graphs, seventeen engravings, fifteen manuscripts, one 
broadside pedigree, and a fragment of the stockade of 
Andersonville prison ; and by exchange thirty-six books 
and one hundred and forty-six pamphlets, making a total 
of nine hundred and ninety-five books, forty-one hundred 
and fifty-eight pamphlets, one hundred and thirty-four 
files of newspapers, etc. Of the two hundred and fourteen 
donors, fifty are members, eighty-Hvo friends who are not 
members, and seventy-nine public institutions. 

One of the latest, and by far the most valuable acquisi- 
tion is that from the Hon. James Carson Brevoort, LL.D., 

1885.] Report of the Librarian. 41 

for nearly twenty years a valued member of this soeiety. 
In his letter of presentation, he says, "I send you as a gift 
a number of the early books on Japan, which I have been 
collecting for more than twenty-live years, thinking that 
your library is the fittest depository for the nucleus of such 
a collection." Instead of calling your especial attention to 
the rarest of these rare books, it has been thought best to 
leave them all upon the table for your inspection and to 
make but a brief general reference to them in this report. 
Beginning with the Venetian titles of 1558, and ending with 
those of Paris in 1859, we find one hundred and three books 
printed on thirty-five of the leading presses of the world, 
— including the Cramoisy and the Elzevir — in six different 
languages; namely, English, Erench, German, Italian, 
Latin and Spanish. Of these issues of the sixteenth, 
seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries there are 
represented forty-three, forty -three, ten and seven titles, 
respectively. Two copies of Pages's Bibliograplde Japon- 
aise, ou, ouvrages relatifo an Javon qui out H& publics 
depuis le Cinquwme Siecle jusqua nos jours, 4to, Paris, 
1859, containing Mr. Brevoort's valuable notes, accompany 
and make a part of this most important donation. We 
may well be even more grateful for his noble and timely 
example than for the gift itself. 

The first purchase for the Haven Alcove is the Rev. Dr. 
Baird's long-expected History of the Huguenot Emigra- 
tion to America, and the second includes Peter Martyr's 
"Decades of the Newe Worlde," a black-letter of London, 
1555, bound by Aitkin, and Eden's " History of Trauayle," 
black-letter, London, 1557, bound by Pratt, they being 
practically two editions of the same work. In addition to 
six volumes received at the charge of the Haven Fund, 
we acknowledge nine from the Chandler, fourteen from 
the Davis, and four from the Thomas Fund. The gifts of 
President Hoar and Vice-President Salisbury are, as usual, 
large and important. Professor Dexter has earned the 

42 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

gratitude of all American scholars, and more especially of 
the alumni of his alma mater, by the publication ui' bu Vale 
Biographies and Annals, 1701-174-V. The bibliographical 
notes, and above all, the list of authorities at the close of 
each sketch, will make it a book of reference to the brother- 
hood of librarians, of whom Mr. Dexter is an honored mem- 
ber. For this, as well as for hid paper upon the History 
of Connecticut as Illustrated by the Xames of her Towns, 
which, like Dr. Trumbull's Indian Xames in Connecticut, 
will help the busy librarian to answer many questions, 
we desire to make due acknowledgment. Judge Aldrich's 
gift of his volume of Equity Pleadings and Practice in 
the Courts of Massachusetts, and of his Tribute to Chief 
Justice Shaw, again suggests the statement, that whatever 
may be the subject treated, the works of our members 
are always welcome. Professor McMaster has promptly 
sent us the second volume of his History of the American 
People, delayed for a year by the lo.>s of his manuscript ; 
and Dr. Guild has sent his Diary of Chaplain Smith, the 
title-page of which does not at all prepare one for the mine 
of Revolutionary War material within. Mr. J. Fletcher 
Williams has generously ottered to transfer from his own 
library to ours any needed material relating to his own 
State — Minnesota — or the State of Michigan, his not far- 
away neighbor. The Rev. George S. Paine is making 
additions to an interesting collection of colored theatrical 
handbills, portraits, etc., begun by his father. lie has 
also presented a framed photograph of his grandfather, 
William Paine, M.D., one of the founders and the first 
Vice-President of this Society, who was born in Worcester 
June 5, 1750, and died there April 1 C J, 1833. 

From Bishop Wm. Stevens Perry, Historiographer of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church of the I uited States, we 
have received his History of the American Episcopal 
Church, 1587-18S3, in the preparation of which we were 
able to render some assistance. As is not infrequently the 

1885.] Beport of the Librarian. 43 

case, during such examinations, an occasional broadside or 
pamphlet of great rarity was brought to light. The late 
Dr.* Charles O. Thompson, before leaving Worcester for 
his new home in Terre Haute, Indiana, gave us much 
material, especially such as relates to technical education. 
That his interest in this Society still continued will appear 
from the following articles in a codicil to his will, bearing 
date, April 24, 1883: 

"Second. All catalogues of institutions and all books 
and pamphlets bearing upon the history of education, I 
give and bequeath to the American Antiquarian Society, 
having its seat in the City of Worcester and State of 
Massachusetts; my wife, Maria G., to decide what books, 
pamphlets, <&c, given by this item, shall go to said 
Society, after consultation with Edmund M. Barton, 
Librarian of the same. 

"Fourth. If my estate shall exceed the sum of Fifty 
Thousand Dollars at the time of my decease, then and in 
that case I give and bequeath to said Antiquarian Society 
the sum of One Thousand Dollars to found and furnish in 
the library of said Society an A(cove of Education, the 
income of said sum to be expended in the purchase of 
books and pamphlets bearing on the history of education, 
and the principal sum to be kept unimpaired." 

The large collection of books and pamphlets devised, 
has been received, after consultation with Mrs. Thompson. 
That the provisions of article four cannot be carried out 
is a great disappointment to the widow, sons and daughter 
of our late associate. 

The following pungent paragraph, written the past 
month by Hon. Edward J. Phelps, may serve to emphasize 
Minister Everett's remark quoted in your Librarian's last 
report. It is suggested by the receipt of an extended and 
expensive report upon the estate of Sir Andrew Chadwick, 
with his life, illustrated with plans, views, coat of arms, 
etc., presented by the "Chartered Accountant" in charge 
of the supposed property interests of the Chad wicks of 
England and America. As a doctor learned in the law, 

44 American Antiquavian Society. [Oct. 

now our representative at the Court of St. James, Mr. 
Phelps may well be supposed to speak with authority, 
when he says "The pretended prosecution of the pretended 
American claims to English property is carried on with 
such persistence and ingenuity, by the men engaged in it, 
that I despair of being able to make their credulous 
victims understand what an utter imposture and delusion 
the whole business is." If such words are unheeded, 
librarians need not be surprised if their warnings go for 

Mr. Lucius P. Goddard has brought us a bound copy of 
the rare Goddard Genealogy of 1833, to which he has 
added some manuscript notes and a prospectus for a new 
edition. Upon a critical examination of a diary received 
many years since from the late Mr. Parley Goddard, of 
Worcester, and marked by Dr. Haven " autobiography ," 
Mr. Lucius P. Goddard has found it to be in the hand- 
writing of the Hon. Edward Goddard, of Framing-ham, 
who was born at Watertown, Mass., March 24, 1675, and 
was a member of his Majesty's Council for the Province 
of Massachusetts Bay. It is to be regretted, not that the 
worthy Councillor has given us so much of the results of 
his introspection, but that he has recorded so little as the 
result of his outlook upon the surroundings of that early 
and interesting period of our history. In acknowledging 
the gift of a fine specimen of Continental currency from 
Mrs. C. A. B. Lilley, of Montpelicr, Vt., we shall be 
pardoned for quoting a paragraph or two from her letter 
of presentation, as it not only states facts and shows the 
spirit in which deposits are sometimes made, but also 
suggests the especial care with which such gifts should be 
preserved. She says : "I wish to present it to the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society in memory of my mother, Mrs. 
Hannah Bliss, it being preserved through her care. She 
was eight and my father twelve years old when the war of 
the lie volution commenced. Four of my father's brothers 

1885.] Report of the Librarian. 45 

entered the army, two of whom died in the service. The 
other two served through the war and drew pensions in 
their old age. My parents, Frederic and Hannah Bliss, 
with their three children, went from Rehoboth, Mass., in 
the winter of 1793 and 1794, to settle in Washington 
County, Vermont, where ten more children were born to 
them, of whom I was the youngest, except one, and the 
last survivor." Mr. S. N. Dexter North sends a separate- 
ly printed copy of his special report on the newspaper and 
periodical press, made for the tenth United States Census. 
Appendix D gives a "List of the Bound Files of the 
American Newspapers in the Possession of the American 
Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.," furnished by us. 
It is all the more conspicuous since it stands alone, where 
a complete catalogue of the other important newspaper 
collections of America should appear. An early and per- 
sistent effort to obtain extra copies of this list for the use 
of scholars has thus far been unsuccessful. Mr. James C. 
Pilling has supplied us with one of the hundred copies of 
the proof-sheets of his Bibliography of American Linguis- 
tics, of eleven hundred and thirty-five large quarto pages. 
We are indebted to John T. llassam, Esq., for Part I. of 
the reprint of the Genea logical Gleanings in England by 
Mr. Henry F. Waters. While this Society in its corpo- 
rate capacity has not subscribed to the- fund for carrying 
on these researches, it should be said that the individual 
interest is manifest in the fact that its President, Vice- 
Presidents and a score of members are contributors to it. 
We are indebted to Professor George L. Vose, of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for an effort to 
collect for us all printed matter bearing in any manner 
upon that important institution ; and to Messrs. Drew, 
Allis and Company for a gift, thrice repeated within a few 
years, of a quantity of their Rochester, N. Y., Directories. 
The United States War Department sends the sixth vol- 
ume of Dr. Billings's Index-Catalogue of the Library of 

46 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the United States Surgeon-General's Office, a work which 
already has a world-wide reputation. In acknowledging 
numbers of the New Series of the Iowa Historical Society's 
Record we note for the information of our North-Western 
correspondents, the fact that we lack of the First Series, 
known as the Annals of Iowa, those of January, July and 
October, 1873, and January, 1874. The receipt of the 
beginning of a New Series of the Bulletin of the California 
Academy of Sciences, also suggests that we want of the 
First Series, volume one and all after volume seven, part 
one, with title-pages for volumes three and live. The 
Maine, Maryland and New Jersey Historical Societies and 
the State of New Hampshire send evidence of a continua- 
tion of the good work of the preservation of history. Our 
wide-spread membership should encourage such under- 
takings in their States as a means of saving valuable histori- 
cal material. The consideration of such gifts and givers 
encourages us to believe that a Society of the character, 
breadth and usefulness of our own, has not only a past and 
a present, but a future. 

In the valuable brochure upon Public Libraries and 
Schools, received at the hands of its author, Mr. Samuel 
S. Green, the following brief but pertinent description of a 
good librarian is especially noteworthy. He says: "The 
things he really needs are interest in the work, knowledge 
of books, a good education, good manners and good sense." 
The second qualification named, that of a knowledge of 
books, impressed itself forcibly upon my mind while 
recently preparing, for the seventh general meeting of the 
American Library Association, a paper on the best use of 
duplicates. This knowledge must necessarily be both 
internal and external, and for the latter a careful study of 
the broad field of catalogues of all classes, languages and 
times may be found useful. Certainly the light and shade 
thrown by to-day's comparison of a New York or Leipsic 
Catalogue with a Quaritch or Trubner of London, or a 

1885.] Report of the Librarian. 47 or a Champion of Paris, would furnish food for 
reflection. While Willard's Body of Divinity, .a folio 
which only a divinity school library with plenty of shelf- 
room would greatly desire, and of which we have several 
extra copies, is priced at iv\\ pounds ten shillings ; and the 
first edition of our founder's History of Printing at six 
pounds six ; the first two volumes of our Arclueologia 
Americana, which we sell for nearly four pounds, are 
called home for one pound ten. It is thought that in this 
connection, two early Harvard College book-sale cata- 
logues which have lately been examined, and which 
remind one by their rarity of the Harvard broadside trien- 
nial catalogues, will be found to contain suggestions of 

O ' Co 

interest. The latest of these, " A Catalogue of Duplicates 
in the Library of Harvard College for sale," a duplicate 
copy of which has, by special request, been sent to the 
Astor Library, bears no date, but was presented by our 
first President in 1825, probably soon after it was printed. 
Upon its title-page Dr. Thomas has written, as was his 
custom, "Value 10 cts." and throughout the list appear 
his single, double and triple checks of preference. Early 
English folios and quartos seem to have commanded the 
highest prices, as witness the following: "Baxter Ed, 
Christian Directory, or Summary of Practical Theologie 
and Cases of Conscience, fob, London, 1673, $3.50." 
"Doddridge Philip. Family Expositor, or a Paraphrase 
and Version of the New Testament, &c, 6 vols., 4to. 
London, 17G0." $3.50 each. " Justiniis Martyr. Apolo- 
giae duae et Dialogus Cum Triphone Judaeo, Cum Notis 
et emendationibus Styani Thirlbii, fol. Londini, 1722." 
$8.00. " Josephus Flavius. Works Translated by Wins- 
ton, fol.,. London, 1737." $10.00. Comparison of the 
above with the low figures attached to the following sam- 
ples, many of which are rare New England imprints, will 
astonish buyers of early Americana, and lead us to hope 
that President Thomas's purchases were as numerous as 

48 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

his checks would seem to indicate : '/Mather Cotton. 
Christian Philosopher. A Collection of the Best Discov- 
eries in Nature, with Religious Improvements. 8vo*. 
London, 1721." $1.00. "Mayhew Experience. Indian 
Converts, or Some Account of the Lives and Dying 
Speeches of a Considerable Number of the Christianized 
Indians of Martha's Vineyard. 8vo. London, 1727." 
$1.00. "Protestant Religion Maintained &c., against one 
George Heath [Keith]. 12mo. Boston, 1690 (5 copies)." 
25 cents. "Results of Three Synods of the Churches 
of Massachusetts. 12mo. Boston, 172,5." 25 cents. 
"Scripture Bishop Vindicated. By Eleutherius. Also 
Eusebius Incrmatus. By Phileleuth. Bangor. 12mo. 
Boston, 1733 (3 copies)." 50 cents. "Alden Timothy. 
Collection of American Epitaphs with occasional notes, 5 
vols. ( 18mo. N. Y., 1814." 50 cents each. "Eliot John. 
Up-Biblum God (Indian Bible). 4to. Cambridge, 1663." 
$24.00. "Joutel. Journal du dernier Voyage que feu 
M. de la Sale fit dans le Golfe de Mexique pour 
trouver rEinbouchure et le Cours de la Riviere de Miss- 
icipi. 12mo. Paris, 1713." $1.00. "Lopez de Goinara. 
Historia de Mexico. 18mo. Anvers, 1554." $3.50. 
"Winthrop, John. Journal of the Transactions and 
Occurrences in the Settlement of Massachusetts from 1 630 
to 1644. 8vo. Hartford, 1790." $2.50. "Mather Sara. 
Life of Cotton. 12mo. Boston, 1729." 50 cents. If 
your patience is not exhausted by this bibliographical tour, 
let us look back one step farther, but still within our nine- 
teenth century, at another and even rarer Harvard Cata- 
logue, presented by Rev. Dr. William Bentley, a duplicate 
of which, priced from our own copy, we recently placed in 
Harvard College Library where strangely enough it had 
escaped preservation. The title is "Catalogue of Books 
to be sold by Public Auction at Francis Amory's Auction 
Room, Boston, immediately after the sale advertised to 
commence December 20, 1813. The following books being 

1885.] Report of the Librarian. 49 

surplus copies of Works from the Library of Harvard 
University." Some of the more startling prices obtained 
are added to a few titles in the order in which <they appear. 
" Cartesii Principia Philosophiae. 4to. 1G72, Elzevir 
Edition." 60 cents. "The Bible in the Indian Language. 
Eliot's Translation." $1.10. "Sir Walter Raleigh's 
Historic of the World. fol. 1614." $1.80. "The 
Bishops Bible, fol., Black-Letter, wants the title-page and 
some leaves at the end." $1.70. "The Protestant religion 
maintained and the churches of New England defended 
against the calumnies of one George Keith, a Quaker. By 
the Ministry of Boston. 24mo. J690." 15 cents. It 
will be remembered that live copies of this defence against 
Keith were ottered in the catalogue of ten years later for 
the sum of twenty-tive cents each. "New England's Duty 
and Interest ; an election sermon May 25, 1 C» 1> 8 . By Nich. 
Noyes, Minister of Salem." 15 cents. "Dissenting 
Gentleman's Letters to Mr. White. 12mo. Boston, 
1768." 20 cents. "Second Volume of llakluyt's Voy- 
ages, fol. Black-Letter." $1.00. tk Cluverii Introductio 
in Universam Geographiam. 12mo. 1651, printed by 
Elzevir." 10 cents. The present worth of these books I 
need not state in this presence. By the following extract 
from his will, we are reminded of the narrow escape of 
these catalogues containing Dr. Bentlcy's notes. Ilis 
bequest to this Society of "all my German books, New 
England printed books, manuscripts not of my own hand 
and cabinet with all it contains and all my paintings and 
engravings," was followed by a recommendation "to my 
nephew to destroy all the writings of every name in my 
own hand and to accept what remains for his services, and 
I constitute W. B. Fowle Sole Executor." We may well 
be grateful to the sole executor, a worthy member of this 
Society until his death in 1865, who not only failed to carry 
out his uncle's recommendations, but bequeathed to us 
what he had retained of this singularly valuable collection. 

50 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

It would be interesting to know what prices were attached 
to that first English catalogue, printed in 1595, by John 
Wendel for Andrew Maunsell of London. In his quaint 
dedication he says ' k I have thought good in my poor 
estate to undertake this most tiresome businesse, hoping 
the Lord will send a blessing upon my labours taken in 
my vocation : thinking it as necessarie for the bookseller 
(considering the number and value of them) to have a 
catalogue of our English bookes, as the Apothecarie his 
dispensatorium or the Schoolmaster his dictionary." 

In closing, two paragraphs are quoted from the pen of 
Hon. John Davis in his report for the Council April 30, 
1851, as they may indicate, to a certain extent, the steady 
but, possibly, too quiet and contented spirit which pervades 
our beloved Society to-day. Governor Davis said: "Its 
affairs have at all times been quietly, nay, almost silently 
conducted. No temporary expedients, no artificial stimu- 
lants have been employed to give it a factitious importance. 

Nor has prosperity been sought through any means except 
that voluntary support which is yielded from a conviction 
that we are engaged in a meritorious work deserving 

Respectfully submitted, 




1885.] Donors and Donations. 51 

Honors anti Donations. 


Aldrich, Hon. P. EMORY, Worcester.— His "Equity Pleadings and Practice 

in the Courts of Massachusetts"; and his " Sketch of the Professional and 

Judicial Character of Chief Justice Shaw." 
Barton, Mr. Edmund M., Worcester. — Ten pamphlets; and one hundred 

Bell, Hon. Charles IT., Exeter, N. H.— His Memorial of John Taylor 

Gilman, M.D. 
Brevoort, Hon. James Carson, Brooklyn, N. Y.— One hundred and three 

volumes, of great rarity and value, relating to Japan. 
Brinton, Daniel G., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa.— Four of his pamphlets relating 

to the American languages. 
Brock, Kobert A., Esq., Richmond, Va. — His "Early Iron Manufacture in 

Virginia, 1610-1776." 
Chandler, George, M.D., Worcester*.— Three pamphlets; and a file of the 

Deseret News, Salt Lake City. 
Chase, Charles A., Esq., Worcester.— A cabinet photograph of himself. 
Davis, Andrew McF., Esq., Cambridge.— One pamphlet. 
Davis, Hon. Edward L., Worcester. —Twelve books, chiefly historical; 

forty-three pamphlets; and a photograph of Hunt's portrait of Chief Justice 

Davis, Hon. Horace, Sau Francisco, Cal.— Three lithographs. 
Deane, Charlks, LL.D., Cambridge.— His Memoir of the Hon. Richard 

Frothingham, LL.D. ; and thirteen numbers of the Society's Proceedings. 
Devens, Hon. Charlks, Worcester.— His Two Addresses Commemorative 

of General Grant. 
Dexter, Prof. Franklin B., New Haven, Conn.— His "Biographical 

Sketehcs of the Graduates of Yale College with Annals of the College 

History, October, 1701-May, 1745"; The Hundredth Anniversary of the City 

of New Haven, containing his "New Haven in 1781"; and his "History of 

Connecticut as Illustrated by the Names of her Towns." 
Edes, Mr. Henry 11., Charlestown.— Services at the Dedication.of a Mural 
" Monument to James Walker, D.D., in the Harvard Church, Charlestown, 

Mass., containing Mr. Edes's remarks; and one pamphlet. 
Ellis, ltev. George E., D.D., Boston.— His Memoir of Nathaniel Thayer, 


52 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Fischer, Prof. Heinrich, Freiburg, Baden. — His " Ueber die Nephrit- 
Industrie der Maoris in Neuseeland." 

Greene, J. Evakts, Esq., Worcester. —Four colored photographs of Corcan 

Green, Hon. Samuel A., Boston— His Groton Historical Series, No. VI1L; 

his remarks on the early appearance of Northern Lights in New England; 

Groton Public Libra-ry Catalogue of 1885, with an introduction by Dr. Green ; 

Suffolk Deeds, Liber III.; Harvard Quinquennial, 1885; seven books; and 

fifty-six pamphlets. 
Green, Mr. Samuel S., Worcester.- His "Public Libraries and Schools"; 

and his report as Librarian of the Free Public Library, Worcester, 1885. 
Guild, Reuben A., LL.D., Providence, R. L— His " Chaplain Smith and the 

Baptists: or Life, Journals, Letters and Addresses of the Rev. Ilezekiah 

Smith, D.D." 
Harden, William, Esq., Savannah, Ga.— His " Suggestion as to the Origin 

of the Plan of Savannah." 
Hitchcock, Edward, M.D., Amherst. — His "Bodily Measurements and 

Tests of Amherst College Students, August, 1885"; and two pamphlets. 

Hoar, Hon. GEORGE F., Worcester.— His " Obligations of New England to 
the County of Kent," three copies; the Congressional Record, forty-nine 
volumes; Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, in continuation; one 
hundred and ten books; live hundred and fifty-three pamphlets; one gilt 
frame; one engraving; and one map. 

Jones, Hon. Charles C, Jr., Augusta, Ga.— Four of his own historical and 
biographical works. 

Jones, Hon. Horatio G., Philadelphia, Pa.— Morgan Edwards's "Materials 
towards a History of the Baptists in Delaware State." 

Lamson, Rev. Charles M., D.D., Worcester.— The Christian Examiner, 
sixty-seven numbers; Congregational Quarterly, fifteen numbers; The 
Nation, 18UU-1881; Literary World, 1870-1883; and the Weekly London 
Times, for the year 1882. 

McMaster, Prof. John B., Philadelphia, Pa.— His "History of the People of 
the United States from the Involution to the Civil War," volume two. 

Meruiman, ltev. Daniel, D.D., Worcester.— Proceedings of the American 
Congress of Churches at Hartford, May, 1885; and two historical pamphlets. 

MOORE, GEORGE H.,LL.D.,New York.— His "Final Notes on Witehcrafl in 
Massachusetts"; and his "Prytaueuin liostouiense, Notes on the History of 
the Old State House." 

Nourse, Hon. Henry S.. Lancaster.— Eighty-nine Lancaster town docu- 
ments; and fourteen selected pamphlets. 

Paine, Rev. George S., Worcester.— A framed photograph of William Paiue, 
M.D.; and colored theatrical broadsides, in continuation. 

Paine, Nathaniel, Esq., Worcester.— His Bibliography of Worcester 
History ; and a Martin Luther medal of 1883. 

Peet. Itev. Stephen D., Clinton, Wis.-His American Antiquarian and 
Oriental Journal, in continuation. 

Perez, Sr. Andres A., New York. -Three liles of Mexican newspapers. 


54 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Blanchard, Messrs. Frank S., and Company, Worcester.— Their Nut-Shell 

Railroad and Steamboat Guide, as issued. 
Boardman, Hon. Samuel L., Augusta, Me.— His Home Farm, as issued. 
Bradlee, Rev. Caleb D., Boston.— His "In Memoriam. Rev. Dv. Rufus 

Ellis"; aud a manuscript letter of 1804. 
Brooks.. Rev. William H., D.D., Secretary, Hanover.— Three documents 

relating to the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. 
Burgess, Rev. Francis G>, Worcester.— Four selected pamphlets. 
Chase, Mr. Levi B., Storbridge.— His "Genealogy and Historical Notices of 

tbe Family of Plimpton, Plympton and Plumpton." 

Cook, Mr. Henry II., Barre.— His Gazette, as issued. 

Corey, Mr. Deloraine P., Maiden.— An account of the Converse Memorial 

Cudmore, P., Esq., Faribault, Minn.— His ■* Poems, Songs, Satires and Politi- 
cal Rings," fourth edition. 

Cummings, Mr. Herbert R., Worcester.- fife Pocket Map of the City of 
Worcester, 1885. 

Darling, Gen. Charles W., Utica, N. Y.— One heliotype. 

DARLING, Miss Susan C, Worcester.— Thirty numbers of Thomas's Farmer's 

Almanac; and seventy-one numbers of The Liberator. 
Dean, Mr. John Ward, Boston.— Two of his own publications. 
Dodge, Mr. Benjamin J., Worcester.— One pamphlet. 
Dodge, James II., Esq., Auditor, Boston.- His Annual Report for 1881-85. 
Doe, Messrs. Charles II., and Company, Worcester.— Their Daily and 

Weekly Gazette, as issued. 
Drew, Allis, and Company, Messrs., Worcester. —Three hundred and 

seventy-six volumes of Rochester N. Y. Directories. 
Duren, Mr. Elnathan F., Secretary, Bangor, Me.— Account of General 

Conference of Congregational Churches in Maine, 1S85. 
EaRLE, Pliny, M.D., Northampton.— His " Genealogical Cbart of the Earle 

Family"; eleven bound volumes of reports of insane asylums in continua- 
tion; eighty-one pampblets; and files of the Massachusetts Spy, 1823-1825, 

and Non-Resistant, 1S3U-1845. 
Earle, Mr. Stephen C, Worcester.— Two pampblets. 
Everett, Mr. William, Quincy.— His Fourth of July Address, Quincy, 18S5; 

and an educational address. 
Fisher, Charles II., M.D., Secretary, Providence, R. I.— Seventh Annual 

Report of the Rhode Island State Roard of Health. 
Flint, Mrs. Harriet, Leicester.— Nine valuable pamphlets in binding. 
Foote and Horton, Messrs., Salem. — Their Gazette, as issued. 
Foster, Mr. William E., Providence, R. I.— His Seventh Annual Report as 

Librarian of the Providence Public Library. 
Funk and Wagnalls, Messrs., New York.— Their Voice, as issued. 
Gass, Mr. L. II. R., Brooktield.— " Dedication of Banister Memorial Hall, 

Brooklield, Mass., January 31, 1884." 
Gibus, Mrs. Mary E., Worcester.— Two maps. 

1885.] Donors and Donations. 55 

Gerould, Mrs. James H., Worcester.— Twenty-seven books; and thirty-two 

Gould, Mr. S. C., Manchester, N. if.— Jfis bibliography of Manchester, N. H. 
Green, James, Esq., Worcester.— Eight books; and two hundred and ten 


Greene, Mr. Richard W., Worcester.—" El Mercurio," in continuation. 
Harris, Mr. George H., Rochester, N. Y.— His " Aboriginal Occupation of 

the Lower Genesee County." 
Hart, Charles II., Esq., Philadelphia, Pa.— Eight engraved portraits of 

distinguished Americans, from plates owned by him. 

Hassam, John T., Esq., Boston.— Waters's " Genealogical Gleanings in Eng- 
land," Volume One, Part First; and " John Harvard and his Ancestry." 

Haven, Miss Eliza A., Portsmouth, BT. If.— Nineteen books. 

Haven, Mrs. Samuel F., Worcester.— Dr. Deane's Memoir of Samuel F. 
Haven, LL.D.; and the "Early History of the Town of Bethlehem, New 

Hinuks, Sir Francis, Montreal, P. Q.— His paper on " The Boundaries 
formerly in Dispute between Great Britain and the United States." 

Howes, Mrs. Edward S., Worcester.— Fourteen books, chiefly mathematical. 

Huntoon, Mr. Daniel T. V., Canton.— Proceedings of the Bostoniau Society 
at the Annual Meeting, January 13, 1885. 

Jenks, Rev. Henry F., Boston.— Two historical circulars. 

Jillson, Hon. Clark, Worcester.— His " Something about Harvey Jillson." 

Kellogg and Stratton, Messrs., Fitchburg.— Their Sentinel, as issued. 

King, Col. Horatio C, Secretary, New York.— Report of the Seventeenth 
Annual Reunion of the Society of the Army of the Potomac. 

Leamon, Mr. Jacob, Lawrenceburg, Tenn.— His Press, as issued. 

Lilley, Mrs. C. A. B., Montpelier, Vt. — A fine specimen of Continental 

Marble, John O., M.D., Worcester. — His "Cremation in its Sanitary 

Marvin, Rev. Abijaii P., Lancaster. File of " The Advance," 1873-1884. 

May, Rev. Samuel, Leicester.— Fifty-eight selected pamphlets. 

Mellen, Mr. James H., Worcester.— His Daily Times, as issued. 

Metcalf, Mr. Caleb B., Worcester.— One hundred and six pamphlets; and 
the Christian Union, in continuation. 

Morse, Mr. Richard C, Secretary, New York.— Proceedings of the Twenty- 
sixth International Convention of Young Men's Christian Associations. 

North, Mr. S. N. D., Utica, N. Y.— His "History and Present Condition of 
the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States." 

Pierce, Mr. Charles F., Worcester.— Twelve educational pamphlets. 

Pilling, Mr. James C, Washington, D. C— Proof sheets of his "Bibliog- 
raphy of the North American Indians." 

Pillsbury, Parker, Esq., Concord, N. II.— Birney's " American Churches 
the Bulwark of Slavery," third edition. 

56 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Preble, Mr. George H. R., Boston.— Admiral Preble's "Esek Hopkins, the 
First Commander-in-Chief of the American Navy, 1775." 

Rekd, Hon. Charles (J., Mayor, Worcester.— Celebration of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Naming of Worcester, October H and 15, issi , 
seven copies. 

Rider, Mr. Sidney S., Providence, R. I.— His u Book Notes," as issued. 
Roe, Mr. Alfred S., Worcester.— His "John Brown: a Retrospect"; and 

live numbers of the Methodist Quarterly Review. 
Russell, Prof. E. Harlow, Woreester.— One pamphlet. 
Sargent, Mr. C. F., Woreester.— A piece of wood from the Audersonville 

Prison stoekade. 

Seagrave, Mr. Daniel, Woreester.— Two historical pamphlets. 

Slaeter, Rev. Edmund F., Boston.— His "Diocese of Massachusetts, its 

Historical Acquisitions and Wants." 
Staples, Rev. Carlton: A., Lexington. — His Sermon commemorative of 

Susan E. Huston, Founder of the Taft Public Library. 
Stevens, Charles E., Esq., Worcester.— Three pamphlets. 
Sturgis, Mrs. Henry P., Boston.— Nine pamphlets. 
Sumner, Mr. George, Worcester.— Two manuscripts relating to West Boyl- 

Thayer, Mrs. NATHANIEL, Lancaster. — Dr. Ellis's Memoir of Nathaniel 

Thayer, A.M. 
Thompson, Mrs. Charles O., Executrix, Cambridge.— Three books; six 

manuscripts; and seven hundred and thirteen pamphlets. 
Toledo, Sr. Juan, Merida, Yucatan.— File of a Yucatan newspaper. 
Turner, Mr. John II., Ayer.— His Groton " Landmark," as issued. 
Vose, Prof. George L., Boston.— Thirteen pamphlets relating to the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. 
Webb, Rev. Samuel II., Secretary, Providence, R. I.— Journal of the Ninety- 

lifth Annual Session of the Convention ot the Diocese of Rhode Island; and 

seven pamphlets. 
Wehb, Mr. Stephen W., Worcester.— His " Home Journal," as issued. 
WentwORTH, Hon. John, Chicago, III.- One historical pamphlet. 
Wesby, Mr. Herbert, Worcester.—" Genealogical Sketch of the Colviu 

Wesby, Messrs. Joseph S. and Sons, Worcester.— One hundred and one- 
tow n documents. 
Whitney, Mr. Henry A., Boston.— Judge Abraham Payne's Reminiscences 

of the Rhode Island Bar. 
Wicksteed, Richard J., Esq., Ottawa, P. Q.— His " Electors' Political 

WiNTHROP, Robert C, Jr., Esq., Boston.— His - Difference of Opinion 

Concerning the Reasons why Katharine Winthrop refused to marry C. J. 

Witherby, Rugg and RICHARDSON, Messrs., Worcester.— Four liles of 

newspapers relating to machinery and inventions, in continuation. 

1885.] Donors and Donations. 57 


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.— Their Proceedings, 

Part I., 1885. 
Alabama Historical Society.— Their " Historical Reporter," as issued. 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences.— Their Memoirs, Vol. XI., 

Part II., No. I.; Proceedings, 1884-85; and one pamphlet. 
American Baptist Missionary Union.— Their Magazine, as issued. 
American Oriental Society. — Their Journal, Volume XI., Number 11. 

and Volume XII.; and Proceedings at Boston, May, 1885. 
American Philosophical Society.— Their Proceedings, as issued. 
Archaeological Institute of America.— Their Sixth Annual Report. 
Boston Board of Health.— Their Thirteenth Annual Report. 
Boston, City of.— The Record Commissioner's Reports, as issued; and the 

Monthly Statistics of Mortality. 
Boston Public Library.— The Bulletin, as issued. 
Bostonian Society.— Their Proceedings at the Annual Meeting, January 

13, 1885. 
Brooklyn Library.— The Twenty-seventh Annual Report; and the Bulle- 
tin, as issued. 
Buffalo Historical Society.— Their Transactions, Volume III. 
Cambridge (England) Antiquarian Society.— List of Members, May, 

Canadian Institute.— Their Proceedings, July, 1885. 
Chicago Historical Society.— Two of their memorial pamphlets. 
Cincinnati Public Library. — Their Bulletin of 1884; Finding-List of 

1885; and the Annual Report of 1884-85. 
College of the Holy Cross— The Catalogue for 1884-85. 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences— Their Transactions, Vol. 

Connecticut State Library.— Eight state documents of Connecticut. 
Drury College— A Memorial of the Life of Samuel Fletcher Drury; and 

the Twelfth Annual Catalogue. 
Essex Institute.— Their Bulletin and Collections, as issued; and a Pocket 

Guide to Salem, Mass. 
German Society of the City of New York.— Their One Hundred and 

First Annual Report. 
Good Health Publishing Company.— Their Magazine, as issued. 
Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio. -Diary of David 

Zeisberger, a Moravian Missionary among the Indians of Ohio, edited by 

Mr. Eugene F. Bliss. 
Historical Society of PENNSYLVANiA.-Their " Magazine of History and 

Biography," as issued. 
Iowa Historical SociETY.-Their * Historical Record," as issued. 
Maryland Historical Society. - Their Annual Reports, 1884-85; and 
Latrobe's^' Maryland in Liberia." . 

58 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Massachusetts General Hospital Trustees. — Their Seventy-first 
Animal Report. 

Massachusetts Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons.— Their 
Proceedings, December 10, 1884-June 10, 1885. 

Massachusetts Historical Society.— Memorial of the Centennial Anni- 
versary of the Settlement of Maehias. 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. — Their Transactions for 1884 
and 1885, Part I. 

Massachusetts Medical Society.— Their Communieations, Vol. XIII., 

No. IV. 
Massachusetts, State of.— The State Documents, 1885. 
Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences.— Their Bulletin, Vol. II., 

No. 5. 

Missouri Historical Society.— Their Publications, Number Eight. 
Museo Nacional de Mexico.— Anales, Tomo III., Entrega 7 il . 
New Bedford Free Public Library.— The Thirty-third Annual lteport; 
and New Bedford City Documents for 1881-85. 

New England Historic Genealogical Society.— Their Register, as 

issued; and Waters's Genealogical Gleanings in England, No. X. 
New Hampshire Historical Society.— Their Proceedings, 187G-1884. 
New Jersey Historical Society.— Their Proeeedings, A r ol. VIII., No. 4. 
New York Evening Post Printing Company.— Their Nation, as issued. 
New York Mercantile Library Association. — Their Sixty-fourth 

Annual Report. 
Old Residents' Association, Lowell, Mass.— Their Contributions, Vol. 

III., No. 2. 
Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore.— Their Eighteenth Annual 

Philadelphia Library Company.— Their Bulletin, as issued. 
Redwood Library and Atiien.eum.— Their One Hundred and Fifty-fifth 

Annual Report. 
Rhode Island Historical Society.— Their Collections, Volume VII.; 

Proceedings, 1884-85: and Librarian Perry's Paper on Almanacs. 
Rhode Island, State of.— Nineteen Rhode Island State Documents. 
Royal Society of Canada.— Their Proeeedings and Transactions for 1884. 
Saint Louis Public School Library.— The Annual Report for 1883-84. 
Seventh Day Advent Missionary Society.— Their " Signs of the Times," 

as issued. 
Smithsonian Institution.— Their Contributions, Vols. XXIV. and XXV.; 

and Annual Report for 1883. 
Societe de Geograpiiie.— Their Bulletin, as issued. 
Societe dks Antiquaires de France.— Their Memoirs, Volume 44. 
Societe des Etudes Historiques.— Their Journal, as issued. 
Society of Antiquaries of London.— Their Archieologia, Vol. XLIX.; 

and Index and List of Members, 1885. 

1885.] Donors and Donations. 59 

Springfield Library Association.— The Reportfor 1884-85. 

State Historical Society of Iowa.— Their Fifteenth Biennial Report. 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin.— The Catalogue of their Library, 
Vol. G; and Annual Reports, 1883-85. 

Traveler's Insurance Company.— Their Record, as issued. 

United States Bureau of Education.— The Circulars of Information, as 

United States Civil Service Commission.— Their Second Annual Report. 

United States Department of the Interior.— Twenty-four volumes of 
the Forty-Seventh Congress; three volumes of the Congressional Globe; 
eight volumes of reports; and the Official Gazette of the Patent Office, in 

United States Treasury Department.— Report of the United States 
Life Saving Service for 1883-84. 

United States War Department.— The Index-Catalogue of the Library 
of the Surgeon-General's Office, U. S. Army, Vol. VI. 

Virginia Historical Society.— The Official Letters of Governor Spots- 
wood, Volume Two; and the James River Tourist, 1885. 

Western Reserve Historical Society.— Their %i Partial List of Manu- 
scripts, Field Notes and Maps." 

Worcester County Law Library Association.— Bowen's Picture of 

Worcester County Mechanics Association.— Seventeen files of news- 
papers, in continuation. 

Worcester Free Public Library.— Forty-seven books; thirty volumes 
of the Congressional Record; one hundred and forty-four pamphlets; and 
sixty-two files of newspapers. 

Worcester National Bank.— New York Evening Post, in continuation. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity.— Their Proceedings for 1884; and an 
account of the Doings at their Tenth Anniversary. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society.— Their Proceedings and 
Collections, Volume II. , Part I. 

Young Men's Association of Buffalo.— Their Forty-ninth Annual Report. 

Vol. IV. 

New Series. 

Pakt 2. 



gtmwkan ^ntfiprarian $wk\% 


APRIL 28, 1886. 


311 Main Street. 



Proceedings at the Meeting: Central American Jades 61 

Report of the Council : Voluntary System in the Maintenance of 

Ministers . . 66 

Report of the Treasurer 127 

Report of the Librarian .......... 134 

Donors and Donations 148 

English Sources of American Dialect 159 

April, 1886.] Proceedings. 61 



The following members were present (the names being- 
arranged in order of seniority of membership) : Edward 
E. Hale, Andrew P. Peabody, Nathaniel Paine, Joseph 
Sargent, Stephen Salisbury, Samuel A. Green, Francis 
Parkman, George S. Paine, Edward L. Davis, James F. 
Hunnewell, John D. Washburn, Thomas W. Higginson, 
Albert H. Hoyt, Charles C. Smith, Hamilton B. Staples, 
Edmund M. Barton, Lucius R. Paige, John J. Bell, Joseph 
B. Walker, Samuel S. Green, Edward I. Thomas, Fred- 
erick W. Putnam, Solomon Lincoln, J. Evarts Greene, 
Henry S. Nourse, William B. Weeden, lieuben Colton, 
Robert N. Toppau, Henry H. Edes, Grindall Reynolds. 

The second Vice-President, Stephen Salisbury, A.M., 
was in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the records of the last 
meeting which were approved. 

The same officer communicated the recommendation of 
the Council that the gentlemen named below be elected to 
membership in the Society, each of whom was chosen by a 
separate ballot on his name : — 

Frederick John Kingsbury, A.M., of Waterbury, 

George Ebenezer Francis, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel S. Green, A.M., read a report which had been 

prepared by him and adopted by the Council as a part of 

their report to the Society. 


62 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Nathaniel Patne, Esq., Treasurer, and Edmund M. 
Barton, Esq., Librarian, read their semi-annual reports. 
These reports, as together constituting the report of the 
Council, were on motion of Fuancis Parkman, LL.D., 
seconded by Rev. Andrew P. Pearody, D.D., accepted 
and referred to the Committee of Publication. 

Rev. Dr. Pearody and Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., 
made a few remarks suggested by certain portions of Mr. 
Green's report. 

Mr. Frederick W. Putnam exhibited a collection of celts, 
axes and ornaments made of various stones known under 
the general term of jade. Some of these were from the 
ancient pile-dwellings of the Swiss lakes ; one large celt 
was from New Zealand ; another, with a cutting edge at 
each end, from a mound in Michigan, and twelve other 
specimens were from Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The 
latter, consisted of a large four-sided celt ; a half of a celt of 
a peculiar light color for jadeite; while all the others, ten 
in number, were ornaments made by cutting celts into 
halves, quarters or thirds. A portion of the cutting edge 
of the celt remains on each of these pieces. Each piece is 
perforated by one or two drilled holes, and three are more 
or less elaborately carved. Two of the specimens lit 
together to make half a celt, which had been perforated in 
the centre of the upper end. When this half-celt was again 
cut a portion of the original perforation was left on each 

The questions proposed were : Where did these speci- 
mens come from? Why were such important implements 
as axes and chisels first made of this hard material and 
afterwards cut up for ornaments ? 

In answer, he stated that up to this time, jadeite, varying 
from almost a milk-white color with a slight shade of green 
to that of a beautiful emerald-green had not been found in 
situ in America. So far as known, all such varieties of 
jadeite had come from Asia. Had this material been 

1886.] Proceedings. . (>3 

obtained from any locality within immediate reach of the 
ancient people of Central America (from whose burial 
mounds these specimens had been taken, principally by 
Dr. Earl Flint while exploring for the Peabody Museum), 
it would not have been considered so valuable ; and these 
people would not have spent so much time and labor in 
cutting up these useful and highly polished implements 
if they could have obtained the stone in the rough. Such 
labor, it seemed to him, was evidence of the scarcity of the 
stone, and of the regard in which it was held, probably as 
a stone no longer to be obtained. Is it not, therefore, 
reasonable to believe that the stone was brought from Asia 
in the form of implements by the early migrants to this 
country, and that as the supply was not kept up, and most 
likely even its source became unknown, the pieces among 
the people were cut and re-cut and preserved as sacred 
relics of the past, to be, one after the other, finally buried 
with their owners ? 

Is it not one of the most important facts yet known 
tending to show that the original possessors of the imple- 
ments brought them from Asia, and that at least one por- 
tion of America was settled by people from that continent ? 

On motion of the Rev. Lucius R. Paige, D.D., the 
thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Putnam, and he 
was requested to furnish his remarks to the Committee of 

In reply Mr. Putnam stated that he was still at work on 
the subject in all its bearings, and that it would be some 
time yet before he would be ready to publish all the evi- 
dence he had to otter, showing that these specimens indicate 
a migration from Asia. Much remained to be done in 
comparing the specimens from Central America with speci- 
mens of jadeite from known localities in Asia, and for this 
purpose microscopical sections and chemical analyses were 
yet to be made. In due time he hoped to oiler a paper in 
complete form. At present, he brought the subject forward 

64 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

for such discussion as its great importance seemed to 
merit. 1 

Mr. Salisbury, from the chair, in accordance with the 
general desire of the members present, gave a brief extem- 

1 Since the above was put in type I bare obtained the following important 
information substantiating the conclusions expressed above. — p. w. P. 

Mr. Oliver W. Huntington, Instructor in Mineralogy in Harvard University, 
has been so kind as to make a careful examination of three of the Central 
American specimens, varying greatly in color, about which he makes the fol- 
lowing report: — 

"Chemical Laboratory ok Harvard College. 

Camruidge, Mass., May 31, 1886. 

My Dear Mr. Putnam: 

The three specimens which you left with me are unquestion- 
ably Chinese Jade, having all the characters of that mineral, although the 
largest specimen from Costa Rica is rather unusual in its color and would not 
be taken for jadeite at sight. 

The result of my examination is as follows : — 

No. 33395. Costa Rica specimen. H.=7. Sp. gr. taken on a mass weighing 
}0ggrauiia«g jjj 3.281. A small fragment before the blowpipe fused readily below 
3 to a glassy bead. 

No. 33391. The specimen from Costa Rica, cut, in form of a bird. II. a 
little under 7. Sp. gr. taken on a specimen weighing 54^'" um " ies is 3.341. Before 
the blowpipe it fused quietly below 3 to a transparent glass, not acted on by 

No. 32794. Smallest specimen from Costa Rica. H. a little under 7. 
taken on a specimen weighing l&srammes j s 3.;J26. Before the blowpipe it 
fused quietly below 3 to a transparent glass, not acted on by acid. 

I have given above the approximate weights, to show "that the specimens 
were large enough for an accurate determination of the speciiic gravity. 

Very sincerely yours. 

Oliver W. Huntington." 

Dr. Willis E. Everette, who has recently returned from an extended trip in 
Alaska, wrote me that he had obtained from the natives of the interior a num- 
ber of ornaments and crude pieces of jade. In reply to my request he has been 
so kind as to send me the only specimen he had with him at the East. This 
piece has the appearance of a water-worn pebble, live inches long and an iuch 
thick in its central portion, from which a piece has been removed by some 
primitive method (probably by sawing with a cord and sand), in the same man- 
ner as the specimens from Central America and hard stones from various 
other regions were cut. It is of a deep green color, very much like a large 
nephrite celt from New Zealand, now in the Peabody Museum. Dr. Everette 
writes that "this specimen was given me by an Eskimo from the Kuwfik river, 
north of the Arctic circle, and which Hows into Kotzebue Sound." ( 1 suppose 
this to be the same as the Kowak river.) 

This is probably the ''jade" which has been reported as occurring in nit* in 
Alaska. To the eye it has the general appearance of jadeite and nephrite, but 
the following report from Mr. Huntington, to whom, and to Prof. Cooke, I at 

1880.] Proceedings. G5 


poraneous account of a recent visit he had made to Mexico 
and more especially to the province of Yucatan, with com- 
parisons of the present civilization with that of a period 
twenty-live years ago, when he had visited the same region. 
His remarks were listened to with great interest, and found 
favor with all who heard them. 

After the formal adjournment the members were enter- 
tained at dinner by their associate, Hon. Edward Isaiah 
Thomas. At the table Col. Thomas W. Higginson, who 
had been prevented from attending the morning session, 
read a paper, which, on motion of the Recording Secretary, 
was received, with thanks, as of the regular order of the 
meeting, and referred to the Committee of Publication. 

It was also voted that a despatch of congratulation be 
sent to Dr. George Chandler, an honored associate, who 
was celebrating his eightieth birthday in Worcester. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 


Recording Secretary. 

once submitted the specimen for examination, is conclusive us to its being a 
different mineral from the Central American specimens. 

"Chkmical Laboratory of Harvard College. 

Cambridge, Mass., May 81, 18S6. 
My Dear Mr. Putnam: 

The compact green mineral submitted to my examination 
appears to be a portion of a worn pebble, ami has a line dark green color, 
breaking with a splintery fracture, and having a glistening lustre. II. =0. Sp. 
Gr. carefully taken on a spceimon weighing over lO0s rum,ms , at a temperature 
of 24.1° is 2.i)'J42. A small splinter before the blowpipe fused below a with 
intumescence and spirting, to a transparent bit-buy glass, and after fusion was 
insoluble in acid. 

The blowpipe characters indicate Jadeite. but the low specific gravity and 
hardness are inconsistent with this supposition, and it is certainly not the 
Chinese Jadeite nor like the specimens from Central America which 1 examined 
for you. 

Very truly yours. 

Oliver W. Huntington." 

66 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


The Council submits to the Society the statements of the 
Treasurer and Librarian as portions of its report. It 
wishes to call attention to the changes which have been 
introduced by the former officer, under the advice of the 
Finance Committee of the Council, in keeping the accounts 
of the Society, and to the fact that a list of the securities in 
which the principal of the funds is invested will hereafter 
be printed in the record of our semi-annual Proceedings. 

Seven members of the American Antiquarian Society 
have died since our last meeting, namely : Dr. Ashbel 
Woodward of Franklin, Connecticut; Dr. Kufus Wood- 
ward of Worcester, Massachusetts ; Professor Heinrich 
Fischer of Freiburg, Germany ; Honorable Peter Child 
Bacon of Worcester, Massachusetts ; Mr. Henry Stevens of 
Vermont and London ; Professor Edward Tuckerman of 
Amherst, Massachusetts ; and Senor Gumesindo Mendoza of 
the city of Mexico. 

Ashbel Woodward was born June 26, 1804, in Willing- 
ton, Connecticut. The farm of his father lay principally in 
Ashford, Connecticut, but the family residence at the time 
of Ashbel's birth stood across the line of separation from 
that town, in Willington. He was seventh in descent from 
Bichard Woodward, whose name is on the earliest list of 
proprietors of Watertown, Massachusetts. 

Dr. Woodward graduated from the Medical Department 
of Bowdoin College in May, 1829, and settled two months 
later in Franklin, Connecticut, as a physician. Here he 
continued to reside until his death, December 20, 1885, in 

1886.] Report of the Council. 67 

the eighty-second year of his life. Dr. Woodward became 
a prominent man in his profession, and was also known to 
have exceptional acquirements as a genealogist, antiquary, 
and inquirer and writer in the field of local history and 
biography. He was President of the Connecticut Medical 
Society for the years 1858 to 1861, and the annual addresses 
delivered by him while he held this position attracted much 
attention at the time. From its foundation he was an 
active and deeply interested member of the American Medi- 
cal Association, and was an honorary member of several 
state medical societies. He wrote many papers on subjects 
which interested him professionally. During the early 
days of the civil war he was appointed a member of the 
board organized in Connecticut for the examination of 
candidates for the position of surgeon in the volunteer regi- 
ments of that state. He supported the Union cause with 
that ardor which characterized him in all his convictions 
and undertakings, and, although nearly sixty years of age 
at the time, went to the front in our armies as surgeon of 
the 26th Connecticut regiment. Here he shared in the 
siege and capture of Port Hudson. As a physician, writes 
his son, Mr. P. H. Woodward, "he was noted for quick- 
ness and accuracy of perception" and "was especially 
successful in desperate cases." 

Although a very busy practitioner Dr. Woodward found 
time to do much literary work. Besides his medical writ- 
ings he prepared books, articles and papers on other sub- 
jects. He published in 187S a small volume on Wampum, 
a subject to which he had given much attention. This is 
an interesting monograph, and our associate, Mr. William 
B. Weeden, has remarked that he found it a useful reposi- 
tory of facts from which to draw in preparing his paper in 
the Johns Hopkins University Studies on Indian Money as 
a factor in New England Civilization. Dr. Woodward had 
an especial fondness for genealogical investigations, and his 
knowledge of the lineages of old New England families was 

G8 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

extensive and at instant command. He was a frequent 
contributor to the Historical and Genealogical Register, 
In Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, where a list of his 
writings is given , it is stated that he furnished to that 
periodical perhaps forty papers. In an editorial note in 
the Register, Dr. Woodward is spoken of as ''one of the 
most thorough and reliable of our New England antiqua- 
rians." l 

October 14, 1868, Dr. Woodward delivered the histori- 
cal address on the occasion of the one hundred and fiftieth 
anniversary of the organization of the Congregational Church 
of Franklin. This address was afterwards expanded into 
a "History of Franklin." As a member of the committee 
of arrangements he took an active part in the celebration 
of the two hundredth anniversary of the settlement of the 
town of Norwich, Connecticut, which took place the 7th 
and 8th of September, 1859, and for the volume which was 
issued in commemoration of that event furnished a paper 
on the early physicians of Norwich. He wrote a memoir 
of Colonel Thomas Knowlton, who commanded the conti- 
nental troops stationed behind the rail fence at Bunker 
Hill, and who was killed at Harlem Heights, September 
10, 1776. At the request of the family of the deceased, 
Dr. Woodward also prepared a biography of General Lyon, 
who distinguished himself in our civil war. General 
Lyon was a grand-nephew of Colonel Knowlton. Dr., 
Woodward was a collector of rare books, pamphlets, coins, 
Indian relics and autographs, and in accumulating a library 
made a specialty of town and county histories, and of mono- 
graphs on. important events, in early manhood he became 
a member of the Congregational Church of Franklin, and 
always worked earnestly to advance its prosperity. He 
was a devout and unquestioning believer in the teachings of 
Christianity, and has been represented as having been in 
belief, sympathy and character a marked survivor of the 

1 Historical and Genealogical Register for April, 1880. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 69 

Puritans. During his long service as a physician Dr. 
Woodward ministered in sickness to at least six successive 
generations of patients. He left a widow and two sons. 
This notice has been prepared from materials furnished by 
his son, Mr. P. H. Woodward, who has himself written an 
account of his father for the number of the Historical and 
Genealogical Register for April, 1886. Dr. Woodward 
was elected a member of this Society in April, 1864, 


Rufus Woodwatid was born in Wethersfield, Connecti- 
cut, October 3, 1819. He was the second son of Dr. Samuel 
Bayard Woodward, then of that town but afterwards for 
many years the Superintendent of the Asylum for the 
Insane in Worcester, Massachusetts, and grandson of Dr. 
Samuel W. Woodward of Torringford, Connecticut, who is 
said to have been an eminent physician. Mr. Henry B. 
Stanton in a work recently printed, entitled "Random 
Recollections," speaks as follows of the father of Rufus 
Woodward : 

"I boarded for some months in Boston at the United 
States Hotel. Whenever he visited the city, Dr. Samuel 
B. Woodward, principal of the Insane Asylum, Worcester, 
dined at that hotel. As he walked erect and majestic 
through the long room to the head of the table, every 
knife and fork rested, and all eyes centered on him. He 
received similar notice when appearing as an expert witness 
in the courts. The reason was this : young men who saw 
George Washington after he passed middle life traced the 
very close resemblance between him and Dr. Woodward. 
Aware of the cause the doctor was iiattered by these atten- 

When about eleven years of age Rufus Woodward went 
to Boston and entered a store kept by an uncle. Soon, 
however, he removed to Worcester where he attended 
School and prepared himself to enter college. He graduated 
at Harvard College in 1841, and among his classmates were 
Francis Minot, Dr. Edward Hammond Clark, and Thomas 
Wentworth fligginson. He studied medicine in the office 

70 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of our associate, Dr. Joseph Sargent, and at the Harvard 
Medical School, and received the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine in 1845. Dr. Woodward was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society. For several years he acted as 
an assistant to his father in the Asylum for the Insane. 
He spent two years in Europe in professional study and 
returned to Worcester in 1850. From the month of June 
in that year he was a practising physician in that place 
until his death, from heart disease, December 30, 1885. 
Dr. Woodward was City Physician from 1863 to 1866, 
inclusive, and from 1879 to the day of his death. During 
the latter term of office he was ex-offlcio a member of the 
Board of Health, serving as its clerk in 1879, and as its 
chairman from 1881 until he died. He was a member of 
the School Committee from 1869 to 1872 and from 1875 to 
1883. He married in 1855 a daughter of the late William 
B. Fox, and leaves three sons and one daughter. He was 
elected a member of this Society October 21, 1865. Dr. 
Woodward was chairman of the Department of Natural 
History in the Young Men's Library Association in 1855-6. 
The names of the officers of the Library Association at that 
time have a familiar aspect to members of the Antiquarian 
Society. Its President was George F. Hoar; one of its 
Vice-Presidents, William Cross ; its Recording Secretary, 
Nathaniel Paine ; and on the Board of Directors were F. II. 
Dewey, T. W. Higginson and W. A. Smith. E. B. Stod- 
dard acted as a Trustee, and a gentleman then known as 
Reverend T. W. Higginson as Curator of Entomology. It 
should be added that the Department of Natural History 
in the Young Men's Library Association was a particular 
pet of Rev. Edward Everett Hale. As a physician Dr. 
Woodward held an honorable rank among medical practi- 
tioners in Worcester. 

The following tribute to his memory is from the pen of 
Dr. Joseph Sargent, and is a record of remarks made by 

1880.] Bgporf V & OouncB. 71 

bin at i meeting of the Medical fmj - beld 

In Vftmeater, January '2, \W>: — 

"I had knowfj RuftM Woodward longer than any one 
here pr ee enl , and I presoflM It ■ hette. 

be if gone I do no i this a*«en 

of physician-, to :-,[/ea I 

you can jodge him in tin* cap N fl 1 J. It 

t him 04 a friend and a man that J would 

-hip he wtm fast and e* ] 1 be iraa 

oftru-,t. My relation-, iritli bin .. .. 

tender >p then 

year-, of intfsj 

hirn wanting. And a- ,;. man be W*M - /. i 

high principle and renoed ta to. 

manly dignity, he HTM ;.*iee 

which -o ofto-n pomm HtmAofl, I .. 

dleot ever having heai I 
any phy-ioian. And be jud| 
-.peaking ofpeiBone, hut pi . 

hi-, p tofe aaio n a part i lore of 

history, in which . , .. 

Hm life . 

to the happiness of other*. And it 

b eeanec be wa- home. 7 here a/aa never a 

tenderer and more ie took a : 

interest in all that intere-* I hi* child 

iMJ life with them, and E n their am I 

their afnonaa and in the He was no sla< 

money -e. W 

through hi-, 11 h was earneat and ao 

un^elfi.-.h. we do not ae-: Idmg 

cian. hut the good man, genial and lustrous in hi* golden 
atmosphere pf fined 

surrounding."*. J: . f life is to be measured by the 

sum of bappineaa hit life wa* long; and toe leaaon to tu all 
is a good one." 

I invite your attention to the following pleasant letter 
from our neat* done! HiggnmnB, Or. Woodwantfa 

classmate in college, wh I a it 

72 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

reminiscences of his friend and particularly such as relate 
to their college life : — 

Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 28, 1880. 

Dear Mr. Green : 

Thank you for the opportunity of paying 
some tribute to the memory of my classmate, Dr. Rufus 
Woodward. Our acquaintance was for many years frank 
and cordial, though never especially intimate, and 1 have 
many pleasant associations with him. 

His was the very lirst figure that met my eyes when I 
stood waiting on the steps of University Hall, with my 
future Harvard classmates, waiting for the doors of the 
examination-room to be opened. We were looking at each 
other with speculative interest, as possible friends or rivals, 
and my eye fell especially on him. He was then a vigor- 
ous, active boy of fifteen or sixteen, tall and lithe, and with 
an air of rustic out-door activity, which he soon vindicated. 
He became our leader at foot-ball, and as we had the 
unusual glory of vanquishing the Sophomores in one of the 
trial games that were then practised, he was at once a class 
favorite, and had the honor of figuring as "Ajax" in a 
burlesque poem on that event in the Ilarvardiana of that 
day. Alas, it was his chief college laurel. 

He was one of the sort of young men for whom the 
college now provides opportunities and honors, but who 
were^ then practically excluded from both. All his tastes 
were for observation and natural science ; he would have 
plunged eagerly into an "elective" on any subject in that 
direction, as he did into the work of our Natural History 
Society, and afterwards into a volunteer class in ento- 
mology with Dr. Harris. He was envied among the 
youthful Cambridge botanists as the only person who had 
found the Corallorhiza verna within the limits of Cam- 
bridge or even near Boston. There was no doubt of the 
specimen, and the locality was on Observatory Hill, not far 
from where my own house now stands ; but neither Wood-- 
ward himself nor anybody else could ever find it again. 
He belonged also to the Davy Club, a chemical association ; 
and to the Hasty Pudding Club, then in its youth. Of this 
last he was, I think, librarian, having thus the privilege of 

1886.] Report of the Council. 73 

a Holworthy room to himself; he had previously been the 
room-mate of another Worcester boy, Benjamin Heywood. 
* * * * * He took no college rank, 

but if his lot had fallen on these days, he might have taken 
highest honors in two or three scientific courses. 

That he should study medicine was a foregone conclusion ; 
and it was to me a curious coincidence that he and I should 
be brought together again, after I came to live in Worces- 
ter, by being joint founders of a Natural History Society. 
Of this — which was, it must be remembered, a sort of off- 
shoot of the American Antiquarian Society — he was one of 
the first Presidents, perhaps the first, and at any rate a con- 
stant friend. Without having what would now be thought 
profound attainments in any department of Natural History, 
he had that eager, alert, out-door activity which is more 
stimulative than any mere knowledge ; and I can remember 
that on the one or two occasions when he prepared sys- 
tematic lectures for the society, I was so much impressed 
with his power of clear statement as to feel regret that he 
was not occupying a professor's chair. He always met 
his classmates with the same joyous face ; was always full 
of college associations and memories, and had more class- 
feeling than perhaps anybody else among us. There would 
hardly seem any use in having a class-meeting without 
Woodward; in him seemed to live immortal the spirit of 
our youth. 

Very truly yours, 

-„ Tnos. Wkntwoutii Higginson. 

It cannot fail to be noticed that the cheery spirit which 
Colonel Higginson says belonged to Dr. Woodward when 
in college eluns; to him throughout his whole life. It was 
always pleasant to meet him at the semi-annual gatherings 
of the members of this Society. He was a busy man ordi- 
narily, and so enjoyed a holiday. When we have seen 
him at our meetings he has seemed like a hard-working 
school-boy let out of school for a day's vacation ; to have 
forgotten care and sfiven himself up for a few hours to the 
full enjoyment of a well earned brief period of leisure. 

74 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Heinrich Fischer. During the month of February last 
the Librarian of this Society received the following printed 
letter : — 

i i 

P. P. 

Gestern Abend 7 Uhr verschicd nach lunge m schwerem 
Leiden unser gelicbter Onkel 

Geh. Hofrat Dr. Heinrich Fischer Professor der Mineral- 
ogie und Geologie an der Universitat in Freiburg im b'8. 

Um stille Theilnahme bittet 

Im Namen der trauernden Hinterbliebenen 

Max Fischer, Kapellmeister. 

Freiburg in Baden, den 2. Februar 1886." 

Professor Fischer was born in Freiburg (Baden), Decem- 
ber 19, 1817. His studies were pursued at the University 
in his native place from which he graduated in the depart- 
ment of medicine. He made the study of mineralogy a 
specialty, and in 1854 was chosen Professor of Mineralogy 
and Geology in the University of Freiburg, retaining this 
position until he died. His most important contributions 
to knowledge were in the line of microscopical mineralogy 
and in that of the varieties of minerals which may be classed 
under the names of Jade and Nephrite. In his investiga- 
tions respecting the composition of those minerals and the 
place whence implements made from them came, he consid- 
ered the subject from the points of view both of the miner- 
alogist and the archaeologist. Dr. Fischer's most elaborate 
and valuable literary production is a work which was pub- 
lished at Stuttgard in 1875. It is a profusely illustrated 
volume of 407 pages, entitled, Nephrit und Jadeit, and 
treats of the mineralogical qualities of those minerals and 
of their prehistoric and ethnographic significance. 

For an account of many of the opinions of Professor 
Fischer concerning articles made out of those minerals, 
reference is made to the very interesting article of our 

1886.] Report of the Council. 75 

associate, Dr. Philipp J. J. Valentini, in the number of the 
Proceedings of this Society for April, 1881, on Two Mexi- 
can Chalchihuites, The Humboldt Celt and The Ley den Plate. 

It has been stated by Dr. Valentini that Professor Fischer 
wrote more than one hundred articles on Jade. As mem- 
bers of this Society well know, he held that all celts, etc., 
made of Nephrite, Jade or Chloromelanite, and that all 
specimens of the minerals themselves, whether found in 
Europe or America, came from Asia, and were brought to 
those parts of the world by peoples migrating to them. 
This position has been stoutly contested by some European 
writers who have contended in opposition to Dr. Fischer 
that there are implements made of those minerals which 
were not of foreign origin. The theory of Professor Fischer 
has been passionately impugned and is still warmly con- 
tested, it is stated, by Dr. A. B. Mayer, of Dresden, 
who holds that minerals of the kind spoken of were 
obtained in the European Alps. Dr. Fischer contributed 
a valuable paper on The Stone Implements of Asia to the 
Proceedings of this Society of April, 1884. 

The following: titles of works of Professor Fischer con- 
tributed by him to our library may interest some members 
of the Society. They have been furnished by Mr. Reuben 
Colton, our associate and Assistant-Librarian : 

Ueber Mexicanische Steintiguren. Freiburg, 1883. 

Nephritfrage und submarginale Durchbohrung von Stein- 
gerathen. % 

Ueber den Stand der Kentnisse von der Priihistorie Per- 

Ueber die Nephrit Industrie der Maoris in Neusceland. 

Peter Child Bacon was born in Dudley, Massachusetts, 
November 11, 1804. He was the son of Jephthah Bacon 
of* that place and of Joanna (Child) Bacon, who came from 
Woodstock, Connecticut. Fitted for college at the acade- 
my which bears the name of his nutive town, he graduated 

76 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

at Brown University in 1827, in the same class with 
Governor John H. Clifford, Rev. Dr. Elam Smalley (form- 
erly pastor of the Union Church in Worcester, afterwards 
and until his death Mr. Bacon's place of worship, and 
father of Mr. George W. Smalley, the European editor of 
the New York Tribune), and Honorable Charles Thurber. 
Mr. Bacon received the degree of LL.D. from his alma 
mater in the year 1857. He studied law at the New Haven 
Law School and in the offices of our late associates John 
Davis and Charles Allen of Worcester, and Ira M. Barton, 
then a resident of Oxford, and of George A. Tufts of 
Dudley. Admitted to the bar in Worcester in September, 
1830, he began to practice his profession in Dudley, but 
soon removed to Oxford, in which place he spent twelve 
years, and then, January 1, 1844, went to Worcester, 
where he remained in constant practice until the very day 
that he was stricken with the attack of paralysis, which 
ended his life four days afterwards, February 7, 1886. 
Thus Mr. Bacon had fifty-six years of active, continuous 
practice in the courts of the county of Worcester and State 
of Massachusetts. He seemed to have but small liking for 
public or official life, yet filled a few positions that were 
offered to him. He was one of the pioneers of the Free- 
Soil Party, which was formed after the nomination by the 
Whigs of General Zachary Taylor for the office of Presi- 
dent of the United States, and accepted a nomination from 
that organization for the place of Representative in the 
General Court, to which position he was elected for the 
year 1848. He also served the city of Worcester as its 
third Mayor in the years 1851 and 1852. He was Register 
of Bankruptcy for the Worcester Congressional District 
during the whole time that the last National Bankruptcy 
Law was in existence, namely, from 1807 to 1878 ; and for 
six years (1875 to 1881) was a member of the Board of 
Directors of the Free Public Library in Worcester, acting 
as the President of the Board for the last three years of his 

1886.] lleport of the Council. 77 

term of office. Mr. Bacon's partners in the law in Worces- 
ter were at different times our late associate Judge Ira M. 
Barton, our associate William Sumner Barton, our late 
associate Judge Dwight Foster, our associate Judge P. 
Emory Aldrich, Colonel W. S. B. Hopkins and Henry 
Bacon. At the time of his death he was the senior mem- 
ber of the tirm Bacon, Hopkins and Bacon. He left a wife, 
two sons and two daughters. He was chosen a member of 
this Society October 22, 1800. 

Mr. Bacon was a distinguished lawyer, and was devoted 
to his profession. He was a fond student of the law, and 
learned in everything pertaining to it. Profoundly versed 
in the fundamental principles of the common law, and 
familiar with the works of the older law writers, he was at 
the same time thoroughly acquainted with the contents of 
recent decisions, and ever cognizant of changes that were 
being made in statutory enactments. He was a favorite 
teacher. A very large number of young men studied law in 
his oflice, and the interest which he had in professional 
study and his kindness of heart never shone more conspicu- 
ously than in his intercourse with them. He was lavish of 
time in imparting to them the fruits of his study and expe- 
rience, and has always been remembered by them as the 
most affable and painstaking of instructors and friends. 
His contemporaries at the bar, also found him ever ready 
to spend time freely in giving them information taken from 
his full storehouse of legal knowledge. 

Mr. Bacon did hot confine his attention to the law. He 
had the tastes of the general scholar, and was interested in 
a great variety of subjects. He particularly enjoyed poetry 
and works treating of mental philosophy and history, and 
was noticeably drawn towards the solution of philological 
puzzles and to the consideration of the obscurer psychical 
phenomena. Mr. Bacon's mind was strong; it was broad, 
also, lie always retained his connection with the Christian 
denomination which stands as representative of the theologi- 

78 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

cal views which he embraced early in life, hut wag at the 

same time very hospitable in the consideration and recep- 
tion of new teachings in religious philosophy and Biblical 
criticism. It was his habit to with the writer of 
this report about such matters ; and he rememhers (me occa- 
sion when that attractive hesitation showed itself which 
was so marked a characteristic of his mind, and which arose 
from the fulness of his knowledge and from the mental 
habit of looking at a subject from all points of view. He 
used leisure hours for several months in studying the <jucs- 
tion of the authorship of the Fourth Gospel, then leaving 
the consideration of the subject for a time, returned to it 
again and continued the study. A\ nen he had reached con- 
clusions, he was asked what these were, and replied that he 
thought the evidence showed that the Apostle John did not 
write the book, "but," said he, "if fee did not write it who 
was there that could have written it?" 

Mr. Bacon had a very gracious presence. Everybody 
that knew him loved him. Naturally he lived during the 
closing portions of his life in greater retirement than form- 
erly, for, it must be remembered, that he was known by tin; 
well earned title of the Nestor of the Worcester County 
Bar twenty years ago. Those persons who have had the 
privilege of associating with him in his old age will be 
ready to say with one of his friends, that the esteem in 
which he was always held "has greatly deepened aa a 
kindly old age mellowed and brought out harmoniously the 
traits of a singularly loveable character." Mr. Bacon was 
an affectionate man. Nobody could have known him dur- 
ing our civil war without being impressed by his patriotism. 
Three of his sons went to the war; and he watched every 
movement of our armies with intense Interest, and showed 
in his criticisms and remarks the insight of a wise man 
inspired by love of country. Dr. Bacon's old pastor, our 
associate Dr. Cutler, say* that he "loved the esteem of his 
fellow-men, but he loved better to deserve it." He was a 

1886.] Report of the Council. 79 

man of the strictest integrity. He was the soul of honor. 
He was a wise counsellor and a valuable citizen ; his life 
was long, useful and honorable. A passage from the 
twenty-second letter of Pliny the younger, to which atten- 
tion has been called by Mr. Bacon's friend, Mr. John A. 
Dana, justly describes Mr. Bacon, as well as Titus 
Aristo : — 

1 * Mark the fulness of his knowledge re£ardin£ the rights 
of individuals and of the state. Consider his learning, his 
readiness in citing instances and his antiquarian lore. 
There is nothing which anyone would learn that he cannot 
teach. To me he is a storehouse from which I draw informa- 
tion regarding anything that is abstruse. Note his truthful- 
ness in discpurse, the weightiness of his speech, and his 
pregnant and becoming hesitancy. What subject is there 
which he is not ready to expound? Yet he often hesitates 
and is in a doubting state of mind because reasons occur to 
him which would lead to a variety of conclusions. These 
he traces with a keen and strong insight from first princi- 
ples and final causes, sifts thoroughly and weighs carefully. 
Mark, too, his abstemiousness and the modest style in which 
he lives. * * He is distinguished by a soul which is 
always guided by conscientious motives and does nothing 
for elfect, seeking the encomium 'well done' in the con- 
sciousness of uprightness and not in plaudits of the popu- 
lace. Finally among the votaries of wisdom he stands easily 
at the head. He does not frequent the gymnasium nor the 
porches of the Stoics ; * * he engages in public and 
private affairs and often renders assistance as an advocate 
although oftcner as a counsellor. Yet he is equal to the 
best of men in purity, piety, justice and fortitude." 1 

Henry Stevens was descended from Colonel Thomas 
Stevens of Devonshire, England, afterwards of London. 
The youngest son of the latter, Cyprian, January 22, 1071, 
married, in Lancaster, Massachusetts, Mary, daughter of 
Major Simon Willard. Before removing to Lancaster he 
had lived in Chelsea, Massachusetts. Cyprian had a son 
Joseph, who was one of the early settlers of Rutland, 

1 Letters of lMiuy the Younger, Book I., Letter 22. 

80 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Massachusetts, and Joseph had a son Phineas, who was 
taken a prisoner when a hoy, in Rutland, by the Indians 
and carried to Canada. The latter afterwards became an 
early and prominent inhabitant of No. 4 (now Charles- 
town), New Hampshire, where he acquired reputation as a 
military leader. Phineas had a son Enos who was one of 
the proprietors of Barnet, Vermont. Enos was the father 
of Henry Stevens, born in Barnet, who was for many years 
President of the Vermont Historical and Antiquarian 
Society. Henry Stevens had a son Henry, who is the .sub- 
ject of this notice. He was born at Barnet, Vermont, 
August 24, 1819. Later in life he used to plaee after his 
name the initial letters " Gr. M. B." (Green Mountain 
Boy), fn 188(5 he went to an academy at Lyndon; thence 
proceeded to another academy and then spent the time 
between September, 1838, and December, 1839, at Middle- 
bury College. He was a schoolmaster for a time, and for 
a year a clerk in the Treasury Department at Washington. 
Then he spent three years (1841-13) at Yale College, 
where he took the degree of B. A. In 1846 he received 
the degree of M. A. He entered the law school at Cam- 
bridge, September, 1843, and spent a year there. In July, 
1845, at the age of 20 years, he had reached London, where 
he afterwards lived. Soon he became the friend and intimate 
associate of Sir Anthony Panizzi, Thomas Watts, Winter 
Jones and Edward Edwards, members of the stall' of officers 
of the British Museum. In 1852 Mr. Stevens was chosen 
a member of the Society of Antiquaries. He was one of 
the founders of the Library Association of the United 
Kingdom, and one of its prominent members. In 1877 he 
was conspicuous as a member of the committee for arrang- 
ing for the Caxton Exhibition, and prepared the catalogue 
of the Bibles shown there. Mr. Stevens died February 28, 
188(i, at the age of (>(> years, at Vermont, his resi- 
dence in London. He married an English lady who sur- 
vives him, as does a son also, his successor in business. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 81 

Mr. Stevens was a distinguished bibliographer, and 
an authority in respect to the early editions of the Eng- 
lish Bible, and early voyages and travels, especially those 
relating to America. While a clerk in Washington he 
became acquainted with Peter Force, and at that time 
laid the foundation of the remarkable knowledge which he 
had respecting American history and the public documents 
belonging to this country. After leaving the law school at 
Cambridge he spent some time in exploring the rural dis- 
tricts of New England and the Middle States in quest of 
rare books and pamphlets. Mr. Stevens had not been a 
week in London, whither lie had gone with the purpose of 
introducing the bibliographical curiosities of this country to 
English librarians and book lovers, and to buy scarce and 
valuable books, before he had become familiarly acquainted 
with the principal booksellers of that city, and had been 
made to feel at home in the British Museum. A writer in 
the London Time* of March 5, 1886, understood to be Dr. 
Richard Garnett, late Superintendent of the Reading-room in 
the British Museum, and still connected with it in another 
capacity, says that Mr. Panizzi, at that time Keeper of the 
Printed Books in the same institution, speedily recognized 
Mr. Stevens's "qualities, and a connection sprang up which 
proved equally advantageous" to him "and to the Museum. 
To his unwearied enterprise the institution is indebted for 
most of its valuable American books, and extending the 
held of his operations he became a chief agent for purvey- 
ing rare books of every class as well as English pamphlets, 
which he systematically collected on a large scale. He 
further compiled and published a catalogue of all United 
States publications in the Museum to the end of 1856." A 
writer in The Nation of March 11, 1886, states that Mr. 
Stevens in 1884 told "an American visitor that he had 
furnished the Museum Library with 100, 000 books or 
pamphlets." Mr. George Bullen, the present Keeper of 
Printed Bootes in the British Museum, in the AUiemmm of 

82 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

March 6, 1886, claims that the Museum "now contains a 
more extensive library of American hooks than any single 
library in the United States." In process of time Mr. 
Stevens became a recognized agent for providing American 
collectors with the rarer productions of the European press. 
He rendered services of particular value in this respect to 
our former Vice-President, the late James Lenox, founder 
of the Lenox Library, New York, the connection of Mr. 
Stevens with Mr. Lenox having begun the first year the 
former lived in London, and having ended only with the 
death of the latter, in 1880. For his princely patron Mr. 
Stevens purchased, together with a very large number of 
other books, at least £20,000 worth of old Bibles. His 
"Recollections of Mr. James Lenox of New York," just 
announced for immediate publication, will be looked for 
with great interest. 

Mr. Stevens became the owner of a large collection of 
manuscripts, books, etc., relating to Benjamin Franklin, 
which was so much esteemed that the government of the 
United States has recently paid $30,000 to secure posses- 
sion of it. Mr. Stevens was not only, however, a collector 
and seller of books, he was, also, an interesting writer on 
bibliographical and other subjects. He has left a number 
of essays nearly ready for publication, which his fastidious 
love of accuracy had prevented him from issuing during his 
lifetime. Among these, writes Dr. Garnett, "are investi- 
gations respecting Columbus, a subject in which he took 
the deepest interest, and a supplement to Mr. Pagan's Life 
of Panizzi, containing a fund of anecdotes relating to the 
British Museum. It is to be hoped that these and other 
productions of scarcely inferior interest may yet see the 
light." At a" convivial meeting of librarians or antiquaries 
Mr. Stevens was the life and soul of the party. Dr. Gar- 
nett says that he "will be painfully missed by all who 
enjoyed his intimate acquaintance. Esteemed for his knowl- 
edge, ability and shrewd common sense, he was even more 

1886.] Report of the Council 83 

beloved for his frank manliness, his kindly nature and rich 
genial humor." Mr. Stevens was elected a member of this 
Society April 26, 1854. We have had many dealings 
through him with the British Museum. It will be remem- 
bered that one event which rendered the exhibition of the 
Caxton publications memorable, was the production of a 
Bible. Mr. Stevens sent a copy of the edition to our 
library. It bears the following inscription: "Wholly 
printed and bound in twelve hours, | On this 30th day of 
June, 1877, | For the Caxton Celebration. | Only 100 
copies were printed, of which this is | No. 11. | Presented 
to The Hon. Stephen Salisbury | For the American Antiqua- 
rian Society | By the Delegates of the Oxford University 
Press | Through | Henry Stevens, F.S.A. | of Vermont." 
It was printed from minion type, is 16mo in form and is 
bound in full morocco. Mr. Stevens was emphatically a 
lover of books. This is what he says of them : "Books are 
both our luxuries and our daily bread. They have become 
to our lives and happiness prime necessities. They are 
our trusted favorites, our guardians, our confidential 
advisers, and the safe consumers of our leisure. They 
cheer us in poverty and comfort us in the misery of atllu- 
ence. They absorb the effervescence of impetuous youth, 
and while away the tedium of age." Bibliography sus- 
tained a severe loss in the month of February of this year. 
In that month three men died in England who were dis- 
tinguished for their knowledge of books, namely, Henry 
Bradshaw, Edward Edwards and Henry Stevens. 

Edward Tuckerman was born in Boston, December 7, 
1817. He was the eldest child of Edward and Sophia 
(May) Tuckerman. In passing it may be mentioned that 
Professor Tuckerman was a cousin of our late President, 
he having been a nephew of Madam Salisbury, the late Mr. 
Stephen Salisbury's mother, who was a sister of the philan- 
thropist, Rev. Dr. Joseph Tuckerman of Boston. Edward 

84 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Tuckerman prepared for college at Ingraham's School and 
at the Boston Latin School. He entered Union College in 
the Sophomore class and graduated at that institution in 
1837. He entered the Harvard Law School, took there 
the degree of LL.B. in 1839, and remained in the school 
until 1841, between the latter dates taking also a special 
course of study at the Divinity School of Harvard College. 
He then went abroad where he passed several years in 
Germany ; devoting his time Avhile there principally to the 
study of history, philosophy and botany. Returning to 
this country lie joined the Senior class of Harvard College, 
in 1846, having been led to that step by friendship for 
several of its members, and graduated with the class the 
following year. Subsequently he received the degree of 
Master of Arts from both Harvard and Union Colleges, 
and in 1875 the degree of Doctor of Laws from Amherst 
College. His taste for the natural sciences early mani- 
fested itself, and during his course at Union College he was 
made curator of the museums at that institution. His con- 
nection with Amherst College dates from the year 1854. 
Several years previous to that date, not yet accounted for, 
he had spent at Cambridge, in the pursuit of favorite 
studies. Although a continental reputation was won by 
Dr. Tuckerman because of his knowledge of botany, he 
began his career at Amherst College as a lecturer in 
history, which position he occupied during the years 
1854 and 1855, and 1858 — 1873. He was Professor of 
Oriental History, 1855 to 1858. In 1858 Dr. Tuckerman 
was appointed Professor of Botany and remained such 
until his death, although deafness and other troubles had 
for several years compelled him to be a recluse and to 
restrict himself to giving instruction to only a few classes. 

He was married May 17, 1854, to Sarah Eliza Sigourncy, 
daughter of Thomas P. Gushing of Boston, but leaves no 
children." His only surviving brother, Dr. Samuel P. 
Tuckerman, has resided abroad for the last fifteen years 

1880.] Report of the Council, 85 

and has become distinguished for his .musical attainments. 
Henry T. Tuckerman, the essayist, was a cousin of the 
subject of this notice. Professor Tuckerman was always 
an accurate and thorough student. He was at the same 
time a specialist in knowledge and a good general scholar. 
In early life he was a student of conchology, but was at the 
same time well versed in botany, law, theology, philosophy 
and history. It is noticeable, too, that he always kept 
abreast of the literature of the day in history, theology 
and travel, as well as in the specialty of lichens his knowl- 
edge of which had made him celebrated. The linguistic 
acquirements of Dr. Tuckerman are worthy of mention. 
He used rare discrimination, too, in the choice of words. 
He matured early, his literary work beginning when he was 
only fifteen years old. Dr. Tuckerman was elected a mem- 
ber of the American Antiquarian Society April 25, 1855. 

We owe him a debt of gratitude for the admirable work 
which he did for us in editing for the fourth volume of the 
Arclncologia Americana, Josselyn's New England Rarities, 
which he provided with copious notes and a long and valua- 
ble introduction. The Rarities was afterwards (18(15) 
republished by William Veazie of Boston, from our Trans- 
actions. Dr. Tuckerman made for the latter edition a 
revision of his notes and enriched them by a few additions. 
His principal contributions to knowledge were in the 
department of botany, and he was early recognized as an 
authority in the branch of that science which deals with 
lichens. Specimens of those cryptogamous growths were 
sent to him from all parts of the Avorld to be determined 
and named. He was a pioneer in the study of the flora 
of the White Mountains, and contributed to "The White 
Hills" of Thomas Starr King two chapters on the "Scientific 
Explorations and Flora of the Mountains." It will be 
remembered that a ravine in the White Mountains bears 
his name. Dr. Tuckerman was a member of many learned 
societies. He was Socius Academia 1 Caes. Leopoldino- 

86 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Carolina Nature Curiosorum, a member of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, a corresponding member 
of the Royal Society of Sciences at Upsala, The Boston 
Society of Natural History, The Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences, and the Royal Botanical Society of 
Ratisbon and a foreign member of the Botanical Society of 
Edinbunr. He was also a member of the New England 
Historic Genealogical Society. 

A partial list of Dr. Tuckerman's writings may be found 
in Allibone's Dictionary of Authors. It may be mentioned 
that in late years he has published the following works not 
given in that dictionary: Genera Lichenum : an arrange- 
ment of the North American Lichens, Amherst, 1872. 
Catalogue of plants growing without cultivation within 
thirty miles of Amherst College, Amherst, 1875. A 
synopsis of the North American Lichens, Part I., Boston, 
1882. Lichenes from the Botany of the United States 
Exploring expedition under Captain Wilkes, 1874. 

Dr. Tuckerman died at Amherst, Monday, March 15, 

Gumesindo Mendoza. Our Vice-President, Mr. Stephen 
Salisbury, who has just returned home from a visit to 
Mexico, brings intelligence of the death, in the latter part 
of January of this year, of Sefior Gumesindo Mendoza. 

Senor Mendoza was the Director of the National Museum 
in the city of Mexico. No particulars of his life are now 
attainable, but some will undoubtedly be soon forthcoming. 
It would seem likely that a biography of him will appear in 
the next number of the Anales del Museo Nacional de 
Mexico. When materials come to hand a commemorative 
notice will be prepared for our Proceedings. 

Senor Mendoza was chosen a member of this Society 
April 27, 1881. 

The subject which has been selected for the historical 
portion of the Report of the Council is the use of the 

1886.] Report of the Council. 87 

voluntary system in the maintenance of ministers in the 
colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay during the 
earlier years of their existence. 

Both Pilgrims and Puritans supported their ministers by 
voluntary contributions for several years after coming to 
America. They did this, too, largely from principle and 
not merely because it was convenient to do so. No histo- 
rian has brought together the statements of early writers 
and the facts in the history of the two colonies which ailbrd 
the proof of these two propositions. 

In Boston the plan of maintaining ministers by voluntary 
payments was never given up, and has been in use during 
the entire period covered by its history. 1 In most other 
portions of the colony of Massachusetts Bay the system of 

1 "Thc right to levy tuxes for the support of the miuistry which prevailed in 
country parishes until quite a recent date was never exercised in the town of 
Boston."— History of the First Church in Boston, by Arthur B. Ellis, p. 70, 

"These early laws were made when King's Chapel alone represented the 
Church of England in the province; and as that was in Boston where from the 
beginning the ministers were maintained by a voluntary contribution, no 
injustice was done to its members by Taxation." — Annals of King's Chapel, by 
II. W. Foote, vol. I., p. 140. See, also, Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts 
(1G28 to 1750), third edition, 1795, v. I., p. 376, and Winthrop's History of New 
England, new edition, vol. I., p. 141. 

For accounts of methods in use iu Boston in early times for raising money 
needed in paying the salaries of ministers, see Lechford's Plume Dealing, p. IS 
(Ed. in collections of Mass'tts Hist. Soc., 3d ser., vol. 3, p. 77, Trumbull's ed., 
p. 48) ; Winthrop's Hist, of New England, vol. 1., pp. 144 and 382; An Histori- 
cal Sketch of the First Church in Boston, by ltev. William Emerson, pp. 160-1; 
History of Second Church, by C. Bobbins, p. 11 (note). Compare, also, The 
Way of the Churches of Christ in New England, by J. Cotton, Loudon, 1645, p. 
69; Josselyn's Account of Two Voyages to New England, iu Colls, of Mass'tts 
Hist. Soc, 3d ser., vol. 3, p. 331, and Letters from New England, by John 
Dunton, Ed. of the Prince Society, p. 70. itev. Dr. E. E. Hale was reported in 
the Boston Daily Advertiser of February IS, 1884, as having said in a lecture 
given at about that date (while shaking of the custom once in vogue in Boston, 
of using a portion of the money collected at church on Sunday In rendering 
compensation to ministers), that his own grandfather, a minister in Boston, 
received payments from this source and had money " paid to him every Sun- 
day, in the proper proportion, from the contents of the contribution box of that 
day, so that it came to him iu the very sixpences, shillings and pistarcens which 
the parishioners had put into the box." The minister referred to by Dr. Hale, 

88 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

supporting the clergy m this way was discontinued in a 
few years. At a somewhat later period it was also given 
up in the Plymouth Colony. Some of the residents in both 
colonies refused to aid, of their own accord, in paying the 
salaries of ministers. After a while the majority of the 
inhabitants, both in Massachusetts Bay and in Plymouth, 
concluded to make it obligatory upon all to do so. 

Both colonies from the beginning enforced attendance at 
meeting as persistently as the people of Massachusetts 
to-day adhere to the policy of compelling children to go to 
school. Public religious instruction was regarded as neces- 
sary to the well being of the community. It was thought, 
too, that as everybody had the benelit of the teachings of 
ministers, everybody should help support them, notwith- 
standing some persons might not consider their instructions 
beneticial or might object to help pay their salaries on the 
ground that they did not care for their services. The fol- 
lowing passage from Hutchinson's History reproduces the 

writes that gentleman, is Rev. Oliver Everett, pastor of the New South Church. 
Mr. lOverett became the settled minister of that ehureh in 1782. 

An aet of the Province of Massachusetts Bay passed at the session of the 
General Court begun and held Oct. 12, 1692, provides "that every minister, 
being a person of good eonversation, able, learned and orthodox, that shall be 
chosen by the major part of the inhabitants in any town, at a town meeting 
duly wurned for that purpose (notice thereof being given to the inhabitants 
fifteen days before the time for such meeting), shall be the minister of such 
town; and the whole town shall be obliged to pay towards his settlement and 
maintenance, 'each man his several proportion thereof." Boston was not 
excepted from the operation of this law. But besides the fact that thai town 
had more than one church it had supported its ministers by voluntary contri- 
butions, heretofore. At the session begun Feb. 8, 1(>!)2-.'I, ** upon further con- 
sideration of the said section or paragraph in said act, and the iinpraetieable- 
ness of the method therein proposed for the choice of a minister in divers 
towns wherein there are more churches than one, and inconveuiences attending 
the same not so well before seen," it was amended and in its modilied form 
arrangements were made for tire choice of ministers by the churches with the 
concurrence of the major part of the congregation entitled to vote in town 
affairs and for their sett lenient and maintenance by taxation, and tins provision 
was added to the law, namely, that nothing therein "contained is intended or 
shall be construed to extend to abridge the inhabitants of Boston of their 
accustomed way ami practice as to the choice and maintenance of their 
ministers. " 

1886.] Beporl of the Council, 89 

sentiments of most of the residents of both colonies after 
the earlier method of ministerial support had been set aside 
in favor of taxation. Writing- towards the close of the 
seventeenth century "the late Governor of Plymouth, Mr. 
Hinklcy, complained of this, as one great grievance, that 
not being allowed to make rates frir the support of the min- 
istry the people would sink into barbarism." ' 

In the year 1618, while James the First was King of 
Great Britain, the learned John Selden (who during the 
reign of James's successor, Charles the First, was com- 
mitted to the tower to punish him for the part which he 
took in supporting the remonstrance of the commons against 
the levying of duties known as "tonnage and poundage"), 
was summoned before the High Commission Court to 
answer charges preferred against him for publishing his 
History of Tithes. He was accused of denying in that 
work that tithes are founded in divine ri^rht, and although 
he did not make such a denial in direct terms, it seems 
probable that he arranged the materials of his history so as 
to lead to a similar conclusion. He did not deny, how- 
ever, the legal right of ministers to enjoy tithes. Still lie 
was condemned, his book was suppressed, and he made to 
apologize for having published the sentiments contained 
in it. 

Four centuries before the time of Selden, in the beginning 
of the thirteenth century, Francis of Assisi organized the 
order of friars which received his name. The members of 
this order were not only forbidden to hold property as 
individuals, the rule with monks in the Catholic church, 
but also as members of a religious corporation. 

John Wyclif, who died just two hundred years before 
Selden was born, maintained strenuously that the condition 
of priests should be that of poverty (without mendicancy, 
however), and vigorously opposed ecclesiastical endow- 
ments bv individuals and subsidies to the church from the 

History of Massachusetts, 3d oil., vol. 1., }>. 315), note. 

90 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

state. WycKf was also ready to adopt to a certain extent 
the voluntary principle in regard to the payment of tithes. 
He would not relieve the people from the support of the 
ministry. He would have them urged to pay tithes, even 
excommunicated if they persistently refused to pay them. 1 
But he would have tithes used very largely for relieving 
the distresses of the poor, and allow out of them only a 
meagre support to priests and have the parishioners with- 
hold even this small compensation after having decided in 
an orderly manner that the priests are unfaithful in respect 
to the discharge of their duties. 2 "Think ye wisely," says 
the great reformer, "ye men that find" (maintain) "priests, 
that ye do this alms for God's love, and help of your souls, 
and help of Christian men and not for pride of the world to 
have them occupied in worldly office and vanity." 3 

The work from which this extract is taken "exhorts the 
laity to support worthy priests, and such only ; admonish- 
ing them, that if they furnish the means of subsistence to 
men of an opposite character, they will be found partakers 
in all the sin, mischief, and punishment attendant on the 
course of unfaithful stewards." 4 

From a passage in The Great Sentence of the Curse 
Expounded it would seem, indeed, that Wyclif sometimes, 
at least, felt that it would be best that tithes should be 
given up altogether rather than that those abuses of their 
products which he saw around him should be tolerated. 
"If," writes he, "tithes were due by God's commandment, 
then everywhere in Christendom would be one mode ol 
tithing, but it is not so. Would God that all wise and true 

1 Always, however, " on the condition that the discipline is exereised for the 
good of the sinner and not for the greed of the priest," writes F. D. Matthew 
in his introduction to the English works of Wyclif, hitherto imprinted, pub- 
lished by the Early English Text Society, p. XXXVIII. or p. XXXIX. 

-abid.. p. XXXVlir. or p. XXX IX. 

ai)e Stipendiis Ministroriun. tracts and Treatises of John l)e Wy clitic, 
D.D. Edited for the Wyclill'e Society by Robert Vaughan, D.D., p. 43. 

4 Analysis of WyelihVs De Stipendiis Miuistrorum iu Tracts and Treatises, 
etc., just referred to, p. 43. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 91 

men would inquire whether it were not better for to find 
good priests by free alms of the people, and in a reasonable 
and poor livelihood, to teach the gospel in word and deed 
as did Christ and his apostles, than thus to pay tithes to a 
worldly priest, ignorant and negligent, as men are now 
constrained to do by bulls and new ordinances of priests." [ 

Honorable Arthur Elliot states in his recent volume 
entitled "The State and the Church," that the provision by 
tithes for the support of religion is of no very early institu- 
tion in Christian countries and that it does not appear to 
have been known before the end of the fourth century. 2 

He differs from Dr. Morgan Cove, Prebendary of Here- 
ford, who suggests in his Essay on the Revenues of the 
Church of England, written in 1816, that the institution of 
tithes must have been contained "in some unrecorded 
revelation made to Adam and by him and his descendants 
delivered down to posterity." 3 

The plan of supporting ministers by giving them the 
right to take tithes, after a time became general throughout 
Christendom. 4 

The payment of tithes was ordered in England "by 
ecclesiastical councils at the end of the eighth century ; and 
on the Continent of Europe at about the same time, was 
prescribed by an ordinance of Charlemagne." 3 

Tithes have never been abolished in England, but by the 
Tithe Commutation Act passed in 1836, they were generally 
changed into semi-annual money payments. 

During the few years which preceded the appearance of 
Seidell's great work considerable interest seems to have 
been manifested in England in discussing the grounds on 
which the institution of tithes rests, and in that period 
several treatises were put forth to prove that it is founded 
in divine right. Jeremiah Stephens, in a preface to the 

1 Analysis of Wyelifl'e's De Stipendiis Ministrorum, Chapter XVII. Quoted 
in Tracts and Treatises, ete., p. 40. 
a Page 85. » Elliot, p. 80. 4 Page 85. 5 p^ e 86. 

02 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

work of Sir Henry Spehnan, in which the maintenance of 
tithes is earnestly advocated, published in 1G4G, states that 
that work was prepared a long time before that date. 
Spelman's smaller work on tithes, which is attached to his 
De non temerandis ecclesiis, was printed in 1613. Tithes 
were collected as usual during the existence of the Com- 
monwealth, both under Presbyterian rule and when Inde- 
pendency was in the ascendant. 

The long parliament, indeed, in 1649 voted that tithes 
should be taken away as soon as another maintenance for 
the clergy could be agreed upon, and this action led to 
petitions praying that this affair might be brought to an 
issue. 1 The plan of exacting tithes was still continued, 
however. The clergy became alarmed by the action of the 
little parliament (Barebone's), 1653, because they "saw 
their wealth menaced by the establishment of civil marriage 
and by proposals to substitute the free contributions of 
congregations for the payment of tithes." 2 There was a 
decision against tithes in that body, but immediately after 
it was reached the parliament passed out of existence and 
the old method of supporting ministers remained. 3 

The constitution of 1657 maintained an established clergy 
in the enjoyment of tithes or other settled stipends. 4 Crom- 
well, himself, favored the maintenance of ministers by the 
imposition of tithes. Tithes, however, found a staunch 
opponent in John Milton. In his Defensio Secunda, which 
was published in 1654, he says that persecution in the 
church "will never cease, so long as men are bribed to 
preach the gospel by a mercenary salary, which is forcibly 
extorted, rather than gratuitously bestowed, which serves 
only to poison religion and to strangle truth." 5 The paro- 

i History of the Puritans, by Daniel Neale, new edition by Joshua Toiilniiu, 
pub. by Charles Ewer, Boston, and E. W. Allen, Newbury port, 1S47, vol. IV., 
p. SO. Harper & Bros., 1841. 

-J A Short History of the English People, by J. It. Green, Harper & Bio.-.. 
1880, p. 500. ;{ Page 507. A Milton, by Mark Patterson, p. 119. 

5 Prose works of John Milton, Uohn's edition, 181b, p. 2 ( J.'J. 

1886.] Bepori of the Council. 

chial clergy, he saw-, -are stuffed with tithes in a way 
disapproved by the rest of the nfcumul churches : aud 
they have so little trust in God, that they choose to extort 
a maintenance, rather by judicial force, and magisterial 
authority, than to uw c it to divine providence, or the grati- 
tude and l^enevolence of their congregations."* 1 In his 
Considerations touching the likeliest means to ren. 
hirelings out of the.chureh. etc., published in 1" 
Milton writes "So that when all is done, and lielly hath 
1 in vain ail her cunning shifty I doubt not hut all true 
ministers, considering the demonstration of what hath l*ccu 
here proved, will be prise, and think it much more tolerable 
to hear, that no maintenance of minister^, .vhether tithes or 
any other, can be settled by statute, but inibt l»e given by 
them who receive instruction : and freely given as God 
hath ordained. And, indeed, what can be a more honora- 
ble maintenance to them than such, whether alms or willing 
oblation?, as these ; which I>eing accounted i»oth alik I 
given to God, the only acceptable sacririces now remaining, 
must needs represent him who i = them much in the 

care of God, and nearly related to him, when not by 
worldly force aid constraint, but with religious awe and 
reverence, what is given to G«»d, is given to him ; and 
what to him, accounted as given to God.*** "Noting 
says Mark Patterson, "was more abhorrent to Mill - 
sentiment than state payment in religious things. The 
miuister who recedes such pay l>ecoim- ~ .siouer. 

a hireling. The law of tithes m .. Jewish law, repea l ed 
by the Gospel, under which the minister is only main- 
tained by the free will offerings of ; .legation tu 
which he minister-. lata antipathy to hired preach I 
one of Milton's earlie-t convictions. It thrusts itself, 
rather importunately, into L; I 3S), and reapp n 
in the Sonnet to Cromwell (Sonnet XVI.. 165:?). before it 

i Prose work* of John Millou, Bohn > edition, lsi^. p.Z& 
si'ntec works of John lliitun. vol. 111., p. **. 

94 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

is dogmatically expounded in the pamphlet Considerations 
touching means to remove Hirelings out of the Church 
(1659). Of the two corruptions of the church by the 
secular power, one by force, the other by pay, Milton 
regards the last as the most dangerous. Under force, 
though no thanks to the forcers, true religion of times best 
tlfrives and llourishes; but the corruption of teachers, most 
commonly the effect of hire, is the very bane of truth in 
them who are so corrupted." 1 

Let us now return to the years when James the First 
was king, and consider the utterances and proceedings of 
the contemporaries of our Pilgrim fathers who agreed with 
them in matters of faith and church polity. On the 
occasion of the accession of James to the throne of England, 
which occurrence took place March 24, 1 002-3, a the exiles 
in the Separatist church at Amsterdam presented to the 
king a memorial in which they asked to be suffered to live 
in peace in their native land without being urged to "the 
vse or approbation of any remnants of poperie & humane 
traditions." 3 Failing to obtain the privileges asked for 
they submitted, writes Dr. Dexter, "a supplementary peti- 
tion, noting : The Heads of differences between them and 
the Church of England, as they understood iV." 4 Under 
the seventh head they asserted as their belief "That the 
due maintenance of the Officers aforesaid" (pastors, teach- 
ers, elders, deacons and helpers), "should be of the free 
and voluntary contribution of the Church, that according to 
Christ's Ordinance, they which preach the Gospel 1 may live 
of the Gospell : and not by Popish Lordships and Livings, 
or Jewish Tithes and Offerings. And that therefore the 
Lands and other like revenewes of the Prelats and Clergie 
yet remayning (being still also baits to allure the Jesuites 

1 Milton, by Mark Patterson, pp. 119, 120. 

2 According as old or new style is employed in designating the year. 
:i Apologie, ete. (to be referred to hereafter), p. .'54. 

* Congregationalism of the last three hundred years as seen in its literature, 
ete., by Henry M. Dexter, p. 30G. 

1886.] ' Report of the Council. <J5 

and Seminaries into the Land, and incitements vnto them 
to plott and prosecute their wonted evil courses, in hope to 
enjoy them in tyme to come) may now by your Highness 
be taken away, and converted to better vse as those of the 
Abbeys and Nunneries have been heertofore by your maies- 
tycs worthie predecessors to the honor of God and to great 
good of the Real me." l A third and still more elaborate 
supplication followed. To none of the petitions did the 
king respond favorably, and "the k Vice-Chancelour, the 
Doctors, both the Proctors, and other the Heads of Houses 
in the Vniversitye of Oxford,'" says Dr. |)exter, a "pub- 
lished a quarto of forty-four pages, 3 principally directed 
against a 'Humble Petition' presented by 'Ministers of the 
Church of England desiring Reformation of certaine Cere- 
monies & abuses of the Church,' but in which they turned 
aside to attack these other petitioners, stigmatizing them as 
'absurd Brownists,' 4 having a ' selfe conceited confidence,' 5 
and holding ' pestilent and blasphemous conclusions.' 6 
This led in 1604 to the issue of An Apologie or Defence of 
sveh Trve Christians as are commonlie (but vniustly) called 
Brownists, etc., 7 in which the exiles published their three 

1 Congregationalism in the lust three hundred years, etc., pp. 307, 303. 

2 Congregationalism, etc., p. 3()9. 

a The Auswere of the Vice-Clnincelour, the Doctors, etc., of the Vniversity of 
Oxford, etc., to the Humble Petition, etc., Oxford, 1003, 4to, pp. XII., 32. 

4 Answere, etc., II. <> Ibid. « Ibid., 12. 

7 [¥. Johnson and II. Ainsworth.]— An Apologie or Defence of Svcu Trve 
Christians as are commoulv (but vniustly) called Brownists : against such 
imputations as are layd vpon them by the Heads and Doctors of the Vniversity 
of Oxford, in their Answer to the humble Petition of the Ministers of the 
Church of England, desiring reformation of certayne Ceremonies and abuses of 
the Church, IG04, 4°, pp. XVI., US. This work is No. 204 in Collections towards 
a Bibliography of Congregationalism, an Appendix to Dcxter's Congregational- 
ism, &ts. Copies of it are very scarce. In this country one may be found in 
our own library and others in the Prince Library and in the library of Harvard 
College. Dr. Dexter also owns a copy of it, as does Mr. Charles Deane. The 
extracts which I shall give from the work were kindly made for me by Dr. 
Dexter from his copy by his own hand. The extracts to follow from A ins- 
worth's Covnterpoyson and from J. Smyth's l'aralleles, Ceusvres, Observations, 
etc., were also made for me in the same kind manner, by Dr. Dexter, from copies 
in his possession. I do not know that there is another copy in this country of 
the latter work besides the one here used. No other is mentioned as owned in 

96 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

petitions, and replied at length to the attack of the Oxford 

In the reply several of the positions maintained, by the 
Amsterdam Separatists are stated with fulness. The 
seventh of these opens with the paragraph recited above as 
the seventh head in the Heads of difference, &c, contained 
in the supplementary petition presented to King James. 
Then follow a number of references to passages in the 
Bible and an account of the reasons which induced the 
writers of the Apologie to declare the voluntary system to 
be the correct. method for use in maintaining ministers. 
A copy of the references to Scripture and of the reasons 
is given in a note. 1 

America in the Collections, etc., mentioned above, in which Smyth's work is 
numbered 352. A ins worth's Covnterpoyson is No. 338 in the same list. A 
copy of this rare book may be found in the Prince Library. The extract to be 
given in tin's essay has been made, as stated before, from a copy belonging to 
JDr. Dexter, of later date, however (1042), than the original edition (100<s). A 
copy of the later edition, dated 1012, may be seen in the Congregational 
Library, Boston. 

il Cor. 9. 7-14. Gal. 0. 0. 1 Thess. 5. 13. 1 Tim. 5. 17.18. compared with 
Prov. 3. 9. 10. and with Num. IS. 8-32. Deut. 18. 1-5. and 25. 4. 2 Chron. 
31. 4-21. Nehem. 13. 10-14. Mai. 3. 8, 0, 10. Jfeb. 7. 5, 12. Luke S. 3. and 

10. 7. itorn. 15. 27. liev. 17. Hi. 

1. Because Christ hath ordeyned, that so it should be now in the tyme of 
the Gospell. 1 Cor. 9. 14. Gal. 6. 0. 1 Thess. 5. 13. 1 Tim. 5. 17. 18. 

2. Because the Law of Tithes did cease with the chaunge of the Leviticall 
Priesthood, lleb. 7. 12. and els why did Christ ordeyne another maintenance 
for theMinistery of the Gospell, diltering from (yet proportionable vnto) that 
which was for the Priesthood vnder the Law/' 1 Cor. 9. 13, 14. Or why 
should this cercmonie of the Law, be vnabolished by Christ, more than the 
rest? Num. 18. 24. with Heb. 7. 5, 12, and 0. 10. and 10. 1. Gal. 5. 1.2.3. 
Col. 2. 8-17. 

3. Because God, vnder the Law, would not have his Ministers the Priests 
and Levites to have any part or inheritance, as the other Israelites had, in the 
Land of Canaan; but himself was their inheritance. Of & by the offerings & 
altar of the Lord they were susteyned. Deut. 10. 8,0. & 18. 1-6; [oak. 13. 

11. 33. According to the equity whereof, is the maintenance of the Ministerie 
of Christ now to be. 1 Cor. 9. 13. 14. Where note also, that as the Ministers 
of the Gospell ought, in respect of their Ministerie, to have their due mainten- 
ance appointed by Christ (that they may, as the other before, be encouraged in 
the Law of the Lord, and better attend to their function and Ministerie:) so 
may they not for it now, any more than at that tyme, devise or require any 

1886.] Report of the Council. 97 

Rev. Richard Bernard, a clergyman of the Puritan branch 
of the Church of England, published in 1G08 a work- 
entitled "Christian Advertisements and Counsels of Peace. 
Also Disswasions from the Separatists Schisme, commonly 
called Brownisme, &c." This book created a sensation 
among the Separatists and was replied to by the Teacher 
of the "Ancient Church" at Amsterdam, Henry Ainsworth, 
and by John Smyth, who at first was connected with the 
same church but in about the year 1607 seceded from it 
with a number of followers and funned a second church. 1 

Bernard stated it to be a position of the Separatists 
" That ministers should oneb/ Hue of voluntarie contribu- 

other than is ordeyned by the Lord himself. For which, see the Scriptures 
alledged before in the Position itself. 

4. Because Princes arc bound not onely to see the true Ministerie and wor- 
ship of (Jod established and mainteyned, according to his irord : but also to take 
away and convert toother vse, the demesnes revenewes and maintenance of any 
false Miuisteries and vulawfull ecclesiasticall functions within their Dominions. 
2 Chro. 31. chap, with Deut. 17. 18, 19, 20. Esa. 49. 23. and GO. 3. 10. 11. 12. 
Psal. 2. 10. 11. 12. 1 Tim. 2. 2. with Beve. 17. 16. 

5. Because there should els still rcmaine such a maner of maintenance, as 
by which any Ministerie that should be received in the Land, though never so 
Popish or vulawfull, might be mainteyned. Contrarie to Prov. 3. 9. 10. Kev. 
17. lti. and IS. 11. Psalm. 10. 3. 4. with Exod. 20: 4. 5. 0. 1 Cor. 9. 14. and 10. 
19. 20. 21. 22. Ephes. 5. 11. 

0. Because there is no more warrant in the word of God for the Lordships 
ami Livings of the Prelates and Priests to be continued, then for the Abbey 
Lands of the Fryers and Nunnes to be restored. 

7. Because by the ordinance of Christ, it should still be seen, that the Main- 
tenance of the Ministers belonged* vnto them for preaching the Gospeli, and 
coinmcth from the people of love and dutie in that behalf. 1 Cor. 9. 14. 1 
Thess. .'). 13. Gal.G. G. 1 Tim. 5. 17. IS. Whereas that which is now had in 
the Land is such, as the Prelates and Priestes do exact (and the people are 
cot^treyned to yeeld it vnto them) be they never so vugodly, vnlearned, «&c. 
Besides that the lesuites it Seminaries, and other the like, are by this meanes 
Stirred vp to attempt and follow still their wicked and treasonable practises, 
hoping for a day when their llcligiou may in the full thereof euioy ihem againe : 
As is before noted in the Position it self. 

'This second church, says Dr. Dexter, was founded on "substantially the 
same basis of general faith, but with many differences of what we nbould think 
minor details." Early in 1000 Smyth was cast out of the second church with 
about forty followers, who sympathized with him on account of changed 
views, and appears to have remained the pa-dor of his little excorarauuicated 
company until bis death in 1012. See II. M. Dexter's Congregationalism, etc., 
p. 313. 

98 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

(ion, and not either of set stipends or tithes " and replied to 
it by saying "Thin is against the wisedom ot God, irbo 
allowed a setled maintenance vnder the Law : and there i 
nothing against it in the Gospell." 1 
Ainsworth's answer to Bernard on this point is as follows : 
"Ans. God in wisdome appoynted tithes, first fruiles, 
another partienlars for his Priests linelihod Oder the law: 
Christ in wisdom appoynteth noe Mich for bis ministers 

under the gospel! ; but Pope Poschalis about 827 y< 
after Christ 3 decreed that tithes should he giaett to the 

priests. This Popes wisdome Mr. Ber, preferretfa before 

Clirists. It cannot be deneyed but tithes were a part of 
the Law, and that Christ abolished the legal Priesthooii ; 
whervpon it followetli by the playn doctrine of the Gospel, 
if the priesthood be changed, then <>) necessity must there be 
a change of the lav:. Heb. 7. 12. Bttt Mr. Jiem. had 
rather any shadow should be done away than this of 'Tithes, 
for it hath much substance with it: and there bemde siluer- 
smithes of Demetrius minde which sayd, J Sirs ye know, 
tlial by this craft we haue oar goods* Bat what tayth one 
of their own ancient Martyrs against Mr. Bernards prede 
sors : 4 'litis Priesthood is blown so high and borne > p in and vague glory of their estate and dignity, and so 
blinded with worldly covetousnes that they disdayne to follow 
Christ in very meeknes and uxilfuU pouerty, lining hoiily, 
end preaching Gods word truely freely and continually, 
taking their liuelihood at thefrtewil of the People; of their 
pure atmose, wher and when they suffice not for th.eir true 
and busy preaching to (jet their sustenance with their hand . 
Tc this true sentence grounded on Christs sum lining, "./'.'/ 
Leaching of his Apostle*-, these forenayd worlsUyamd fleshly 

1 Christian AdvertivMiifmU an>J UoOtoelfl of Peaee. Al-o dfafiraafotM from 

Hie Bepara t i tti Sehlmas, commonly «.ftllf:<l Brovvnhim:, which la *:t apart from 
huch truth* ai tln:y take from \-.. ami HhW Jl' formcJ Clmi it 

Bernard, I6SS, p. 150. Ber< Dr. Dexter bat a copy of thh work. 
- 7". JO, ch. I.'iA pop ! JO: IS, 

* AcU awl monvwunlt, WUXL ThtHr. im kit imtwmi ml 

1886.] Report of the Council. 99 

priests, will not consent effectually, <£c. If this martyr 
were now aliue, the Clergie of England would sooner con- 
demn him for a Brown 1st than approue of his doctrine; 
albeit now that he is dead, they garnish his toomb." 1 
John Smyth replied to Bernard as follows : 
"Ans. We reject it, for we hold it lawful for the Elders 
of the Church to receave weekly, monthly, or yeerely a 
pencion of the Church for their labors, al that we teach con- 
cerning the mayntenance of the ministcrie is this. 

1. That it is vnlawful for the Elders of the Church to 
challendg at the hands of them that are infidels & vnbe- 
licvers, tithes & offerings as you do. 

2. Wee hold that tithes are either Jewish or popish, 

3. That the officers of the visible Church may receave 
any gift of any Freud that is without, & live of it. 

4. That the officers of the Church in the necessity of 
the Church ought to work for their living, as Paul made 

5. That the officers of the Church may challendg mayn- 
tenance of the Church, if the Church be able to yeeld it. 

6. That also the poore of the Church may require mayn- 
tenance vppon the same grounds for we are al members one 
of another, & have al things common in vse, though not in 
possession : al these particulars are plaine by these Script- 
ures, Heb. 7. 12. & 9. 9. Act. 2. 44. 45. 1 Cor. 9. 1- 
15. Gal. 6. 6 & 4. 9. 10. Col. 2. 16. 17. 20. 21. 

This is the substance of that wee hold herein and there- 
fore Mr. Bern, you do vs open wrong in this point also. 

Paralleles, Censures, Observations, aperteyninrj (o the 
sixteenth Section . 

" Mr. Bern. pag. 156. of the Sep. Schismc avoucheth that 
to deny tithes, & a set mayntenance to Ministers is contrary 
to the Lords wisdom, who vnder the law appointeth tithes 
a set maintenace, & ther is nothing against it in the gospel : 

i Covnterpoyson, etc., by II. Ainsworth, originally published in 1608. Tlib 
extract as stated before is from the edition of 1042, p. 116. 

100 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

I answer with the Apostle, the old Testament (I doe not 
mcane the writings of the Law, the Prophets, & the 
Psalmcs) and the ordinances thereof are abolished: The 
bond woeman and her Children are east out, Gallat. 4. 30. 
and if ther bee a chandg of the Preisthood ther must needcs 
bee a chandg of the law, Heb. 7. 12. Wherefore seing 
set stipends by tithes were a part of these worldly ordi- 
nances of the old Testament, of those impotent & beggarly 
rudiments, of that yoke of bondage whence Christ has set 
vs free : it folio weth that set mayntenance by tythes is 
abolished by Christ: & as the liberty of the gospel is to be 
carefully preserved in other things, as in that of circumcis- 
ion, of the pasover, of the preisthood, of the Sacrifices and 
the rest, So must it bee carefully preserved even in this 
particular of set maintenance by tithes, for if any Mosaicall, 
impotent, beggerly rudiment, or worldly ordinance : if any 
part of the yoke of bondage may be joyned with Christ, 
why not all ? if not all, why may any ? Againe wheras you 
say there is nothing against set mayntenance by tithes in 
the New Testament, I demaund two things: 1. Vhither 
Christ hath not abolished the Mosaical ordinances & brought 
in the New Testament? & whither this be not contrary to 
set maintenance by tithes? 2. Whither wee ought not to 
have som thing for set mayntenance by tithes in the New 
Testament, (if it must be retayned) that wee vppon fayth 
may submit vnto it? Seing that whatsoever is not of 
Fayth is sinne : So that this speach of yours, viz : ther is 
nothing against it in the gospel, is both false, & if it were 
true, yet is insufficient, seing that it is not a good plea to 
say ther is nothing against it, except wee can also say, that 
ther is somthing for it: & thus much for this point." 1 
Bernard answered 2 the arguments contained in the books of 
Ainsworth and Smyth. 

1 Paralleled, Censvres, Observations, &c, by J. Smyth, KJ09, p. 120. 

- IMaine Euidences: the Church of England is Apostolical! ; the Separation 
Sehismaticall, directed against Air. Ainsworth the Separatist, and Air. Smyth 
the Se-b:iptist, etc., KilO. 

1880.] Report of the Council. 101 

Then John Robinson, the pastor of the Pilgrims, joined 
in the controversy and replied to both of Bernard's works, 
in a book published in 1610 and entitled A justification of 
Separation from the Church of England, &c. He says 
"To conclude this point, since tithes and offerings were 
appurtenances unto the priesthood, and that the priesthood 
both of Melchizedec, and Levi are abolished in Christ, as 
the shadow in the substance, and that the Lord hath 
ordained that they which preach the gospel, should live of 
the gospel, we do willingly leave unto you both your 
priestly order, and maintenance, contenting ourselves with 
the peoples voluntary contribution, whether it be less or 
more, as the blessing of God upon our labor, the fruit of 
our ministry, and a declaration of their love and duty. 
Psal. ex. : 4; Heb. vii. : 17 ; viii. ; ix. ; 1 Cor. ix. : 14." l 

Besides the testimony of Henry Ainsworth in favor of 
the system of supporting the ministry by voluntary pay- 
ments, there has come down to us an account of the Sun- 
day services in the "ancient church" at Amsterdam of 
which that learned man was the Teacher, from which we 
find out what was one at least of the means resorted to in 
raising money to pay the salaries of the officers of the 
church. The order of Sabbath services appears in a work 
by Richard Clyfton,- who states that when the other exer- 
cises had been engaged in, a " collection" was " then made 

1 The Works of John Robinson, published by John Snow, .55 Paternoster 
Row, London, .1851, vol. 2, 407. Mr. Robinson refers t lie reader of his book to 
the writings of Ainsworth and Smyth. In the edition of his works (IS51) 
which 1 have used, notes in the portion of the book from which the quotation 
lias been made refer to the specific works of those authors from which extracts 
have just been given, namely, the Covntcrpoyson and Paralleles. Although 
these are undoubtedly the works the perusal of which Robinson recommends, 
there is no reference to them specifically in the original edition of Robinson's 
Justification, &c. (1010), or in the first reprint of the work (10:19). So Rev. 
Dr. Dexter informs tte writer of this report. Mr. Robinson does, however, in 
the original edition of his book refer specifically to position 7 of An Apologie, 

*An Advertisement concerning a Hook lately published by C. Lawnc and 
others, against the English Exiled Church at Amsterdam, etc., by R. Clyfton, 

102 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

as each one was able for the support of the officers, and the 

After the Pilgrims came to Plymouth they were without a 
pastor, present among them, for about ten years. William 
Brewster, their Elder, partially supplied the place of such 
an officer. The writer of this report nowhere finds any 
statement to show that Brewster received compensation for 
bis ministerial services. Perhaps he had no salary. The 
planters who came to Plymouth and certain merchant 
adventurers in England, as is well known, formed a joint 
stock partnership before the Pilgrims came to this country 
which continued according to agreement for seven years. 
The compact 1 entered into by the parties engaged in the 
enterprise contains no stipulation regarding the plans to be 
followed in supporting the ministry of the colony. That 
support appears to have been rendered voluntarily until the 
year 1055. There was a close connection at Plymouth 
between church and state, but in that respect the colonists 
seem to have abstained from the use of force and to have 
adopted the plan in use iiv Amsterdam in conformity with 
the teachings of their revered pastor, John Robinson. 

One method of supporting the gospel which was in vogue 
in Amsterdam seems to have been employed at Plymouth, 
namely, that of taking up a contribution as a part -of the 
Sabbath services. 

If the officers of the church had salaries it seems proba- 
ble that a portion of the money raised in this way was 

<»iven to them as in Amsterdam and in Boston, 

Governor Winthrop and Rev. Mr. Wilson of Boston 
spent a Sunday at Plymouth in the autumn of 1032, and 
the services of the church there on that day are described 
by the former in his journal, under the date of October 25. 
He says that in the afternoon, after several persons had 
spoken, "the deacon, Mr. Fuller, put the congregation in 

1 Bradford's History of Plymouth Phiiitution, Colls, of thfi Mass'tts Htet. Soe., 
4th Scr., vol. III., p. 4"). 

1886.] Report of the Council. 103 

mind of their duty of contribution ; wherepon the Govern- 
our and till the rest went down to the deacon's seat and put 
into the box and then returned." 1 

The tirst constraining law in regard to ministerial support 
enacted in Plymouth Colony, was passed the fifth day of 
June, 1G55. It provided as follows, for occasion when it 
should appear that there was a real "defect" in regard to 
the due maintenance of ministers on the part of "hearers :" 
"the Majestrates shall use all gentle meanes to p. suade 
them to doe theire duty heerin. But if any of them shall 
not heerby bee reclaimed but shall persist through plaine 
obstinacy against an ordinance of God that then it shalbce 
in the power of the Majestrate to use such other meanes 
as may put them upon their duty." 2 

A law was passed June, 1057, which provided "That in 
whatsoever Towneship there is or shalbee an able Godly 
Teaching Minister which is approved by this Government 
that then four men be chosen by the Inhabitants or incase 
of theire neglect chosen by any three or more of the Majes- 
trates to make an equal 1 and just proportion upon the 
estates of the Inhabitants according to their abillities to 
make up such a convenient maintenance for his comfortable 
attendance on his worke as shallbee agreed upon by the 
Church in each township where any is with the concurrrancc 
of the rest of the Inhabitants if it may be had or by the 
Majistrates aforesaid incase of their apparent neglect and 
that destresse, according as in other just cases provided, 
bee made upon such as refuse to pay such theire propor- 
tions which is in justice due. But in case there bee any 
other way whereby any township doe or shall agree that 

i History of New England from 1030 to 1G49, by John Winthrop. Vol.1., 
pp. 109, 110. 

*Tlie compact with the Charter and Laws of the colony of New Plymouth, 
&c, published tinder the .supervision of William Brigliuin, 1836, p. 99. Records 
of the Colony of New Plymouth, edited by David I'ulsifer, p. 64. 

104 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

may effect the end aforesaid this law not to be binding to 
them." 1 

In explanation of the necessity of resorting to compulsory 
support of ministers, Francis Baylies says "A wild spirit 
(engendered perhaps in England,) had gone forth, which 
proclaimed war upon carnal learning, and relied for relig- 
ious instruction upon the miserable crudities of 'gifted 
men,' upon whose minds it was fondly hoped a divine 
influence was operating, which superseded the necessity of 
' book learning,' and that the word of the Lord might 
as well proceed from the lips of such rude, unlettered 
expounders, as from such as had by their midnight lamps 
and painful watches, mastered all the intricacies of the 
primeval languages of the scriptures, and expounded the 
holy writings after a critical investigation of their analogies, 
and a careful comparison of the evidence." 2 

However much this consideration may have iniluenced 
the colonists, it is easy to see that other causes could not 
but have operated to bring about a change in the early 
policy of the Plymouth Colony. Thus the religious enthu- 
siasm of some of the settlers must have subsided. Differ- 
ences must have arisen about the advisability of adopting 
plans proposed from time to time. The penuriousness of 
some men must have shown itself in small contributions. 
Many men who had no real interest in the particular tenets 
of the Pilgrims, but who lived in the colony, would dislike 
to pay a tax for the support of ministers unless obliged to 
do so. 

II must have become evident in the course of lime that 
if it were considered imperative that every body should he 
brought under the direct influence of religious organizations 
which should uphold a specified kind of theology and 

i Records published under supervision of William Briglmni, p. 102. Records 
edited by David Piilsifer, p. 67. 

* An historical memoir of the colony of New Plymouth, by Francis Baylies, 
with some corrections, &c, by Samuel Gi. Drake, vol. I., Part II., pp. 94, Uo. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 105 

church polity it would become necessary to resort to gen- 
eral taxation to pay for their maintenance. Many persons 
would shirk the payment of taxes if the way to do so were 
open to them. Others who paid taxes would complain if 
their neighbors did not pay them. All persons might have 
the benefit to be had from the religious institutions ; all 
should therefore afford them pecuniary support. The fact 
that some of the inhabitants did not value the gospel privi- 
leges that were provided should not be considered since it 
was believed by the majority of voters that the welfare of 
the community depended upon the establishment and main- 
tenance of that kind of religious institutions which had 
hitherto been supported. 

Having considered the plans and motives of residents in 
the Plymouth Colony in which the Separatist traditions of 
Amsterdam and the teachings of Robinson were influential, 
let us now turn to the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 
founders had not been subjected to Separatist influences 
before coming to America, but had sprung from the Puritan 
branch of the Church of England. What practice pre vailed 
among the early settlers of this colony, and what principles 
guided them, in respect to the plans in vogue for rendering 
compensation for the services of ministers. The agree- 
ments 1 made with the first ministers of the first church in 
the colony of Massachusetts' Bay, namely, the one at Salem, 
can easily be had in print. They are dated April 8, 1G29. 
The ministers were Reverends Messrs. Skelton and Higgin- 
son. We have also readily accessible the compact made 
with Rev. Mr. Bright,- February 2, 1628-9, who came 
from Great Britain to America under agreement to serve 
the first body of emigrants, but who did not enter into 
active ministry under that agreement. From these docu- 
ments we learn the amount of the compensation which the 
ministers were to receive, but they give no information 

i Chronicles of the first planters of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, by A. 
Young, pp. 20U-12. - Ibid., p. 207. 

106 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

regarding the plans to be adopted in raising the money, 
etc., needed in paying the salaries. Reverends Messrs. 
Warham and Maverick were chosen in England the minis- 
ters of the company of emigrants who came to Dorchester, 
but nothing appears anywhere to show how the money 
needed for their support was to be obtained. 

At a General Court of the Governor and Company of 
Massachusetts Bay held in London, October 15, 1629, it 
was agreed "That the charge of the ministers now there, 


or that shall hereafter goe to resyde there, as also the 
charge of building convcnyent churches, and all other 
publique works vpon the plantacon, bee in like mann 1 
indifferently borne, the one halfe by the Companyes ioynt 
stock for the said tearme of 7 yeeres, and the other halfe h) 
the planters." 1 The expression "tearme of 7 yeeres" will 
be explained by quoting from the record of the proceedings 
of the same meeting another paragraph, as follows : "That 
the companye's joint stock shall have the trade of beavo' 
and all other ifures in these pts soly, for the tearme of 7 
yeares from this day, for and in consideracon of the charge 
that the joynt stock hath vndergone already, and is yett 
annually to beare, for the advancm 1 of the plantacon."- 

Hutchinson says that no notice was taken in the colony 
of the provision in the order of the General Court that one- 
half of the compensation^ of ministers should be paid out of 
the joint stock. 3 

At another General Court held (February 10, 1029-30), 
before the transfer of the Charter of the Company to this 
country it was propounded that as money was needed that 
could not be conveniently paid out of the joint stock, in the 
"furtherance of the plantacon" "that a comon stock should 
bee raysed from such as beare good atfeccon to the planta- 
con, & the p pagacon therof, and the same to bee employed 
only in defray in 1 of publique charges, as maintenance of 

* Keeords of the Governor and Company of Alass'tts Bay, p. bo. - Ibid. 
8 Hist, of Mass'tts, vol. I., p. 20. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 107 

ministers, transportacon of poore famylyes, building of 
churches & ifortyfycaeons, & all other publique and neces- 
sary occasions of the plantaeon." [ 

After the arrival of the immigrants in this country bring- 
ing with them the charter, the first order passed at the first 
Court of Assistants, holden at Charlestown, August 23, 
1630, provided that houses for Rev. Messrs. Wilson and 
Phillips should be built at the *' publique charge." The 
second order of that court directed that Mr. Phillips should 
have a salary of forty pounds a year or its equivalent, and 
Mr. Wilson twenty pounds ''till his wife come ouer." 
"All this to be att the coiiion charge, those of Mattapan 
and Salem onely exempted." 2 

At a Court of Assistants held in Boston, November 30, 
1630, "It is ordered, that there shalbe 60 £ collected out 
of the se'u'all plantacons folio weing, for the maintenance of 
Mr. Wilson & Mr. Phillips, vzs : out of Boston, 20 £ ; 
Watertown, 20* ; Charlton, 10 £ ; Rokesbury, 6 £ ; Mead- 
ford, 3 £ ; Winnettsemett, IV 3 

Salem and Mattapan (Dorchester) are not included in 
this levy because they had ministers of their own for whose 
support provision had already, presumably, been made. 

Although we thus find the Court of Assistants imposing 
a tax for the support of the ministry under date of Novem- 
ber 30, 1630, we find no evidence that another tax was 
levied to pay the salaries of ministers until 1638, when the 
following law was passed by the General Court, which 
assembled on the sixth of September in that year. 4 

1 Records of the Governor and Company of Mass'tts Bay, p. 68. 

-Ibid. p. 73. a Ibid. p. 82. 

4 Joel Parker does not seem to have appreciated the effort that was made in 
Massachusetts Bay to support ministers by voluntary contributions, after the 
beginning of things here. He says in a lecture before the Lowell Institute, 
delivered under the auspices of the Massachusetts Historical Society. "The 
Puritans being satisfied with the mode of supporting ministers by a tax, 
which we have seen was originally adopted at the Strut meeting of the Court of 
Assistants in the Colony, continued it by subsequent enactments,'' &c. (Lec- 
tures delivered in a course before the Lowell institute in Boston, by members 

108 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

"This court takeing into consideration the necessity of an 
eqtiall contribution to all comon charges in towncs, & 
observing that the eheife occation of the defect hearin 
ariseth from hence, that many of those who are not free- 
men, nor members of any church, do take advantage there- 
by to w th draw their helpe in such voluntary contributions 
as are in vse, — 

It is therefore hearby declared, that ev l 'y inhabitant in 
any towne is lyable to contribute to all charges, both in 
church & comon welth, whereof hee doth or may receive 
benefit ; & withall it is also ordered, that every such inhabit- 
ant who shall not volentarily contribute, p portionably to 
his ability, w th other freemen of the same towne, to all 
cohlon charges, as well for vpholding the ordinances in the 
churches as otherwise, shalbee compelled thereto by assess- 
ment & distres to bee levied by the cunstable, or other 
officer of the towne, as in other cases." l 

of the Massachusetts Historical Society, p. 415.) True, but a period of several 
years intervened between the action of the first Court of Assistants and the 
passage of the law of 1G3S. 

iQlie year earlier, however, at a General Court held at " Newetownc " on 
November 20, 1037, it was ordered by a special act that money should be raised 
in '' Neweberry " by a public tax to pay a debt that had been incurred by the 
town in " building of houses for their minist r \" — (Records, &e., vol. 1., p. 
21G.) In the original records of the town of Watertown the first entry, which 
is under the date of 1034, is as follows : " Agreed, that the charge of the Meet- 
ing House shall be gathered by a Kate justly levied upon every man propor- 
tionally unto his Estate."— (Bond's Genealogies, Arc, of Watertown, 2nd ed., 
1800, p. 905). 1G35JY3G], Aug. 7th, we find this entry also: 4l Agreed, that the 
charges of the new meeting house being a Kate of SO lbs. shalbe levied as other 
generall levies for the Country."— (lb., p. 005.) Couvers Francis in his Histori- 
cal Sketch of Watertown (Appendix, p. 137), says: "The support of the 
ministers had before" (that is, before the time of the appearance of Briscoe's 
book, in 1612), " been drawn from voluntary contributions." Probably a 
different plan was pursued by some of the towns in raising money to build 
meeting-houses from what was pursued in collecting funds for the support of 
ministers. In Boston, meeting-houses seem to have been paid for by voluntary 
contribution in very early times. Thus Winthrop says in 1G32, that " The 
congregation of Boston and Charlestowh began the meeting-house at Boston, 
for which, aud Mr. Wilson's house they had made a voluntary contribution of 
about one hundred and twenty pounds."— (Winthrop's History of New Eng- 
land, vol. T., p. 104). Winthrop also notjs the procedure in Boston in regard 
to building a meeting-house a few years later (1G30). lie says: "Their old 

1886.] Report of the Council. 109 

It would seem from an examination of the laws of the 
colony that, after the steps taken at first to raise money to 
pay the salaries of ministers by taxation, there was a period 
of several years when voluntary contributions were relied 
on for the support of the ministry. This conclusion is 
corroborated by the statements of early writers and by the 
impressions which a student receives in reading the older 
portions of the histories of the towns in Massachusetts, 
which were first founded, and of the history of the Common- 
wealth, and works which throw light on the doings and 
faith of our ancestors here. 

In the case of Giddings vs. Browne, in which Samuel 
Symonds, a justice, gave judgment in Ipswich in favor of 
the plaintiff, which case was appealed to Salem Court and 
by the advice of that Court and the consent of the parties, 
stated for action to the General Court, and decided by it ; 
Samuel Symonds, in stating at length (in 1657) the grounds 
on which his judgment rested, after giving the substance of 
the law quoted above as passed by the General Court in 
1038, l proceeds as follows: k< Before this recited law was 
made, though some churches, or townes rather, did agree 
how much yearely maintenance the minister should have, yet 
it was not rated, at least in any compellable way, by the 
townc, but men did pay their proportion in a way of volun- 
tary contribution. But some (especially non members) 
some of them did grow slacke ; and so the burthen grew too 
hevy upon church members, &c. And upon consideration 
it was found lawful I to make a law to compell everyone to 
beare his owne share; forasmuch as by hearing the word 

meeting-house, being- decayed and too small, they sold it away, and agreed to 
build another, which workmen undertook to set up for £000. Three hundred 
they had for the old, and the rest was to be gathered by voluntary contribution, 
as other charges were."- (History of New England, vol. J., p. 382). Writing 
in 1040, he says that the new meeting-house " cost about £1000. which was 
raised out of the weekly voluntary contribution without any noise or complaint, 
when in some other churches whieh did it by way of rates, there was much 
dilliculty and compulsion by levies to raise a far less sum."— (lb., vol. 2, p. 2S). 
1 Records, &e'., vol. I., p. 210. 

110 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and publique prayer, &c, lie did or might receive a Ijenetitt 
and (in a way of God) be received as a member with the 
rest, and yet the law was framed soe, as such churches as 
chose rather to goe in a voluntary way of weekly contribu- 
tion or soe, might soe continue, notwithstanding this law, 
as some churches in this country doe to this day." 1 

In the standard treatise on Massachusetts Ecclesiastical 
Law, written by Edward Buck, the author in describing 
the support given to the gospel here does not go back of 
the law of 1638, but only refers the reader for an account 
of plans in earlier use (p. 24) to an article in the Congre- 
gational Quarterly, vol. I., p. 158.~ 

1 Hutchinson Papers (Edition of the Prince Society), vol. IT., pp. (» & 7. 

- In the following extracts glimpses may l»e obtained of the plans in use in 
the colony for raising the salaries of ministers in years immediately succeed- 
ing the passage of the law of 1G3S. 

In March, 1042-3, Winthrop writes "The churches held a different course in 
raising the ministers' maintenance. Some did it by way of taxation, which 
was very offensive to some." 

Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull, in a note on p. 50 of his edition of Plaine Deal- 
ing, writes, " When Roger Williams" (1044) " objected to the ' constraint laid 
upon all consciences * * * * * to come to church and pay church duties' 
(Ploudy Tenent, C. Ixix.) Mr. Cotton replied, ' 1 know of no restraint at all 
that lieth upon the consciences of any in New England to come to church. 
* * Least of all do I know that any are constrained to pay church duties in 
New England. Sure I am none in our own town are constrained to pay any 
church duties at all. What the) pay they give voluntarily, each one with his 
own hand, without any constraint at all but their own will, as the Lord directs 
them' (151. Tenent Washed, 140). In his rejoinder, Williams says: 'For a 
freedom of not paying in his [Mr. Cotton's] town, it is to their commendation, 
and God's praise. Yet who can be ignorant of the assessments upon all in 
other towns,' etc. (151. Tenent yet more bloody, 216). It is not easy to 
reconcile Mr. Cotton's general denial with Winthrop's statement, (ii., 03), that 
some churches raised their ministers' maintenance! by taxation, ' which was 
very offensive to some ;' or with his account of the prosecution of ' one Hriscoe 
of Watcrtown, who * * * being grieved * * * * * because himself 
and others, who were no members, were taxed, wrote a book against it,' which 
he 'published under hand;' for which offence the court tined him £10, and 
'one of the publishers' £2, in March, 1613,— not long before Roger Williams 
sailed for England (where he printed the Blondy Tenent). 

Hooker (Survey, ii., 2&, .52) regarding it the duty of 'Every one that is 
taught' to contribute, argues that such contribution should be enforced, not by 
the civil magistrate, but by the discipline of the church; ' In case any member 
shall fail in this free contribution, he shines in a breach of the knowne rule of 
theUospell; it appertains to the Church, to see the Reformation of that evill, 

1886.] Report of the Council 111 

After the passage of the law mentioned above as having 
been enacted by the General Court in 1638, the history of 
legislation in Massachusetts Bay Colony until 1600 is as 
follows: llt|i November, 1647, the General Court pro- 
vided that town rates might be laid for the purchase of 
a habitation for a preaching elder and his successors. 
Records, &c. , vol. II., p. 217. 

At a General Court begun August 22, 1654, it was 
ordered "that the County Court in euery shire shall, vppon 
information given them of any defect of any congregation 
or towneshipp w th in the shire, order and appointe w l majne- 
tenancc shallbe allowed to the ministers of that place, and 
shall issue out warrants to the select men to assesse, and 
the coiinstable of the sajd toune to collect, the same, and to 
distrejne the sajd assessm"' vppon such as shall refuse to 
pay." Vol. IV., Pt. I., p. 1U9. 

At a General Court held May 6, 1657, committees for 
different counties were appointed to examine into the truth 
of the complaint that there was great suffering in the 
families of "diuerse re'u'end ministers of Gods word w 11 ' in 
this jurisdiccon." Vol. IV., Pt. I., p. 286. 

At a General Court, October 23, 1657, the returns of 
the several committees were ordered to be transmitted to 
the Courts of the Counties to which they belonged in order 
that wants that had appeared might be relieved. Vol. IV., 
Pt. I., p. 314. 

At a General Court, May 30, 1660, it was ordered 
" that the County Courts in theire respective precincts doc 
dilligently & carefully attend the execution of such orders 
of this Court as concernes the majnetenance of the ministry, 
&c." * * "and that for the future, there may be no 
neglect hereof, president of each County Court shall duly 
from tjme to tjme give it in charge to the grand jurjes of 

as of any other scandal 1.' And he maki's it the duty of the deacon, if any 
member fail to perform this duty, to admonish, and in ease he reform not, to 
' follow the action against him * • » * and bring him to the censure of the 
church.' Ibid., 37." (1G4S). 

112 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

theire respective court* to present .ill abuse* & neglects of 
this kindc, & that w ,! all care & dilligence the tame lie 
redressed," &e. Vol. IV., in. I., p. 117. 

Please glance at two or three steps, not yet mentioned, 
taken by the Puritan.-, in Massachusetts Buy in their passage 
from the voluntary to the compulsory system of ministerial 
support. They are interesting, lor they show minds in the 
process of change. 

In the, synod held at Cambridge in 1637, to consider 
matters connected with the Hutchinson- Wheelwright con- 
troversy, "Then- was a motion made * * by the ^ov- 
ernour," (Winthrop) " that whereas there was a difference 
among the churches about the maintenance of their minis- 
ters, it might he agreed what way was agreeable to 
the rule of the gos|>el : hut the elders <ti<l not like to deal 
in that lest it should lie said, that this assembly was 
gathered for their private advantage." 1 

The Genera] Court, however, took hold of the matter 
and November 28, H>37 decided t send out the following 
letter : 

"To the Riders di Brethren of the Church of God at 
/\ Whearus complaint hath bene made to this Courte 
that a different course is houlden in the churches of this 
jurisdiction for raising a treasury for maintenance of minis- 
ter-;, & whearvpon mhho minist r i are iiot so comfortably 
pvided as were titling, — 

Jt is desired, that the several I churches will jpeedily 
inquire hearinto, & if ncedc bee to confcrr together ahoiit 
it, & send some to advise w* 1 this Courte at the- next session 
thereof, that some order may bee taken bearin according to 
the rule of the gosple./ 

p Cur. Iwo: rfowmx, Sec r et./ ; - 

} llmUnry of New Bngbud, by John Wintbrop. \'oi. I., p 
fUfnirili, fee, vol. I., \, ji<;. A euritnu tn&n&ti km bees pnmt 
Utflliug u record in the bom! writing oi II- \ . -hAtw Ki-k<-. MMftiMc mMmI 
preaebei wit h Ifngb 1'etera, i»a«ior of Lbc Jir-t dwrefa in 8*1 -in. of a<-liun:li 
meetiiijs bejk] in Saleiu in lliift, in \shi«l: ihh ileaifc for an iaquirj L»v lbc 
L'ltlen and brethren of Uic cburdbej in MmmmchomMa lia> Colon> appear* to 

1886.] Report of the Council. 113 

As the result of the dissatisfaction in regard to the 
existing ways of maintaining ministers shown by the motion 
made in the synod and the inquiries sent to the elders by 
the General Court, the law mentioned above as passed in 
1038 was enacted. 

In September, 1644, the Commissioners of the United 
Colonies propounded to each General Court the following 
recommendation : "That those that are taught in the word 
in the seu'all. plantations be called together, that euery man 
voluntaryly set downe what he is willing to allow to that 
end & use, and if. any man refuse to pay a meete ppoivon, 
that then hee be rated by authoryty in some just & cquall 

have been under consideration. The record is given ill the Historical Collec- 
tious of the Essex Institute, vol. I., p. 30, and is :is follows:— 

"At a xx meeting" "Salem lti3T" "A <ju ppounded to ye xx, by ye 
desire of ye Magist of yis 'try. 

What way or course is best to be taken of ye xxs for Mrs. maynlenanee, & 
ye eontinuanee & upholding of xx ordinances? It, ye x.\ hath taken it into yr 
'sideration." Following is a modernized form of the record as given by Daniel 
Appleton AVhite, in New England Congregationalism, t fcc, p. 25:— 

" Salem, 1037. At a Church Meeting. A question propounded to the Church 
by the desire of the Magistrates of this Country. 

What way or eourse is best to be taken of the Churehes, for ministers' main- 
tenanee, and the eontinuanee and upholding of Church ordinances:'' K. The 
Church hath taken it into their consideration." 

Our associate, Uev. Dr. Lucius U. Paige, in his History of Cambridge, pp. 
253, 254, states that " There are still preserved two folio volumes, which may 
be styled Church Hooks, ehielly devoted to financial aft'alra, containing a particu- 
lar account of receipts and disbursements by the Deacons, together with some 
historical notices. From these books something may be gleaned concerning the 
condition and work of the church." "The first entry in the Jiccord proper 
is somewhat mutilated, what is supposed to be lost is here supplied, hut 
enclosed in brackets. ' [An account] of the moneys by contribution] upon 
the first day of [the week for] the supply of the wants of the Church of Christ 
and the needy people of Cambridge since the second day of the tenth month 
in the year of Christ 1G38.'" 

Not any of the money raised by contribution, as accounted for in these 
books, appears to have been used to pay the salaries of ministers. Is it not 
possible that these books, which were opened in the same year with the |>assagc 
of the law compelling inhabitants of towns to help pay for the support of 
ministers, and within two or three months of the dale of its passage;, were 
brought into use in consequence of the change from the old way of support by 
voluntary contribution to compulsory maintenance which made the time a 
convenient one for starting new accounts in new books > 

114 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

way, mid if after this any man w'hold or delay due payment 
the eiuill power to be exereised as in other just debts." 1 

In a summary by Hubbard of the Platform of Discipline, 
adopted by the Synod in 1G48, item No. l J is as follows: 
"For the maintenance of the ministers of the church, all 
that are taught are to communicate to him that teacheth, in 
all good things; and in case of neglect, the magistrate 
ought to see that the ministry be duly provided for." 
(Hubbard's History in Colls, of the Mass'tts Hist. Soc, 
2nd Ser., vol. 6, p. 539). 2 

In the statement of his reasons for the judgment given 
by him in the case of Giddings vs. Browne, referred to 
above, Mr. Justice Symonds gives the circumstances which 
seem to have been the immediate cause of one of the later 
enactments which has been before mentioned. kt There is 
yet," he says, "I conceave, a concluding 

This case j lu | g . ment (j n tne \\\ ie c . lse ) j n tne generall 
was tried at a cou j» t? j refelT t() the recor( J Itsolfo (but till an 

county court understanding man, then an inhabitant of Wey- 
at Boston, and mouth [as I am informed] mentioned it since 
found against the passing of my sentence in the case in ques- 
thetown. tion) it was out of my mind. I remember the 

substance of it, and I suppose so doe many more. 
That townc of Weymouth did generally agree to provide an 
house and meet accommodations for the use of the ministry, 
to remaine for posterity. The matter came into the general! 
court. Mrs. Richards stood out, and not many (if any more 
besides) and although' the court did soe well like their aymc, 
or the thing (in itselfe considered) as may by and by appeare, 
yet it was judged in court that they could not justly impose 
payment uponc one, or more persons, not consenting. One 
Dyer 3 was then deputy of that townc, and did prosecute in 

i Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England, vol. 9, being vol. 
T. of Acts of the Commissioners of the United Colonics of New England. 

2J3ee Ecclesiastical History of Mass'tts in Colls, of Mass'tts Hist. Soc, 1st 
Ser., vol. 10, p. 29. 

3 Thomas Dyer was deputy from Weymouth, l(M(>-47-50-53-.-)4, &C, A. 

1880.] Report of the Council. 115 

behalf of the lowno : Yet herein the court gave a testimony 
of their good liking in respect of the towncs intent, viz. in 
that way to provide for the ministry. And accordingly the 
law was framed, and enacted for the future, that very court, 
This provision was not to give away, hut to remaine to 
posterity, and the like provision was for every towne in the 
country ; and that which a great part, if not the greater part, 
of Ipswich have desired and do still stand for." 1 

The law which it is here stated was made in consequence 
of the agitation of the Weymouth case is either that parsed 
in 1047 or the one enacted in 1054. 

Although by the law of 10.M it was made incumbent 
upon all citizens to pay their proportions of common civil 
and religious expenses, it will be noticed that it was not 
until 1054 that the General Court went so far as to super- 
vise the action of towns, and to see to it that the tui|arie,s 
of ministers were suitable in amount. 

Individuals did not fail to oppose the recommendation 
and adoption of compulsory taxation for the support of 

Thus, we learn from a note in the margin of the record in 
which the recommendation of the Commissioners of the 
United Colonies, recited above, is given that, (in 1044), 
"Mr. Browne desired further consideracon about the 2 
last clauses of this conclusion,"-' that is to say, about the 
clauses which recommended rating ki by authority'" and 
compulsory collection of rates. 

So, too, Mr. Briscoe of 'Watertown made a protest 
against compulsory payment. Winthrop, writing in 1042- 
'6 (1-5;, says: "The churches held a diil'erent course in 
raising the ministers' maintenance. Some did it by way of 
taxation, which was very offensive to some. Amongst 
others, one Briscoe of Waterlown, who had his barn burnt, 
as before mentioned, being grieved with that course in their 

• Hutchinson Papers (Edition of tlio Prince Society), vol. II., \>. 13. 
•-Records of the Colony of New Plymouth, irol. 9, \>. 20. 

116 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

town, the rather because himself and others, who were no 
members, were taxed, wrote a book against it, wherein, 
besides his arguments* which were naught, ho cast reproach 
upon the elders and officers." 1 

Hubbard had no patience with Briscoe. He says: " he 
that shall deny the exerting of the civil power to provide 
for the comfortable subsistence of them that preach the 
gospel, f teste pot ius erudiendas quam aryumento"- 

It is noticeable that Winthrop could only say, in March, 
1043 (new style) that " some" churches resorted to taxa- 
tion to raise money for the support of ministers. His 
language suggests naturally the inference, that in several 
towns the voluntary system of maintenance was in vogue a 
number of years after the passage of the law of 1638. 

Why did the men of Massachusetts Bay refrain from a 
compulsory collection of ministers' salaries for several years 
after coining to this country? 

Was it merely because it was convenient to do so or 
were they guided in the matter by principle also? 

Mr. Hubbard takes the former view. Referring un- 
doubtedly to the action of the General Court in 1054, he 
says: "And whereas the plantations of New England had 
never as yet been acquainted with the way of paying tythes 
(which none of the reformed churches ever yet condemned 
as unlawful, although it was not looked upon as the most 
convenient for the towns and plantations of New England), 
for the support of the ministry in the several towns, it was 
now left to the power of every county court throughout the 
whole jurisdiction, to make sufficient provision for the 
maintenance of the ministry, in the respective towns of the 
colony, and to rectify any defect, upon complaint of any 
such, for want of means whereby comfortably to subsist." 3 

But Mr. Hubbard was probably mistaken in regard to 
this matter, as he has been shown to have been in many 

1 History of New England, by John Winthrop, vol. 2, p. 112. 
-A (amend History of New England, by William Hubbard (Collections of 
the Mass'Us Hist. Soc., 2ml Scrv, v. G, p. 1 12). 3 Hubbard, p. 551. 

1880.] Report of the Council. 117 

other cases. Attention has again and again been called to 
the fact that whatever may have been the intentions of the 
earliest colonists of Massachusetts Bay before leaving Eng- 
land, and on the eve of their departure, as soon as they 
came to Salem and Charlestown they adopted the plans 
which were in vogue in the Plymouth Colony in forming 
their churches and in administering ecclesiastical affairs. 

Edward Winslow says that some of* the chief men of 
the plantations "advised with us," meaning the men at 
Plymouth " (coming over to he freed from the burthensome 
ceremonies then imposed in England) how they should do 
to fall upon a right platform of worship, and desire to that 
end since God had honored us to lay the foundation of the 
Commonwealth and .settle a church in it, to show thein 
whereupon our practice was grounded. 

We accordingly showed them the primitive practice for our 
warrant, &c." ' 

John Cotton acknowledges that some of the first comers 
to Massachusetts Bay might have helped "their theory by 
hearing and discerning their practice at Plymouth. "- 

Deacon Fuller ol the Plymouth Church, while profession- 
ally engaged as a physician among the new comers to 
Massachusetts Bay, had conferences with those men who 
were in authority both at Salem and at Charlestown and 
with Pcv. Mr. Warham of Mattapan (Dorchester) and 
others, ahout the proper forms of ecclesiastical organization, 
and while he and Mr. Warham differed in regard to the 
qualities which are requisite to make men eligible to mem- 
bership in a church, he evidently found in Gov. Endicott 
and Gov. Winthrop men who were very appreciative of 
the ecclesiastical methods in use in Plymouth. 

Whether the settlers in Massachusetts Bay took the 
constitution and methods of the church at Plymouth for a 

i Window's inicl' Narration in YQWlg* Chronicles of the 1'il-rim Failure 
\> 3SG. -(-UltOU'tf " W;iy," »Vc, p. IG. 

118 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

mode] or not, this much is certain, that after consultation 
of their leaders with men from the latter colony they 
reached the conclusion that the plans adopted in the elder 
settlement, in the organization and maintenance of its 
church, were in accordance with the teachings of the New 

It is unnecessary to treat this matter fully, because the 
statements of the earlier historians in regard to it, such as 
Bradford, Hubbard 1 and others, have been carefully weighed 
and the whole subject of the influence of the Plymouth 
church in moulding the constitution of the churches in 
Massachusetts Bay has been ably handled by our late asso- 
ciate, Dr. Young, 2 and by those living authorities in early 
Plymouth and Massachusetts history, our learned associates, 
Doctors Dexter 3 and Deane. 4 

It is interesting to remark one of the details wherein the 
practice of some of the churches in the Massachusetts Bay 
Colon}' in regard to raising money for the support of the 
gospel, resembles the procedure of the " ancient church" in 
Amsterdam, and that of the Mayflower church which 
commonly agreed with it in ecclesiastical matters. Thus, 
money needed for church purposes was raised in some of 
the churches here largely by a contribution taken up on 

While, perhaps, these contributions were meant prima- 
rily, in many of the churches, to serve as a convenient way 
of obtaining money for relieving the necessities of the 

1 Mass'tts Hist. Colls., 2nd ser., v. 5, pp. 117 and 18G. 

2 Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers of the Colony of Plymouth, by Alexander 
Young, p. :J86. 

8 Congregationalism pi! the last three hundred years in its literature, etc, p. 
415 et neq. 

* Proceedings of the Mass'tts Hist. Soe. for October, 1870, pp. 398-400 (on 
Governor Bradford's Dialogue, &e.), See also Lecture of William HlJgham in 
Lectures delivered in a course before the Lowell Institute in lioston, by mem- 
bers of the Mass'tts Hist. Soe., pp. 170, ISO. 

1880. ] Report of Hi* OouncO. Ill 

poor, 1 ifi some of them a portion of the Baldtatb contribution 
W$a used in affording eoutjrensation to mil 

[a ■ hfbrd in hi* Plaine Dealing gives an aeeonnt, ■/hies 
fia^ become very familiar to students of the early e 
cal history of Massachusetts, of thin contribution 
occurred in the order of . -. in the Fii rch in 

Boston' In describing the e iees in that church in the 
afternoon of \hc Sabbath, he Bays, nrben Baptism i- e 
"follows the contribution, one of the Deacon* laying, 
Brethren of the Congreg time left tot 

contribution, wherefore an God bath pi freely 

offer. Upon gome extraordinary occasions, as building 
and repairing of churches or meeting-bonaea, or other 
ritiee, the minister* presse a liberal! contribution, 
with effectual! exhortations out of scripture. The magis- 
Irates and chiefe Gentlemen first, and then the Elders and 
all the congregation of men and most of them that a. 

•Mr. Trumbull njajffa from T. Wclde'-. 4* dftowei to If. A'. <Xc. /';/ / 
following pmnge in a note to j>. 4!) of bh edition of LeehforiPi Plata 
'•Tin- weekly contribution i- properly intended for the poorc. accord; i. 
l Cor. IS. I. let ate* (if there be much ,i.«:ii nr) aonw thure h ei doe |ft 
ether* do notj appoint tlw ov<-rpni- maintenene 

'I'liif i-. not given in by the people according Ut their weekly yafne* V«* Itatl»- 
bsand had -stated.] but oj f/od /<"*/< Vlemted them with an entale >.». tkeg enei 
. . . S. Nor i- Umm djepenaril to the Mini atria (in thaw dan* mm/ 

part of it U »o givcjjj tboir.'b bj tbe band-i of t:. . I not for proj/or- 

tfonat they pwaee, .... but by the Church, who usually, twice in tb<- 
year or oflener, doo nwete to i on-ult un<l determine of the mnwjaj to be 
allowed for tbat yeerc to rb«:ir minUt* r«, and to rake it, either for the Chw 
mric .... or by a ontribnUon totwthenjawdeonpnrpoo e .. — (W 
Ac, p. 

In an account which ha.- been] I the order of .^abl/atb worablp in 

Uw church made up of Uw peruana who bad withdrawn from tl ,-. 
tnnnli " in AnnSerdan, ami i John Smyth, Uw writen tpeal of the la»t act in 
the nuw u fawj anrriem a* fellow*: "J boa Uw I. enenker cociud-tb arfh. i- 
a: be began with prayer; with an exhortation to eotribution to the i - 
toilet ion being ina I faded With prayer."- /n-vatiou- 

ali-m in literature, aw., n. :>M;. 

The fact tbat tbc •'poore" only an awnthwwd hen as recipicut* of the 
■y recurred in the nunda) contribution -bould be coupled witb tb«: follow- 
in,; rtatenwnS: ■• ibuylfc (life A Uenfh, otcu, ll-; I 

and not a ooaat— • Tliat I never wmivad ol Iheni [bi-» il<^.kj,all put WfWttwr, 
the rahw of /orlie xhUHnti*! tomykno. *n<J: 

and Of Mr. li- Iwi- not Uw value of a |^-uuy.* *'— (Ibid.. |>. ifcCJ, BJ 

120 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of the Church, all single persons, widows, and women in 
absence of their husbands, come up one after another 
one way, and bring their offerings to the Deacon at his 
seate, and put it into a box of wood for the purpose, if it 
bee money or papers ; if it be any other chattle they set it 
or lay it downe before the Deacons, and so passe another 
way to their seats againe. This contribution is of money, 
or papers, promising so much money : I have scene a fairc 
gilt cup with a cover, offered there by one, which is still 
used at the Communion. Which moneys, and goods the 
Deacons dispose towards the maintenance of the Ministers, 
and the poore of the Church, and the Churches occasions, 
without making account, ordinarily." l 

This account of Lechford, although written a short time 
after the passage of the law of 1638, by which a limited 
compulsion was exerted as regards the payment of ministe- 
rial dues, undoubtedly describes what he had seen before 
the passage of that law 2 and the practice which had existed 
for several years in Boston. 

It is to be noted that the men of Massachusetts Bay in 
adopting the church polity which had been in use in 
Amsterdam and Plymouth, and in generally conforming to 
it even in details, were guided by principle, and believed 
that they were copying the pattern which had been revealed 
in the New Testament as the will of God respecting the 
administration of the Church of Christ. 

It is to be presumed that in making use of the voluntary 
system for the support of the ministry they proceeded in 
this spirit and equally with the brethren of Amsterdam and 
Plymouth, believed that in accepting this incident, as well 
as the other features of the ecclesiastical polity which they 

1 Lechford's Plaine Dealing, &c, Mass'tts Hist. Soe's Colls., Ser. J), vol. a, p. 
77. Ed. of J. Hammond Trumbull, p. 4S. 

2 Lechford arrived in Boston in the summer of 1638, and returned to England 
in August, 1641.— (.). Hammond Trumbull's Introduction to 1'luine Dealing, 
pp. XVIII., XXXV. and XXXVI., Boston, Wiggin and Luilt). His "To the 
reader" is dated Clements June, Jan. 17, 1611 (old style). 

1886.] Report of the Council. U\ 

had introduced into the colony they were following the 
scriptural model. That is to .-ay. the voluntary .system of 
collecting ministers' dues, in use in the early days of the 
colony, was adopted and sustained, not merely became it 
was convenient, but in great measure from considerations 
of duty. 

The question whether the institution of tithes is ordained 
of God as the divinely appointed plan for securing to minis- 
ters a maintenance under the dispensation of the Gospel, as 
we have seen in an earlier part of this paper, was under 
discussion in England at the time when the Pilgrims, then 
in Holland, were considering the project of corning to 
America. Increase Mather in "A Discourse Concerning 
the Maintenance Due to those That Preach the Gospel.'" 
etc., writing in 17uo', stated that most of the ••Reformed 
Divines " answered this question in the negative, 1 and 
instanced as writers who took this view such men a* P. 
Martyr, Zanchy, Daneus, Rivet and Voetius. He gave the 
same answer to the question himself! But more radical 
views began to lie held than those of the advanced •rriters 
of the latter part of the sixteenth and the earlier part of the 
seventeenth centuries. By the middle of the latter century 
they had culminated in the beliefs which found expression 
in the unreserved utterances of Milton in favor of the intro- 
duction of the system of unadulterated voluntaryism in 
respect to ministerial support. 

Some of this author's most outspoken sentences have 
already been quoted. 

A little later in the seventeenth century the "great 
dissenter." John Owen, whom Increase Mather -j eaks vt 
as "that incomparable author,'" 2 avowed similar sentinu 
and gave in his adhesion to the same system. His words 
areas follows: "We take it for granted that the way of 
ministerial maintenance is changed under the Nea festa- 

- Pa-re 4*.» ur St. - Soul* Hi marks on a late Scriuou prcuWicu tl ui Bern 

Enjland, by GeMge Kciili. M. A.. B-j>tun. 17US, . . 1 

122 American Antiquarian Soviet//. [April, 

ment ; but that the law of maintenance is taken away, is 
the highest lolly to imagine, it being so expressly asserted 

by our Savior himself and his apostles, Luke X : 7 ; I. 
Cor. IX. But here it is thought lies the disadvantage; 
that whereas the priests under the Old Testament had a 
certain portion whieh was legally due to them, and they 
might demand it as their own, it is now deferred to the 
voluntary contribution of them who have the benefit of their 
labor. But he is unworthy the name of a minister of the 
gospel who is not satisfied with what our Lord hath ordained 
in every kind. This way is the most honorable way, and 

that whieh easts the greatest respect upon them. 


Our apostle tells us that our Lord hath ordained, that those 
who preaeh the gospel shall live on the gospel ; and all 
obedience to his ordinances and institutions must be volun- 
tary. If they will not do so, their best way is to leave; hi* 
service, and take up with that whieh is — more honorable l" 1 
So mueh for tin; convictions and writings of reformers in 
England and on the continent of Europe. Evidently a 
change had come in the views of many who held that 
the system of tithes was the divinely ordained plan for the 
support of th : ministry in the Christian church. First, 
preachers and theologians denied that tithes were imposed 
by the command of God under the new dispensation. 
Their successors denied that compulsory support of minis- 
ters was allowable under the teachings of the gospel. Not 
only did the little band of Pilgrim writers maintain such 
radical views ; other English and Continental authors of the 
class of thinkers whom the Puritans of New England 
looked to especially for guidance and instruction were 
coming to accept similar conclusions. Many of the men 
who lirst came to Massachusetts Bay must have been cogni- 
zant of the advanced views respecting ministerial support 

'Ail Exposition of the Epistle; t«j (lie Hebrew*, &c„ by Julm Owen, D.D. 
Kcvisod, abridged, **., by Edward William*, i>.l>. Boafton: Samuel T. Arm- 
strong, 1S12, p. olO. This cxpu.iitiou wan written in lo<J3 1GS1. 

124 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Mr. Cotton earnestly advocated the use of the voluntary 
system in the payment of ministerial dues on moral grounds. 
lie was, it needs not to he stated, a man of great influence 
in Massachusetts, and his opinion was taken here on all 
important questions and held in the highest estimation. 
The language of Hubbard does not seem to have been 
very extravagant when he said of him ''that whatever he 
delivered in the pulpit was soon put into an Order of Court, 
if of a civil, or set up as a practice in the church, if of* an 
ecclesiastical concernment." l 

AVinthrop tells us that at a meeting of the Governor and 
Council, September 17, 1633, to consider about Mr. Cotton, 
it was even proposed "that (keeping a lecture) he should 
have some maintenance out of the treasury."- It was only 
upon "second thoughts" that "divers of the council did 
after refuse this contribution." 

Mr. Cotton exerted a powerful iniluence in moulding the 
ecclesiastical institutions of the Bay Colony, and may 
properly be regarded as a representative of the views 
respecting such matters which were held at Plymouth, also. 
His influence began to be felt as soon as he came to Boston, 
three or four years after the arrival of the first settlers 
in the colon)'. His support, undoubtedly, strengthened 
greatly the party here which contended that it is a duty to 
raise the maintenance of ministers by voluntary contribu- 
tions. It was not so effectual, however, in this as in most 
other ecclesiastical matters, for while the constitution of our 
churches and the ecclesiastical usages, generally speaking, 
which he was so important a factor in forming and estab- 
lishing remained comparatively permanent, he found him- 
self powerless to stem the tide which (excepting in Boston 
and some other places ) :1 set, determinedly, in an opposite 

i General History, A:c ,ColU.of the Miiss'tts Hist. Soe., 2nd Ser., vol. V., p. 1S2. 

2 Hist, of New England, &c'., vol. I., p. 133. See, also, Kinerson's An histori- 
eal sketeh of the First Church in Huston, p. 19. 

»" First Parish. liio'J. There is a voluntary ami quarterly contribution of ihe 
town to support the ministry. This was continued about IS years."— (Annals 

1886.] Report of the Council. . 125 

direction from the one he desired in respect to the princi- 
ple of voluntaryism in the maintenance of the ministry. 

The names of two other men who were not in full sympa- 
thy with the majority of the colonists and who were yet 
not without influence among them, will occur to all students 
of the history of Massachusetts as having heen, while resi- 
dents here, presumably, friends to the plan of supporting- 
ministers by voluntary contributions, namely, Henry Vane 1 
and Roger Williams.' 2 The former was a staunch friend of 
religious and civil liberty, and in this country and after- 
wards in England said noble words and did glorious deeds 
in their defence. His views regarding the encouragement 
of the freedom of thought in religious matters were far in 
advance of those of Cotton. He argued and labored for an 
entire separation of Church and State. Surely, then, he 
must have heartily agreed with his friend in his convic- 
tions respecting the allowance of freedom of action in 
regard to contributions towards the support of the ministry. 

We will conclude this report with one or two extracts 
from The Hireling Ministry, &c, by Roger Williams. 
This friend of absolute voluntaryism was the instructor 
and pupil of John Milton, 3 and sympathized heartily with 
that reformer in his antipathy to a ministry that is supported 
by compulsion. In the State which he founded, religious 
freedom was made a corner stone 4 and the support of the 
ministry was rendered voluntary. 

of Salem, by Joseph 15. Felt, 2nd cd., 1849, vol. II., p. fill).) Sec, also, 
Winthrop's Hist, of New England, vol. II., p. 112. " Cotton Mather in 1726 
wrote:—' In some Churches the salary of the minister is raised by a voluntary 
contribution, especially in Populous Places, and where many strangers resort; 
but in others a Tax is levied for it.'— (Ratio Discipline, pp. 20-22," Footc's 
Annals of King's Chapel, vol. I., p. 440. 

i Orations and Essays, by Rev. J. L. Diinun, D.D., pp. 127, 128. 2 ibid, p. 101. 

*See letter of Roger Williams to John Winthrop of Connecticut, dated at 
Providence, July 12, 54 (so called), in memoir of Roger Williams, by Janus 
D. Knowles, p. 204. 

^See covenant signed by early settlers of Providence, Records of the Colony 
of Rhode Island, p. 14. See, too, History of New England, &C, by Isaac 
Backus, new edition, edited by David Weston, vol. II., p. 513. 

12b* American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The words of Roger Williams are as follows : "Secondly, 
as to the Labourer worthy of his Reward, I answer, we 
find no other patterne, in the Testament of Christ Jesus, 
but that both the Converting (or Apostolicall Ministry) 
and the Feeding (or Pastorall Ministry) did freely serve 
or minister, and yet were freely supported by the Saints 
and Churches, and that not in stinted Wages, Tithes, 
Stipends, Sallaries, &c. but witli larger or lesser supplies, 
as the Hand of the Lord was more or lesse extended in his 
weekly blessings on them." 1 

"And therefore I doe humbly conceive, that it is the 
will of the most High, and the expresse and absolute lJuty 
of the civill powers to proclaim an absolute freedom in all 
the Nations, yea in all the world (were their power so 
large) that each Towne, and Division of people, yea, and 
person, may freely enjoy what wovsliip, what ministry, 
what maintenance to afford them, their soul desireth."- 

For the Council. 


1 The Hireling Ministry, etc., by Roger Williams, London, 1052, p. 8. - Ibid., 
p. 19. 

188t>.] Report of the Treasurer. 127 


The Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society here- 
with submits his semi-annual report of receipts and dis- 
bursements, for the six months ending April 1, 1886. 

At a meeting of the Council held in October last, on 
motion of the Treasurer, it was voted, that the Finance 
Committee and the Treasurer together be "a committee to 
consider whether any change is desirable in the metohd of 
keeping the accounts, or of making investments, or in 
the management and control of the funds." 

The committee, after due consideration, decided that it 
was advisable to modify somewhat the plan of keeping the 
accounts and of making the semi-annual statements, and 
requested the Treasurer in preparing his semi-annual 
reports, to give, in addition to the condition of the several 
funds, a list of the securities owned by the Society, .show- 
ing their pay value and also the market value at the time 
of making the report. It was also decided to credit the 
income derived from the investments to one account, and 
at the close of each six months, ending April 1 and Octo- 
ber 1, to transfer to each of the funds such a sum as the 
income should warrant. 

This report is made up in accordance with the action of 
that committee, .the expenditure on account of each fund 
being given, and the amount of income carried to each. 
The Finance Committee has directed the Treasurer to 
transfer to each fund, from the income of the investments, 
two and one-half per cent, on the amount of each fund as 
it stood October 20, 1886. After doing this there remains 
to the credit of income $237.33. 

By direction of the same Committee, the Treasurer has 
sold tifty-nine shares of stock of the Worcester and Nashua 

128 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


Railroad Co., on which was realized a premium of 
$1,049.12, which sum now stands to the credit of the 
Premium Account. 

A detailed statement of the investments of the funds of 
the Society, showing the par and market value of the 
various stocks and bonds is given as a part of this report. 

The total of the investments and cash on hand April 1, 
1886, was $97,650.57, divided among the several funds as 
follows : 

The Librarian's and General Fund, $80,932.62 

The Collection and Research Fund, 17,921 .49 

The Bookbinding Fund, 0,110.70 

The Publishing Fund, 19,1(51.40 

The Isaac Davis Book Fund, 1,009.47 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund, 2,340.04 

The Benjamin F. Thomas Local History Fund, 1,105.90 

The Salisbury Building Fund,. 101.10 

The Aldcn Fund, 1,0.50.04 

The Tenney Fund, 5,000.00 

The Haven Fund, 1,141.09 

The George Chandler Fund, 495.07 

Premium Accouut, 1,049.12 

Income Account, 237.33 

Total , #97 ,650.57 

In addition to the amount carried to the Publishing 
Fund from the income on investments, the sum of $151.50 
from the sale of the " Lechford Note-book," and $33.25 
from the sale of the "Proceedings" has been added thereto. 

To the Collection and Research Fund there has also 
been added $55.30 from the sale of duplicate books. 

Under the direction of the Finance Committee the Treas- 
urer has transferred the income of the Tenney Fund for the 
past year as follows : To the Publishing Fund $50.00 ; 
Bookbinding Fund $75.00 ; and the Librarian's and General 
Fund $128.10. 

The great advantage of a fund given, as was this of Mr. 
Tenney's, without conditions as to the use of its income, 
has been most fully demonstrated ; it has from the first 
been of great practical benefit to the Society. 

fa b 

to &* Uto*fa* / < nut <**0** fr uui, w*Uk tmd < 
nm+mm** *v «•** &* ****** *»• 

fe * ill h* ***» fty 3u* u«* *< 

*: •; .n r * *•. rr . * 



130 American Antiquarian Society. ril. 

CoarDmcx of the several Pcxhs. 

The Librarian's and General Fund. 

Balance of Fond. October i0 ? Mi $40,137.-* 

Income to April 1, 1886, 1J63.4^ 

Trau-rferrtd from Turner Fund. Lr*.10 

Paid for satark* p<&J& 

Expense of beating nail, aoOJO 

Inrnlrntal expenses. 196.74 

*1 -336.13 
1916, April 1. Amount of Fund j 

The Collection and Bemarck Fund. 

Balance October 30. ttBfi *l?/JSej6> 

Iuojine to April 1. l-> ... 4S2.49 

From »ak- of book? 

Sir 'a: 
Paid part of salark-* of librarian and 1 i Ml ill. £*3^3 
Paid for books. d l±*.7!i 

1986, April 1. ^ i-miiI of Fund. |1T JS1.-0 

The Jlookbimding Fund. 

Balance October i>j. i«,>5 r V -, 

Income to April 1. is* 15dA 

Transferred from Tenner Fund 

1886, April 1. Amount of Fund t .-.:. ". 

The Publishing Fund, 

Balance October *>. ls>5 * 19^1.75 

Income to April mfc5l 

Publication* .old tM E 

Transferred from Tenner Fun! 

Paid for prinliitf ** Proceedings/* 

raid for urintimr - Lech ford Xote-book " 43M5 

tl i : - 
April 1. Amount of Fund. ? .... 

1880.] Report of the Treasurer. 131 

The Imac Davis Book Fund. 

Balance October 20, 1885, $1,576.90 

Income to April 1, 1880, 39.42 

Paid for books, G.85 

1880, April 1. Amount of Fund, $1,G09.47 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

Balance October 20, 1885, $2,282.97 

Income to April 1, 1880, 57.07 

1880, April 1, Amount of Fund, $2,340.04 

The Benjamin F. Thomas Local History Fund. 

Balance October 20, 1885, $1,177.50 

Income to April 1, 1880, 29.43 

Paid for local histories, 41.03 

1880, April 1. Amount of Fund, $1,105.90 

The Salisbury Building Fund. 

Balance October 20, 1885, $234.30 

Income to April 1, KS8G, 5.80 

Paid for repairs on building, 79.OG 

18S0, April 1. Balance of Fund, $101.10 

The Alden Fund. 

Balance October 20, 1885, $1,151.2G 

Income to April 1, 18S(i, 28.78 

Paid on account of cataloguing, 150.00 

1880, April 1. Amount of Fund, $1,030.04 

The Tenney Fund. 

Balance October 20, 1885, $5,125.00 

Income to April 1,1880, 12H.10 


Transferred to Publishing Fund, $50.00 

Transferred to Bookbinding Fund 75.00 

Transferred to Librarian's and General Fund,.. 128.10 


188G, April 1. Balance of Fund, $5,000.00 

132 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The Haven Fund. 

Balance October 20, 188") $1,123.58 

Income to April 1, 188G, 2S.11 

Paid for books, 10.00 

18SG, April 1. Balance of Fund, $1,141.09 

The (,'eorye Chandler Fund. 

Balance October 20, 1885, $509.30 

Income to April 1, 188G, 12.73 

Paid for books, 20.45 

188G, April 1. Amount of Fund, #195.07 

Totaj of the twelve Funds, $90,370.12 

Balance to credit of Premium Account, 1,049.12 

Balance to credit of Income Account, 237.33 

April 1,1880. Total,.. $97,050.57 

The following statement shows the investment of the various funds, giving 
the par and market value of the stocks and bonds April 1, 1886, also the amount 
of cash on hand. 

-Statement of the Investments. 

No. • V/n/'Zsr 1 >1U ' Market 

of Shares. BIQCK3. Value. Value. 

Central National Bank, Worcester, $ 000.00 $810.00 

10 City National Bank, Worcester, 1,000.00 2,000.00 

10 Citizens' National Bank, Worcester, 1,000.00 1.3.*)0.00 

4 Boston National Bank, Boston, 400.00 480.00 

Fitehburg National Bank, Fitchburg, 000.00 900.00 

2 Massachusetts National Bank, Boston, 500.00 520.00 

32 National Bank of Commerce, Boston, 3,200.00 4,032.00 

National Bank of North America, Boston, 000.00 042.00 

5 North National Bank, Boston, 500.00 075.00 

24 Quinsigamond National Bank, Worcester, 2,400.00 2,088.00 

40 Shawmut National Bank, Boston, 4,000.00 5,474.00 

33 Webster National Bank, Boston , 3,300.00 3,531 .00 

31 Worcester National Hank, Worcester, 3,100.00 4,030.00 

30 Northern (N. II.) Railroad Co., 3,000.00 3,7sO.OO 

5 Worcester Uas Light Co., 500.00 900.00 

1886.] Report vf ike Treasurer. 181 

i'.',n.'l. ;, flfe, 

,n .v A Ibany K. li. boml* (!•), 7 ObO.oO 8,330 00 

Central 1'aeilio R. Ji. boml-, MWJI 

1. * era JiailroHiJ bowk, M*M0 1- 

Kaw ■ rort8eptt4Gaff ic. u.bor.»i- : 

Vvoreetrfer h Jfarfcm Ji. li. (doe 1 " . la, 5,000.00 5,02 

City of Chicago bond Hue UB8j , 1 .(wo.oo 1 ,M#JJ 

N'olr , -<•< inr.-.l by Mortgage of real MfflfC ITjMtil H 

Dtepoafttd i»» fforaeeter aarfagi bank-.. 2,»>;5.';l 

•iii inten--t in national bank, 12JHM \2.i: 

Wcmcmmm, April u. \- 

R -peetfully ■lilwittfd, 

. HA9IKL PAH era-. 

The umb;r-.igne<l, Auditor-, or the A MM ileal Antiquarian Society, hereby 
certify that ire have examine*] the report of the Treasurer, made up to April 
1, !**<;, ami find tli'- -aui'- to 1* cornet ami properly vouched; that the aecuri- 
ti»:i belli by him are a* Mated ami that the balance of ca-.h, -,taled to b e oi 
M ai-coiiiited for. 


wn.uAM a gmra 

Womcmm*, April 16, is*;. 

134 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


The present report contains a statement of some of the 
more important work done in connection with the library 
since the last meeting, an acknowledgment of certain gifts 
of special value either in themselves or for what they sug- 
gest, the library statistics, a few references which may be 
pertinent to the occasion, and the usual list of donors and 

In the report of the Council of April 25, 1860, Mr. 
Paine says : " The Council would also suggest that at as 
early a date as possible, measures be taken to have classi- 
lied, arranged and catalogued the very valuable manuscripts 
and autograph letters now in the library of this Society. 
There are many of great value and rarity ; but at present 
they are not in an available condition for the purposes of 
study and reference." It is my privilege to announce that 
at the charge of the Alden Fund this work, so much and 
so long desired, has been practically accomplished by Miss 
Webb, of the library stall', under the more immediate super- 
vision of Mr. Colton, assistant-librarian, and the general 
oversight of the library committee. Thus Mr. Paine has 
not only as treasurer dispensed the income of the fund so 
wisely given, but as a member of the library committee has 
assisted in carrying out the recommendation of the Council 
as penned by himself just twenty years ago. On the 
twenty-second day of March, 1884, the Council authorized 
the library committee to dispose of our perishable material, 
including Indian, Icelandic and Hawaiian apparel, etc., and 
on the eighth of January, 1886, its transfer was made to the 
Peabody Museum of American Archa-ology and Ethnology, 

1880.] Report of the Librarian. 135 

after a few selections had been made by the Worcester 
Society of Antiquity. The imperishable articles having 
been placed in the south lobby, the northeast lobby was at 
once Htted with drawers and shelves, as recommended in 
the librarian's report of last April. It will hereafter be 
known as the Manuscript-room, although it also now con- 
tains the regular series of government publications which 
formerly occupied the northwest alcove in the main hall. 

We have lately been appealed to for collections of early 
business account books and papers, by persons who not 
only desired to study early methods of business but to learn 
the prices for which goods were bought and sold before the 
condition of the markets was so faithfully reported in print. 
In alluding to this call we will make another which shall be 
so broad as to include every written thing which ought to 
be preserved. Even the single autograph letter may throw 
just the light needed by the searcher after facts. For 
instance, we have recently found among our Joseph Lancas- 
ter papers, controversial and otherwise, a short but kindly 
letter addressed to him by Thackeray which proves to be 
the only autograph we have of that distinguished novelist 
and satirist. From this letter it appears that while Thai k- 
eray was interested in some of Lancaster's educational work- 
in England, he did not wholly approve what one of our 
members has quite recently called "the tomfoolery of the 
Lancasterian system." 

It seems a peculiarly Htting time to make an earnest plea 
for the better preservation of city, town, parish, family and 
other manuscript records, and to consider what we can do 
to further that end. In our important mission of preserving 
American history we have occasionally received deposits 
subject to recall, a right which, it should be said, has sel- 
dom been exercised. May we not expect to become the 
temporary or permanent custodians of much valuable mate- 
rial when our willingness to receive such material — so often 
stated by Council and Librarian — is more generally known? 

13G American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

In this connection the following paragraphs from a letter 
addressed to Samuel F. Haven, Librarian, March 18, 1857, 
by lie v. Edward E. Hale, are suggestive: "Only think 
of this ! Mr. Ridgway [Edward W.J, who gave to Mr. 
Jennison the Hull Letter-book, tells me that there was a 
large quantity of those old papers in his attic ; that his 
family was kindling tires, etc., with them, when he lighted 
on that book which he carried to Mr. Jennison, and that if 
he had supposed Mr. Jennison wished for more he could 
have had all the rest, But since that time the roof of that 
attic has been cleared out, and they have all been destroyed. 
Is not that a little too provoking?" To the lesson to be 
drawn from this quotation, I will add that not only the Hull 
Letter-book which was so useful in the preparation of the 
Diaries of Hull published in our Transactions, but also the 
valuable Note-book of Thomas Lechford which Ave issued 
last year, came from the Ridgway attic in Worcester. A 
new mission of preservation which has recently been taken 
up under our auspices, is that of repairing records not the 
property of the Society which have been injured by long or 
careless usage. Miss Webb has thus, during extra hours 
and at the expense of the town, prepared for re-binding 
several volumes of the early records of the town of Leices- 
ter, Massachusetts. 

The accessions for six months ending the fifteenth instant 
have been as follows : By gift, twenty-one hundred and 
eleven books, seven thousand six hundred and four pam- 
phlets, six bound and one hundred and ninety-nine volumes 
of unbound newspapers, ninety-five volumes of bound and 
a collection of unbound manuscripts, one hundred and 
twenty-nine framed and eighty unframed engravings and 
photographs, one hundred and six maps, thirty-one coins, 
eleven specimens of the currency of the rebellion, eighteen 
Indian and other relics and a collection of postage stamps. 
By exchange, two hundred and forty-eight books, nine hun- 
dred and thirty-eight pamphlets, five volumes of newspapers 

1886.] fieport of the Librarian. 137 

and sixty-eight photographs and engravings. From the 
binder, one volume of newspapers and one hundred and 
thirty-three volumes of magazines, making a total — with 
us seldom if ever exceeded — of twenty-four hundred and 
ninety-two books, eighty-five hundred and forty-two pam- 
phlets, seven bound and two hundred and four unbound 
volumes of newspapers, one hundred and twenty-nine 
framed and one hundred and sixty-two unframed engrav- 
ings and photographs, etc. The list includes two hundred 
and seventy-eight donors, of whom forty-one are members, 
one hundred and sixty-nine friends who are not members, 
and sixty-nine societies and institutions. It is interesting 
to note that the sources of increase number sixty-eight more 
than your librarian reported in October last. 

With his Concord historical oration and the usual gifts 
from Washington, our President has sent Major Poore's 
Descriptive Catalogue of Government Publications, 1771- 
1881, which we hope may prove to be the labor-saving index 
so greatly needed. Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull's gift in- 
cludes his " Origin and Early Progress of Indian Missions 
in New England," — a rare and valuable pamphlet, — and the 
English edition (1715) of The Protestant Tutor, to be pre- 
served with our imperfect copy of the Boston edition of 
1085. In one of a scries of four articles on Primers and 
Catechisms, prepared by Dr. Trumbull for the Sunday- 
School Times ot 188;}— and which should be separately 
printed — this Tutor of 1685 is called the earliest of that 
interesting family of early New England literature. 

The continued activity of our widely separated member- 
ship is apparent from the valuable papers written by them 
for various societies and institutions. Two such contribu- 
tions to the "Johns Hopkins University Studies in Histori- 
cal and Political Science" have been received; one on 
"American Constitutions" by Hon. Horace Davis, a 
member since 1862; the other 14)011 "The Narragansett 
Planters" by Edward Channing, Ph. D., who was recently 

138 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

elected to membership. Judge Hamilton B. Staples has 
shown his continued interest in our Art collection by pre- 
senting a choice specimen of amateur photography. The 
subject is the house of Bishop Berkely during his residence 
in America, situated about four miles from Newport, Rhode 
Island ; and the artist is Miss Emma Column of Boston. It 
is quite certain that the camera of the amateur is to till an 
important place in antiquarian, historical and genealogical 
societies as an aid to an exact knowledge of localities and 
monumental inscriptions. It has been noticed that the 
habit of giving to some special department, is apt to grow 
not only with our members but with others interested in 
the Society's welfare. At this time we especially need 
such a friend in each of the departments of Biography and 
Bibliography. We have received a few Spanish-American 
books for the Davis Alcove from markets both foreign and 
domestic, and have further increased the collection through 
our exchanges. It seems wise, at least for the present, to 
use the income of the Davis fund chieily for the purchase 
of books relating to the Central American States. The 
Chandler, Haven, Thomas and Collection and Research 
funds have yielded fifteen, five, twenty-four and thirty- 
three volumes respectively. Vice-President Salisbury's 
gift includes the instructive volume which contains the 
touching and truthful tribute to our late lamented Presi- 
dent. Mr. Robert N. Toppan has sent a set of his own 
publications, and Judge James V. Campbell has made the 
transfer from his library to ours of a fine copy of Jelferys's 
American Atlas of 1770. The gift of the Rev. Dr. Merri- 
man includes not only two of his own historical and 
biographical productions but a large collection of periodi- 
cals of which we were in need. The results of Dr. 
Daniel G. Brinton's labors in the fruitful field of Arelueol- 
ogy, both as author and editor, he has been careful to 
gather and forward to the library. Mr. James F. Hunnewell 
has added to his gifts of "The Lands of Scott" and kk The 

1880.] Report of the Librarian. 139 

Historical Monuments of France," " The Imperial Island ; 
England's Chronicle in Stone," an exhaustive work which 
like those upon France and Scotland is based upon his own 
personal observations and study. It is a sketch of the 
historical monuments of England, and is chiefly illustrated 
from his own library. 

We are glad at this time to acknowledge from Mrs. 
Gincry Twichell and Miss Theolotia L. Twichell the receipt 
of the collection of books, pamphlets, pictures, relics, 
etc., of which brief mention was made in the librarian's 
report of last April. The large and generous gift is in 
memory of Hon. Ginery Twichell, and each article received 
has been designated for all time by an engraved label pre- 
pared and presented for that purpose. The gift comprises 
in round numbers fifteen hundred books, forty-one hundred 
pamphlets, one hundred framed engravings and photo- 
graphs, and ninety-five volumes of manuscripts. There is 
also a collection of relics among which may be named the 
Senatorial desk occupied from 1821 to 1851 by Hon. 
Thomas H. Benton. Attention is called to a fitting though 
unusual memorial edited by the late Dr. John Orne Green, 
a classmate of Hon. Stephen Salisbury, and sent to us by his 
son and namesake. It is entitled "The Parish Register of 
St. Anne's Church, Lowell, Mass., lie v. Theodore Edson, 
S.T.D., the first and only rector from March 7, 1824, to 
January 25, 1883." 

Mrs. Penelope L. Canfield's gift is, as usual, historical 
material of value, purchased for presentation to the Society. 
Miss Ellen M. Coe, Librarian of the New York Free Cir- 
culating Library, has gathered for us a complete set of the 
reports relating to that interesting experiment. Whatever 
may be the outcome of the present effort to secure a Free 
Library for the people of the great metropolis, it seemed 
important to preserve this history of a private effort to 
popularize good reading. Messrs. Drew, A His and Compa- 
ny's annual gift of a portion of the editions of their Newton, 

140 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Rochester and Worcester directories indicates large addi- 
tions to our duplicate-room, and suggests a mention of our 
desire to exchange duplicate slips with the historical or 
other societies which collect such material. The publishers 
are to be commended for having incorporated into their 
directories numerous statistics which are of special interest 
to the genealogist and biographer. Mr. Robert C. Win- 
throp, jr., has added to our already large and valuable 
collection of portraits of the early governors, that of 
Governor Joseph Dudley. It is accompanied by "Letters 
of John, Lord Cutts, to Colonel Joseph Dudley, the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of the Isle of Wight, afterwards Governor 
of Massachusetts, 1693-1700," which letters were edited 
by Mr. Winthrop. Mention should be made of a collec- 
tion of the addresses, speeches, reports, etc., of- lion. 
George B. Loving, which has been gathered with great 
care and presented by him. It will not be out of place to 
urge each member of this society not only to follow such 
an example but to accompany the gift with a complete 
check-list of his works, that an intelligent and vigorous 
search may be made for missing titles. It is not impossi- 
ble that in aid of such a movement a fund at once useful 
and unique might be offered for our acceptance. 

In the miscellaneous collection received from the family 
of the late Dr. William Workman an orderly-book of the 
American Army at Cambridge for September and October, 
1776, was brought to light. It finds many companion 
volumes in our new manuscript lobby where others of the 
same class will be most welcome. Mr. Alfred S. Roe, 
Principal of the Worcester High School, has placed in the 
library, eight of his photographic views of the exterior and 
interior of Antiquarian Hall ; and has continued his efforts 
to complete our set of the Methodist Quarterly Review. 
We wish to acknowledge a finding list by Mr. J. N. Lamed, 
Superintendent of the Young Men's Library of Buffalo, as 
it has been especially useful to us. Our collection of cata- 

16M,] Report vf flu XAbrarU \\\ 

old and w complete, an/1 ire 

maU be to it, part* all 

tfCCtiOftt Of America. Ufa WOtlld be J, 

not eaeily (bond rl lewnere tnd tell i ol die ft ,/m 

which our 1 

that ouj duplies . ,;ne of t. 

i/it been .. *ith 

Mr. Lamed of the Buffalo library, who i-, ■ 
eftbrt to | be New Yoj I 

Our Dmi Alcove r/f literature is 

indebted to Mi for 

Father i' lon'l le la Vuei r .^ ," four 

volui I 1>74. One bond 

eg of tine important work were printed at the charge 
Mr. Done ; kindly int.- r /,ia 

associate, John J ". Doyle, Ky^, it dnly sq 
'J :.. D Igt ti - ID .. M M .'. -_;-'»Os, we 

bare ; 1 ten selected Bpecfmemi from the If I .*>- 

rial Pre** of the Per, and Massachu?ett* 

Mil lor the J5iind. The imprint* range from 1 < - 

and among the authc vedenbe_ 

ifowe, Longfellow, Milton and Whittier. The gift is in 
reco_ of liberal subseriptiooa made to the printing 

fund by men be Society. The transfer of our 

duplicate Cburdb literature to the Registrar 

Dioceae of Massachusetts ha* led it- Bishop, liight h 

EL Paddock, D.D.. to acrid over four hundred 
. riean diocesan journals to fill gap-, in our col lection of 
they; historical document*. From the Worcester r 
Public Library we hare received with the teini-annual gift 
of newspaper* about one hundred duplicate hooka. 
have reciprocated by returning four hundred of that 
library's report*, some of which are now very difficult to 
obtain. Our ability to make such a return i ndica t es the 

142 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

generous extent to which our storehouse has been used for 
the preservation of material which would otherwise have 
been destroyed. We are indebted to the United States 
Department of the Interior not only for the customary 
supplies received as a depository, but for valuable aid 
received by way of exchange, in completing our sets of the 
Congressional Globe, Record, etc. Through the Superin- 
tendent of its Document Room, Mr. John G. Ames, and 
by the cooperation of the larger American libraries, we arc 
in a fair way of having a satisfactory answer to the oft- 
repeated question, "what shall we do with our government 
duplicates ?" Mr. Ames has successfully collected and 
re-distributed large quantities of the Globe and Record, 
thereby tilling the small gaps in the large libraries, and 
many of the large gaps in the small ones. It will readily 
be seen that this plan can just as easily be carried out with 
the other classes of United States publications, and it is 
hoped that Mr. Ames will not only be empowered but 
encouraged to do so. As a national society, we have 
taken an early and active interest in the matter, having sent 
forward over two thousand volumes to be placed to our 
credit on this large exchange. To our President, Senator 
Hoar, for many years a member of the Library of Congress 
Committee, and to Councillor Samuel S. Green of the 
American Library Association Committee on the Distribu- 
tion of Public Documents, we owe much for their intelli- 
gent and helpful interest in this important movement. We 
are glad to note the opening, since the October meeting of 
the American Library Association, of new avenues for the 
distribution of our duplicates and the receipt of desirable 
material therefor. Benevolent, educational, historical and 
scientific institutions have thus received either their own 
publications, or such as related to their special fields of 
labor. We have, for instance, supplied the Vermont 
Historical Society with tiles of early Vermont newspapers 
not before upon their shelves. It will be remembered that 

188G.] Iiej)ort of the Librarian. 143 

the great collection of newspapers made by Henry Stevens, 
the father of our associate who lately died in London, was 
burnt with the Vermont State House in 1857. 

Bearing in mind the Rev. Dr. Peabody's remark in the 
Council report of last October, that "the most authentic 
and instructive form of history is biography," a successful 
effort has been made to enrich that department by our 
exchanges. Practical sympathy with Hobart College in 
the loss of its library by tire, has been shown by a gift of 
books, chiefly theological and philological. 

Reference was made at the last meeting to a "Scheme 
of a Lottery for the American Antiquarian Society," which 
was projected but not carried out. The reading of Mr. 
Henry M. Brooks's " Curiosities of the Old Lottery" has 
again brought the subject to mind and suggests the printing 
of our scheme at this time. The draft, which is in the 
handwriting of President Thomas and is not dated, is as 
follows : 

Scheme of a Lottery foii tiie American Antiq'n Society. 


1 of 25000 Dollars. 

1 5000 do. 

1 4000 do. 

1 3000 do. 

2 2000 do. 
6 1000 do. 
G 500 do. 


1 of the price of 4000 dollars, entitled to 1G000 chances. 

1 of 



do. 12000 


1 of 



do. 8000 


5 of 



each entitled to 4000 


10 of 



do. 2000 


15 of 



do. 1000 


20 of 



do. GOO 


50 of 



do. 400 


144 American Antiquarian Society. [April 

100 of the price of 50 dollars, entitled to 

200 of 

500 of 
3000 of 
25000 of 
97000 of 25 cents each or \ 





























The Chances, not the Tickets, will be numbered for drawing, 
and all the Numbers will be put into the wheel before the draw- 
ing commences. 

Every Chance will be entitled to the whole of the prize drawn 
against its number. 

A Ticket of the price of 25 cents has one Chance and may 
draw the highest or one of the other prizes. 

Every Ticket, the price of which exceeds 25 cents, will have 
as many Chances as there are quarters of a dollar in the price 
of the ticket, l. e. A ticket of the price of one Dollar will have 
four Chances — a ticket of the price of five dollars will have 
twenty chances — and so on. 

The numbering of the Chances will begin on the Ticket of the 
highest price, viz., that of 1000 dollars, and will embrace 16U00 
numbers or chances, beginning with No. 1, and ending with No. 
1G000. — The numbering will be continued on the ticket bearing 
the next highest price, viz., that of 3000 dollars ; the numbers on 
this ticket will begin with No. 1G001, and end with No. 28000; 
and in this manner will the numbering of the Chances be con- 
tinued through the whole of the Tickets. 

As no Blanks will be put into the wheel, every number which 
is drawn must be a prize — therefore as the highest priced tickets 
have a number 'of Chances proportionable to their prices, they 
may each in that proportion draw several, or even all of the 

This Scheme is calculated for a Lottery the Tickets for which 
will amount to 110,000 dollars. Four Chances to a dollar. — 
60,000 dollars to be drawn in prizes— :^0. 000 for the beneiit of 
the Institution, — and 10,000 allowed for managing the Lottery — 
expenses attending the selling and drawing — Losses, &c. 

One Class only is proposed. 

The Possessors of the highest priced Tickets may divide and 
subdivide them at pleasure, and part with any number of the 
Chances which they contain designating their numbers. 

Our collection of steel, copper, zinc and other plates has 
been so useful that wc are tempted to ask for more of them. 

1886.] Report of .the Librarian. 145 

Properly labelled and dated they may beeome as useful 
historically as medals and coins, and for practical purposes 
more so. During the period of the United States Centen- 
nial Celebration, many calls were made upon us in the city 
of its publication for wood-cuts used by Barber in his His- 
torical Collections of Massachusetts, but it was not until 
after the time of greatest interest had passed that they 
were discovered in private hands near Boston. 

The framed portraits, engravings, etc., which have been 
collecting for the year past have been carefully hung in vari- 
ous vacant spaces in the hall. Others may be placed on the 
walls near the stairways leading to the main hall, which 
are still available for that purpose. In an emergency the 
gallery railings could be used. It is proper to remind our 
members and friends that the city of the Society's birth 
and habitation has no public art gallery, and that therefore 
the field is an open one. 

A few sets of our Proceedings belonging to members 
may be made complete by the addition of the addresses of 
Goodwin, Holmes or Jenks, or the By-Laws of 1821, and 
they are greatly desired for that purpose. The plan men- 
tioned of collecting and redistributing the documents of 
Nations and States may with equal force be urged upon 
institutions and municipalities. 

The Ilev. Dr. Hale referred at the last meeting to the 
Society's valuable collection of canes formerly owned by 
distinguished persons, a list of whose names perished in 
1885 by the sudden death of the librarian ! It reminded 
your present librarian to secure, if possible, a knowledge 
of what the various characters mean which are placed upon 
the ante-revolutionary title slips prepared by Dr. Thomas 
and Samuel Foster Haven, Jr., M.D. The only reference 
in the preface to the second edition of the History of 
Printing is as follows: "His plan [Thomas's] included 
the insertion of various points of information, such as 
the number of pages in each work when known, and the 

140 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

indication of reprints by a sign." A careful study of the 
characters which are as follows: [* X \ H §] does not 
thus far help to solve the mystery. They may indicate 
where the titles or books are to be found. It is barely 
possible that some of our earlier members may be able to 
throw light upon this dark subject. 

Members and correspondents who have not found the 
title-page and index to Proceedings, volume two, new 
series, are informed that it is stitched to the last number 
of that volume. This would seem to be the safer way of 
distributing them, though with volumes one and three they 
were sent separately to avoid delaying the circulation of 
the Proceedings. A labor-saving plea is entered for more 
care in stating the dates of birth and death in all obituary 
or biographical notices. Librarians are well aware of the 
frequent omission of these all-important facts from notices 
otherwise full and accurate. An examination of the photo- 
graphs of members — so far as we possess them — will show 
how attractive as well as biographically useful our treas- 
urer intends to make them. 

Among the works of national interest in the preparation 
of which we have continued to assist is Sabin's valuable 
Dictionary of Books relating to America, now in the edito- 
rial charge of Mr. Wilberforce Eames. It is important 
that this work upon which Mr. Joseph Sabin labored so 
industriously and for so many years, and the first of whose 
ninety numbers was issued as early as January, 1807, 
should not fail of completion for lack of bibliographical or 
pecuniary aid. Its more than nine thousand pages have 
been of great advantage to us as well as to the scholars who 
have frequented the library. Mr. Eames's separately 
printed pamphlet on the various editions of the Bay Psalm 
Book— which he has forwarded to the library — shows how 
carefully he has sought for light on the hidden things of 
bibliography. The reprinting of other similar lists from 
the body of the work is much to be desired. Such a list 

1886.] Report of the Librarian. 147 

for instance as that of the Mather publications would easily 
lead in fulness and accuracy all others yet prepared. 

The list of American societies and institutions to which 
our Proceedings are sent having been carefully revised, it is 
suggested that the same course should be taken with that of 
our foreign corresponding societies. It is important that as 
complete sets as possible of our publications should be 
found in the leading library centres of Europe. As but six 
complete sets of the Transactions remain, the reprinting of 
Volume Two should be a subject for early consideration. 

It is fortunate that we have upon our Council scholars 
who not only know the value of rare books but those also 
who have served as directors of free public libraries, and 
thus know the difference between the library of reference 
and that for circulation. That our library of American 
history may be more freely used by members and all others 
who will appreciate its privileges and obey its rules is, I 
am sure, the wish of all who have its increase and safety 
most at heart. We may well recall Prof. Winsor's words 
in his first report as librarian of Harvard University, when 
he said : "I try never to forget that the prime purpose of 
a book is to be much read : though it is equally true that 
we are under obligations to posterity to preserve books 
whose loss may be irreparable, and that the present gene- 
ration cannot always decide correctly which books are the 
most precious." The connection of Mr. Winsor's thoughts 
and their application to our own library are alike clear and 
suggestive, and in closing this report I can do no better 
than to adopt them as my own. 

Respectfully submitted. 



148 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Donors anfc Donations, 


Aldricii, Hon. P. Emory, Worcester.— I$is argument before the Committee 
of Education of the Massachusetts Legislature in favor of a grant to the 
Worcester Free Institute; and u Reports of Massachusetts Controverted 
Elections, 1853— 1885." 

Barton, Mr. Edmund M., Worcester.— Nineteen photographs; and ''St. 
John's Echo," as issued. 

BARTON, William 8., Esq., Worcester.— A Cabinet photograph of himself. 

Brinton, Daniel G., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa.— Four of his brochures, viz.: 
"Notes on the Mangue, an Extinct Dialect formerly spoken in Nicaragua"; 
"Study of the Nahuatl Language"; " Polysynthesis and Incorporation as 
Characteristics of American Linguistics," and " leonographic Encyclopaedia, 
Anthropology and Ethnology." 

Butler, James D.,LL.D., Madison, Wis.— His "French Fort at Prairie du 
Chieu, and Tay-cho-pe-rah — The Four Lake Country." 

CAMPBELL, Hon. Jamks V., Detroit, Mich.— Jefferys's American Atlas, fob, 
London, 177l>; and the Semi-Centennial Number of the Detroit Free Press. 

CiianninG, Edward, Ph. I)., Cambridge.— His " Narragansett Planters." 

CLARKE, Robert, Esq., Cincinnati, O.— The Marshall Family ; Force's "Ob- 
servations on the Letters of Amerigo Vespucci;" The Sixteenth Reunion of 
the Society of the Army of the Cumberland; and two historical pamphlets. 

Colton, Mr. Keubkn, Worcester. — Six Volumes of Early Newspapers; and 
Thirty Numbers of Magazines. 

Davis, Mr. ANDREW McF., Cambridge.— Thirty-four books and two hundred 
and seventeen pamphlets, including four of his own publications. 

Davis, Hon. Edward L., Worcester. — Two books; and thirty-one pam- 

Davis, Hon. Horace, San Francisco, Cal. — His "American Constitution — 
The Relations of the Three Departments as adjusted by a Century"; and 
two pamphlets. 

DevenjS, Gen. Charles, Worcester. — Twelve War Maps, chiefly of Vir- 

Oilman, Daniel C, LL.D., Baltimore, Md. — His paper on "The Benefit 
which Society derives from Universities"; and his annual report for 1885 as 
President of Johns Hopkins University. 

GREEK, Hon. Samuel A., Boston.— His " boundary Lines of Old Groton"; 
his Groton Historical Series, Nos. IX. and X.; the American .Journal of 
Numismatics, as issued; forty-eight books; and one hundred and sixteen 

1886.] Donors and Donations. 149 

Guild, Reuben A., LL.D., Providence, It. I. — The Catalogue of Brown 
University, 1885-6. 

Hale, Rev. Edward E., D.D., Boston.— Twelve Numbers of the Atlantic 

Hioginson, Col. Thomas W., Cambridge. — His "Larger History of the 
United States of America to the close of President Jackson's Adminis-, 
tration." / 

Hoar, Hon. George F., Worcester.— " Celebration of the Two Hundiv'i and 
Fiftieth Anniversary of tlie Incorporation of Concord, Mass.," iueb'.Jing the 
oration by Mr. Hoar; a Memorial of Senator Anthony, containing Senator 
Hoar's address ; Poore's Descrii)tivc Catalogue of U. S. Government Publi- 
cations; the Official Records of the War of the Kebelliouas issued; and one 
hundred and fifteen pamphlets. /< 

Hunnewell, Mr. James F., Charlestown. — H]*' "The Imperial Island, 
England's Chronicle in Stone." ,-• 

Huntington, Rev. William R., D.D., H£w York.— His Sermon Commem- 
orative of Thomas Butler Coddington ;-'and the Year Book of Grace Church, 
New York, 1S85-6. 

Jones, Hon. Charles C, Jr., Augusta, Ga. — His Tribute to Gen. Robert 

Mkrriman, Rev. Daniel^^.D., Worcester.— His Central Church, old and 
new, 1820—1885; " H/jVIeinoriam William Hutchinson," containing Dr. Mer- 
riman's Tribute :/six books; two hundred and thirty-nine miscellaneous 
pamphlets; Th^' Nation, 18G9 — 1874; live hundred and live numbers of maga- 
zines; and otfe map. 

Nelson, FWn. Thomas L., Worcester.— Ten books; and ninety-one pamphlets, 
of an historical character. 

NoujtfsK, Hon. Henry S., Lancaster.— Annual Report of the Lancaster Town 
iry, 1886. 

T'aine, Nathaniel, Esq., Worcester.— Webb's Account of "The Library of 
Nathaniel 1'aine"; Manuscript Map of Worcester Centre, by Mr. Paine; 
three books; two hundred and twenty-three pamphlets; eighty-three num- 
bers of magazines; and live tiles of newspapers. 

Parkman, Francis, LL.D., Boston.— His "Some of the Reasons Against 
Woman SullVage." 

Peet, Rev. Stephen I)., Clinton, Wis.— His American Antiquarian and 
Oriental Journal, as issued. 

Perry, Right Rev. Wm. Stevens, D.D., Davenport, Ta.— The Iowa Cliurch- 
mau, as issued, containing many articles by Bishop Perry. 

Poole. William P., LL.D., Chicago, 111.- The Dial, as issued, containing 
articles and reviews by Dr. Poole. 

Putnam, Prof. Frederick W., Cambridge.— His remarks on " Jadeite Orna- 
ments from Central America"; the Twentieth Annual Report of the Massa- 
chusetts Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Salishury, Stephen, Esq., Worcester.— A Memorial of Stephen Salisbury, 
of Worcester, Mass., containing Air. Salisbury's Introduction; thirty books; 
two hundred and eight) numbers of magazines; and two hundred and four- 
teen pamphlets. 

150 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Smucker, lion. Isaac, Newark, O. — Various magazines ami newspapers, 
containing articles by him; and twelve Ohio pamphlets. 

Smyth, Rev. Egbert C, D.D., Audover.— The Andover Theological Sem- 
inary Catalogue, 1SS5-8G. 

Staples, Hon. Hamilton B., Worcester.— A framed photograph of the house 

of Bishop Berkoly during liis residence in America. 
Thomas, Hon. Edward I., Brookline.— The l'eirce Genealogy; and two 

ToPPAN, Mr. Robert N., Cambridge. — Three of his own publications. 
Trumbull, Hon. J. Hammond, Hartford, Conn.— His "Origin and Early 

Progress of Indian Missions in New England"; and •■ The Protestant Tutor 

for Youth," London, 1715. 
Winsor, Mr. Justin, Cambridge.— His "Two Brief Papers. Being the 

Abandoned Boston : The Extent of the Continental Army Misconceived"; 

his eighth report as Librarian of Harvard University; and Harvard Univer- 
sity Bulletin, as issued. 
WiNTHROP, Hon. Robert C, Boston.— His address at the Dedication of the 

Washington Monument, January 21, 1885; and his Tributes to General Grant 

and Samuel Wetmore. 


Aiken, Mr. John, Worcester.— Taylor's Universal System of Stenography. 
Anagnos, Mr. M., Secretary, South Boston.— Nine hound volumes, printed by 

the Howe Memorial Press, in raised type, for the use of the blind. 
Babbidge, lie v. Charles, Pepperell.— Proceedings of the Semi-Centennial 

Anniversary of his Ordination. 
Bailey, Mr. Isaac 11., Boston.— His Shoe and Leather Reporter, as issued, 

and the Annual for 1886. 
Baldwin, Messrs. John D., and Company, Worcester.— Their Daily and 

Weekly Spy, as issued. 
Banes, Charles E., M.D., Chelsea.— His "Col. Alexander Rigby: a Sketch 

of his Career and Connection with Maine." 
Harbour, Rev. John II., Librarian, Hartford, Conn.— The Report to the 

Corporation of Trinity College, June 24, 1865. 
Basadre, Senor Modisto, Lima, Peru.— His " Reque/as Peruanas. Collec- 

cion do Articulos deseriptivos Escritos para La Tribuna." 
Bassett, Hon. William, Berlin. —His History of Richmond, N. II. 
BEE It8, Rev. JOHN S.,Natiek.— Ten pamphlets. 
Bkrrien, J. Lindsley, M.I)., Secretary, Nashville, Tniin. — The Second 

Report of the Tennessee State Board of Health. 
Blake, Mr. Francis E., Boston.— fttn " Rutland and the Indian Troubles of 

1723-80"; and his " Some Worcester Matters, 1888—1748." 
Blanchard AND Corbin, Messrs., Worcester.— Their Worcester Pocket 

Boa RDM AN, Hon. SAMUEL L., Augusta, Me.— His Home Farm, as issued. 
Bodge, Rev. George M., Boston.— His " Narragansetf Fort Fight, December 

19, 1075." 

1886.] Donors and Donations. 151 

Bradford, Edward IL, M.D., Boston.— The Seventeenth Annual Report of 
the Children's Hospital, Boston. 

Brown, Mr. Kdwin, Worcester.— Kittredgc and Gould's "History of the 
American Card Clothing Industry." 

Burhank, Mr. Charles H., Lowell.— The Lowell Year Book, 18S5-S6 ; and 
an urtiele upon the Lowell Free Library. 

Burgess, Rev. Francis G., Worcester.— One pamphlet. 

Canmeld, Mrs. P. S.L., Worcester.— Twelve valuable historical and biograph- 
ical works; and six pamphlets. 

Carpenter, Rev. Charles C, Andover.— Two historical pamphlets; and 

one newspaper. 

Chalmers, Mr. Patrick, Wimbledon, G. B.— His paper on the Adhesive 

Postage Stamp and Benny Postage Reform. 
Clark, Rev. George F., Huhbardston.— Thirteen Good Templar pamphlets. 
Clarke, Mr. George K., Needham.— The second edition of his Genealogy of 

the Descendants of Nathaniel Clarke of Newbury, Mass. 
Coe, Miss Ellen M., Librarian, New York.— The annual reports of the New 

York Free Circulating Library, 1880-1885. 
Colton, Mr. John B., New York.— Twenty numbers of " Harper's Weekly ;" 

and nine numbers of *• Old and New." 
Cook, Mr. Henry IL, Barn;.— His Gazette, as issued. 
Corey, Mr. Deloraine P., Maiden.— Two pamphlets relating to the Maiden 

Public Library. 
Crocker, Uriel IL, Esq., Boston.— His "History of a Title. A Conveyan- 
cer's Romance." 
Darling, Gen. Charles W., Utiea, N. Y.— His poem on the Central Park 

Obelisk; and Campbell's " Historical Fallacies of New York." 
Davis, Capt. George E M Burlington, Vt.— Proceedings of the Reunion Society 

of Vermont Oihcers, 18W-18S4. 
Denny, Mr. Christopher C, Leicester.— His ''Descendants of Daniel 

Denny of Leicester, in the Fourth Generation, living January 1, 1SSG; " and 

ten manuscript .sermons of Rev. Elishu Rockwood, D.D., of Wcstborough, 

Dickinson, Mr. G. Stuart, Worcester.— Two silver and fifty-nine copper 

coins; nine pieces of rebellion currency; and a collection of Canada postage 

Doe, Messrs. Charles H. and Company, Worcester.— Their Daily and 

Weekly Gazette, as issued. 
Donohoe, Mr. Joseph A., San Francisco, Cal.— " Noticias de la Nueva 

California," i vols., 8vo, San Francisco, 187L 
Drew, Allis and Company, Messrs., Worcester.— Two hundred and one 

numbers of their city directories. 
Eamks, Mr. Wiluereorce, New York.— His List of Editions of the "Bay 

Psalm Book" or New England Version of the Psalms. 
Earle, Tliny, M.D., Northampton.— Eight books; and ninety-four pam- 
phlets, relating to insanity. 

152 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Eaton, Mr. Amasa M., Providence, K. L— His '* French Spoliation Claims 

and Rhode Island Claimants." 
Folsom, Capt. ALBERT A., Boston.— The Two Hundred and Forty-Seventh 

Annual Record of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 
Foote and IIorton, Me ssrs., Salem.— Their Gazette, as issued. 
Forbes, Robert B., Esq., Boston.— His •' Notes on Ships of the Past." 
Fosdick, Hon. FREDERICK, Mayor, Fitchburg.— Fitchburg City Documents, 


Foster, Mr. William E., Providence, R. I.— His "Town Government in 

Rhode Island." 
Fuller, Homer T., Ph.D., Worcester.— The Free Institute Catalogue of 

1836; and Judge Aldrich's Argument for Aid to the Technical School. 
Goss, Mr. Elbridge H., Melrose.— Reports of the Town Ollicers of Melrose 

for 1885. 

Funk and Wagnalls, Messrs., New York.— Their " Voice," as issued. 
GREENE, J. Orne, M.D., Boston.— The Parish Register of St. Anne's Church, 

Lowell, Mass., March 7, 1824, to June 25, LS83. 
Greene, Mr. Richard W., Worcester.— " El Mercurio," in continuation. 
Greenough, William W., Esq., Boston.— "The Descendants of Richard 

Gardner of Woburn of the Name of Gardner." 
Hammond, Lewis W., Esq., Worcester.— Seven books; and twenty-two 

Harlow, Mr. FREDERICK B., Worcester.— Gulielmensian : published by the 

Senior Class, '85, of Williams College; and three college pamphlets. 
Harris, Mr. George II., Rochester, N. Y.— His Aboriginal Occupation of the 

Lower Genessee Country; and his History of Reynold's Arcade, Rochester, 

N. Y. 
Hart, Charles II., Esq., Philadelphia, Pa.— The Seventy-Ninth Annual 

Report of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, prepared by Mr. Hart; 

and Thayer's "Western Journey with Mr. Emerson." 
IIassam, John T., Esq., Boston.— Suffolk Deeds, Liber III. 
Hazen, Rev. Henry A., Secretary, Boston.— The Congregational Year Book 

Horsford, Prof. Eben Norton, Cambridge —His " Indian Names of Boston 

and their Meaning; " and his " John Cabot's Landfall in 1497 and the Site of 

Howland, Mr. Henry J., Worcester.— Seven pamphlets. 
Hubbard, Mr. Luther P., Secretary, New York.— The Eightieth Anniver- 
sary Celebration of the New England Society in the City of New York. 
RULING, Mr. Ray Greene, Fitchburg.— His Catalogue of Phamogamous and 

Vascular Cryptogamous Plants of Fitchburg and Vicinity. 
Hyde, Mr. William, Ware.— Keep's Early History of the Town and Church 

of Bland ford. 
Kellogg and Stratton, Messrs., Fitchburg.— Their Sentinel, as issued. 
Lane, Hon. George W., Secretary, Santa P6, N. M. -Rilch's "Azllan. 

The History, Resources and Attractions of New Mexico." 

[$$i tbt c md Ik 1 1 i 

LABMim Mr 4. 5., H'tj^r'a^o.'^:'.. V*it* ? **m, \M, *A 

"/ry, Pofcfe*, Bfograffc/. <><**?r»*ftry, TrareJ a»J Aach n^ ta y r, fa ffce 
V«, J Jararr. 

I**'. J'rotW**** V. I T if i f tf> aTataY filial 

Lr.*.uo*, Mr. 4x(j f y. f La«re***Miri, T*am,- Him frtm, aw fcaaed, 
UM> Mr WB4MCB H. Safea^-Th* gaiaat, p + tolu. 4 at the Jbfeai OraUrV, 
faefetr Fair, W». 

UM F„ fTorteater^-Ilfc \a*Xkt <A WHiArxwal fr«a» tt* 
l'rot*«taaC llpfaeooal Chfnd. 

. V/irj, Vf'xr****^- Traawa#*ioa» of ta* 
Worceater Ciwnt y Hortknbaral Saetety for t9g, 
Ubcuui .- - :ii«ktmi.^Tk Cdtkaltoi «f tkt 

Two f fu»WJ aad Fiftieth Aaaiveraary of tfce 4ettfea»»at of the Tow a of 

■ ■ •gfcaaJ." 

Iaz'.ols. i,Mu. Willi i* t., IToreeater^— Three pam+mkt*. 
LtfftlXC, lloa. i»9J>itf,Y. B., &tka*~~r"tve hill rilaw i aari Sweaty-wix aoe** 
eoataJ a tag -wk Jr e m ot aa4 ia<u»ia e> »» *-re»l hy haa o» rarfaa* 

/Jiic ; Mr. (I < ; IToreealer,— *- ftoiat Y*%tr** CaaV 

M t araa y ALfsKirr J\, FU-L>., Jfm§trimifw4fmi, Woree»t«*v— JJa» reaori of tft* 

Woreeater fl >ap » h , 1 
Hay. lUrt. lUmtmL, I>fcirmter^-T1M; Twea*j-#fth !■— id fceaert *f the 

inr*xx,t% of the PaMk library of L*i***t*r, Ma**, 
MniMM, Ms. 4\Mf* 1L, Ware*****.— Urn ~ ITorccaler Tha**," a* banL 

■a?ICai*T, Mr. UlUi B., Woreeaier/— j&uj^are* |iii|M !■; aa*i the 
* Chriaiaa UaioaV ia tuatiaa nit a. 

(/FLTXsr. Mr. *Uf;flA*f>, Weceewer,— Two mm***** of the - Wore****? Mac^a- 

time? WV>. 

I'AinM* K, KieM Err. Brx^mi* H JrD Bvca. — ^ Tar 

aaJ foar haairni aael :htrtj-oae ******** jiaraai of the 
Prof*** aat Efit a yl Chart*. 

Fr§A»irx, 8r. ASTOVfO, Me-xVo.— H'» *-St«Jkrt» Getrpatam «e Mtxftm. 
Catak^» Aifafcef m «e Ian g a a afcr w* 4e hapar ptt umniemun * abna 

PntKis*. Mr. AlWiajlpa T^ fk**m.—llM ~ Frtratc rra*f y r ia ft . l a» or*tr to 
areacrre nrfaM aaatter* ta— iifttial with lie Ttztom ¥\m uf S' 

YmuiM, Mr. iLMXi M- r AiXuru. --Hi- - 
the Faaaiftr of C^or/e PTm*So»; ^ aad "Tat 

I'MLur*, Brr. Orofc^r W^ W<m*#*r.— Hm - M i raw Meaac* » a 

> '-•- -. :•'. •< - .-> - -"-' 

FuLLAar *r. Mr. »•■■■■, C*mtm± X. U-— «a» - Tfcr Oaardk a* K at: 
Forlora Hove of 9*aterf ." 

Fcrtrfcix. Mr. *mar MT„ Z>ir««or, W na a atf ia , 1». C.-Ta* Taawi 
Ke^/rt of the Boreas of 

154 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Reynolds, Mr. Mortimer P., Rochester, N. Y.— Peck's Semi-(Vntennial 

History of Rochester, N. Y.; and a photograph of Mrs. Abelard Reynolds, 

ii centenarian, and her son. 
Rice, Rev. Charles B., Darners.— His Sermon preached at the Dedication of 

the House of Worship of the Congregational Church in Conway, N. II. 
Rice, Mr. Franklin P., Worcester.— Blake's "Rutland and the Indian 

Troubles of 172;{-30," and " Some Worcester Matters, 1008-1 713;" andclevcn 

historical pamphlets. 
RIDER, Mr, Sidnky S., Providence, R. I.— His Hook Notes, as issued. 
Kobinson, Miss Mary, Worcester.— The Year-Hook of Salem Street Church, 

Worcester, April, 1880. 
Roe, Mr. Alfred S., Worcester.— His Sketch of the Life of George Seelye of 

Rose, New York; eight photographic views of Antiquarian Hall; one histori- 
cal pamphlet ; twenty-one numbers of periodicals; and Harper's Bazar for 

1885; a tile of " The Old Guard," published in connection with the G. A. IS. 

Fair in Worcester, 1880; The High School Argus, volumes 1 and 2. 
Russell, Miss Anna U., Lancaster.— Rover's French Dictionary: Rouen, 

4ro, 1802. 
Samson, Rev. George YV\, D.D., New York.— His Baptist Succession or 

Raptist Principles in Church History. 
Siiarpe, Jacob, Governor, Milwaukee, Wis.— His Report of 1885 on the 

North-western Branch National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers. 
Shew, Abeam M., M.D., Superintendent, Middlctown, Conn. — Twentieth 

Report of the Trustees of the Connecticut Hospital for the Insane. 
Smith, Fdwin C, M.D., Superintendent, Morristown, N. J.— The Tenth 

Annual Report of the State Asylum for the Insane, at Morristown, N. J. 
Smith, Mr. James W., Alkali, Oregon.— Photograph of the tooth of u mam- 
moth found near Arlington, Oregon. 
Snively, Rev. William A., D.D., Brooklyn, N. Y.— His " Genealogical 

Memoranda. Snively, A. D. 105!)— A. D. 1882." 
Spalding, Mr. Edwin H., Nashua, N. II.— New Hampshire Register* for 

1884 and 1885. 
Staples, Mr. Samuel E., Worcester.— One pamphlet. 
Stockwell, Mr. George A., Providence, R. L— His Rhode Island Almanac 

for 1880. 
Storrs, Rev. Richard S., LL.D., Brooklyn, N. Y.— His A. Ii. C. 1< . M. 

discourse on "The Prospective Advauee of Christian Missions Suggested by 

Present Lines of Movement in Christendom." 
Sturgis, Mrs. Henry P., Boston.— Seven pamphlets. 
Sumner, Mr. George, Worcester.— Additions and corrections to the Sumner 

Genealogy to January, 18S0; and one pamphlet. 
TaFT, George S., Esq., Uxbridge.— One pamphlet. 
Tillinghast, Charles B., Librarian, Boston.— Report of the Massachusetts 

State Library for 1885. 
Titus, Rev. Anson, Amesbury.— His " Wiswall Family of America;" and 

" Towns of Charlton." 

Amerkm A tf fpmt m A**4 [Aft* 

*" ■*** M\\\m%' m*t*m**$, *A 

***** MM**** « JfarfeUt, ;» ***** *A * 

*> ■ '«**** * ** * % 0m n -m, 

% * *% % % *< * **** * * ',*umr>toM. 

• iwturt. *#******~~ ******* ***** **+ *r 

■ r KMn um **^t** *+* ***** Mliom <A 

r*xrs ft**. i*k*+kt *r *»t, fm mm m ~ f*+, ***** %**% 

***** £** A m * ** *j*v*.--%¥ 9X* m* * '* tK*v*ka* AMmun, ***n*u> 

t*m% tmuf * 9%* -V*rir i,** *** ** * m*i * *m * m, m m»» 

QmmtA Uf*xf**f r *L *0SX*;t t. JUcil'« - f*y*mmt*ri m 1***0* ft* *- 

Ktr <vr rfm&m* ***+,-*%** Mt&srtm *t m**fj m* 

: " ; 

158 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

Worcester City Hospital, Trustees of.— The Fifteenth Annual Report. 

Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science.— The Six- 
teenth Annual Catalogue. 

Wohcesteu County Law Library Association.— Four books; and fifty- 
eight pamphlets. 

Worcester Free Public Library.— Ninety-seven books; two hundred 
and twenty-five pamphlets; and oue hundred and thirty-eight tiles of news- 

Worcester National Bank.— The New York Evening Post, in eontiuuation. 

Yale College.— The Catalogue of Officers and Students, 1S85-S6. 

1880.] English Sources of American Dialect. 159 



We all listened with interest, a year ago, to the very 
important paper of our President, Senator Hoar, on the 
Obligations of New England to the English County of 
Kent. He therein stated that he could give hut little time 
to the contributions of Kent to New England speech ; and 
the facts that he gave on this point were taken so far as 
they went, from the Provincial Dictionary of Holloway, 
published in 1838. I have' thought that it might interest 
the Society to follow up his contribution by a careful 
examination of two earlier dictionaries, since the gradual 
introduction of phrases is a subject into which the element 
of time of course enters largely ; the farther back we go, 
the less the opportunity for the threads of local dialect to 
have become intertwined. For this purpose I have selected 
the Provincial Glossary of the well-known Captain Francis 
Grose, a book first published in 1787, and of which my 
copy is the second, edition in 1790, containing some addi- 
tions. It is a book that has attained a less painful eminence 
than this author's exceedingly disreputable Classical Diction- 
ary of the Vulgar Tongue, published seven years earlier, 
but it is, like that, a landmark in its way. Grose is 
immortalized in Burns's lines : 

" Ken yc Might o' Captain Grose? 
[go and ago ; 
If he's amang his friends or foes? 
Irani, coram, dago." 

And it is pleasant to see that Grose, himself, kindly 
pats upon the shoulder his then humble boon-companion, 

160 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

announcing in his preface that he has ''received some 
assistance from the well-known poems of my [his] ingenious 
friend, Mr. Burns the Airshire poet." 

A supplement to Grose's Dictionary was published in 
1814 by Samuel Pegge, as an appendix to the second 
edition of his "Anecdotes of the English Language, chiefly 
regarding the Local Dialect of London and its Environs: 
whence it will appear that the Natives of the Metropolis 
and its Vicinities have not corrupted the Language of their 
Ancestors." These are the two books which I have gone 
through, noting all words now used in any part of this 
country, so far as I know ; with the local origin attributed 
to them by Grose or Pegge at the date of their two books. 

I confess that the result has greatly surprised me, the 
proportion of Kentish and Southern words being so small 
as to be numerically insignificant, and the proportion of 
North country words absolutely overwhelming. In both 
these books, it must be remembered, the general distinction 
made is of Northern and Southern, and it is only in the 
minority of cases that the separate county is named. I 
will read first the list of words, now in American use, 
attributed by Grose and Pegge to the North Country — 
and then the very short list attributed to Kent and to the 

North Country. (Grose.) 

Aye (for ever and aye). Clucking lien. 

Bale (danger, whence bale- To cotton. 

ful). Crate (a basket). 

Bidden (invited). To cream (as of beer). 

To boot (into the bargain). To crease (to fold up). 

Brake ( fern ) . Cricket ( a stool ) . 

Back (buckwheat). To crinkle (to rumple). 

Bumble-bee. To crumple (ditto). 

Char (chore). To cuddle (to huddle close). 

To cliomp (to chew ) . Dowse in the chops (a blow ) . 

1886.] English Sources of American Dialect. 


Effet or eft (water-newt). 
Flake (a hurdle — our fish- 

llames (harness). 
Hither and yon* 
Jamb (post). 
Inkling (a hint). 
To joggle. 
Knoll (a hill). 
As lief. 

Loon (a rustic). 
Pet (favorite). 
Pig gin. 

Rank (thick, as grass). 
To render (as tallow). 
Sad (heavy, as sad-irons). 
To scale (to spread evenly) . 
Scruff (of the neck). 

To slump (to slip as in snow. 

In South of England to 
Smudge (a smoke). 
To sell up. 
Spice (a sample). 
To sprawl. 

Staddle (support of hay-rick) . 
Swape (well-sweep). 
To swig. 
To swill. 

Swillings (swill, hogwash). 
Swingle-tree (whittle-tree). 
Tab (a cap string). 

Toll-bar (turnpike gate). 
To loiter. 
To trail. 
Whittle (a knife). 
Wizened (withered). 
To yaape (to cry, lament, as 


NoitTH Country. (Pegge.) 

To age. 

To feel badly (ill). 

Band (string, hatband). 

Besom (broom). 

To brain( knock out brains) . 

Brazen (impudent). 


Glean (entirely). 




To favor (resemble). 


Go in and abide it. 

Heel-tap (of liquor). 

To heir (an estate ; used by 

Honey (term of endear- 


American, Antiquarian Society, 



Mad (angry). 

Near (covetous). 
In a pet. 
Pips (on cards). 
Poorly (in health). 
Prime (good). 
To quail. 

To rag (to scold, to bully- 
rag ; old New England). 
To reach (to vomit). 
To reckon (to suppose). 
To run a rig upon. 


To rue. 

Shaft (in mine). 

Shinney (hockey). 

To shore up. 

Smut (in grain). 

Sodden, (overboiled). 

Stock (cattle). 

To sump. 

Throng (crowd). 


Timer some. 

To toddle. 

To thwack. 

Weir (dam). 

To bolt (food). (Kent and 

By Golls (oath much used 
among Whitstablc fisher- 

May bug. 


Banging (large). 


Flash (supply of water — 
whenco flash-board) . 

Heft (weight). 

Hunch (of bread) . 

Lady-Bird or lady-bug 
(called in North, lady- 


Coort (for cart — Marble- 
Hat dare (not N. E.). 
Plum (very — plum pleasant). 
To skid (a wheel). 


A nation many (Kent, Nor- 
folk, Suilblk). 


Rising (yeast). 

Spick and span new (the head 
of a spear being the spike, 
and the handle the span). 

To squirm. 

1886.] Englisli Sources of American Dialect. 163 

In making these lists I have tried to be strictly impartial, 
and not to be tempted to make out a case on either side. 
Supposing them fairly enough taken, we have in all 109 
words now used in America that were, in the beginning of 
this century, accounted in England as provincial and were 
accredited to the North of England ; against nine accredited 
to Kent, and nine to the South of England, making eighteen 
in all. The numerical disparity is enormous, and yet it must 
undoubtedly be admitted that the shorter list includes some 
of our most distinctive New England words ; as gumption, 
a nation many, heft, By Golls, the very local coort, and 
lady-bird or lady-bug, both of which forms are familiar 
among ourselves to the distinct exclusion of the North of 
England lady-cow. On the other hand two phrases out of 
the eighteen belong distinctly to the South and West, not 
New England, dare being a simple defect of utterance, but 
plum in the sense of complete, being a very distinct South- 
western phrase, with which Miss Murfree's works have 
made us familiar. And the longer list includes a large 
number of words that are local in New England; some of 
these being char,fiake, hames, staddle, swap, sivape, cute, 
mad and whittle. On the whole, the vast balance of num- 
bers seems to me an indication, so far as it goes, that the 
strain of our New England ancestry came more largely 
from the North of England than from Kent. 

But to show that all such inferences have but a limited 
value and that our American dialect has many mingled 
threads of descent, I will add these remaining words, which 
may be claimed as American, as given in Grose's and 
Pegge's vocabulary — with the part of England whence 
they came, wherever this is indicated. 

Miscellaneous. (Grose.) 

Aftermath. North and South. 

Cade-lamb (pet-lamb) . Norfolk and Suffolk, also in Rhode 

164 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Crib (corn-crib). North and South. 

Glum. Norfolk. 

To haul. Gloucester. 

Job. Norfolk. 

Jounce. Norfolk. 

Lawful case! (exclamation). Derbyshire. 

Muck. Lincolnshire. 

Noonings. Norfolk. 

Otherguess (otherguise). Common. 

Pelt. North and South. 

Prinked (dressed). Exmouth. 

To rough (trump). Various. 

Rouzabout (restless person — roustabout). West. 

Shackling (a shabby, rambling fellow, living at Shack). 

Sill (of door). Various. 
Snack (morsel). Various. 
Stark (mad, from German stark). Common. 

Tole (to entice). Berkshire. 
Tramp (beggar). Sussex. 
Tussle (struggle). North and South. 
All in a twitter. 
To wilt. South and West. 
Windrow. Norfolk and Suffolk. 

Miscellaneous. (Pegge. ) 

To aim (to do something). 

Batch (of bread). 

Brand-new (in Lancaster brand-span-new) . 

Burly (thick, clumsy). Lancaster. 


Deft (clever, skilful). 

Flapjack (a turnover, pasty); 

Gable-end. General. 

To guess so. Derbyshire. 

1880.] English Sources of American Dialed. 165 

Hale (.strong, healthy). 
IFelve. Derbyshire. 

To heed. 

Jforseblock. Lancashire* 

Quandary. Various. 
Ramshackle Hampshire. 
To scotch (a wheel). Lancashire. 
Sleepers (beams of a floor). 
Spare (thin). 

It must always he remembered that one of these glossa- 
ries dates back seventy-two years and the other nearly a 
hundred ; both belonging to a period when railroads were 
not, and when the different parts of England were more 
detached for social purposes than London and Edinburgh 
are now. Since then these dialects have been so inter- 
mingled by contact that it surprises Us to hear that such 
words as slim and gawky were ever regarded as local. It 
is yet more astonishing to find in these old lists words that 
are usually regarded as recent London slang — thus the 
too-too of ajstheticism, which Grose reports as used in the 
North of England in 1790, being "used absolutely, for 
very well, or good." Another such phrase is the word 
as one hears it in London to-day, and as it was also heard 
in Cumberland in Grose's time, in the sense of certain. 
"He is safe enough for being hanged" is Grose's illustra- 
tion ; but I was out in a boat on the Thames with a young 
Londoner and his family, eight years ago, when he impetu- 
ously called out to his wife, "My dear, if you let those 
boys sit there, they are safe to be overboard in live 
minutes." Sometimes we come upon phrases in these old 
glossaries too poetic to be forgotten, as where the afternoon 
in the North of England was called undern, that is under- 
noon, or where in Gloucester the openings left in steeples 
and towers for the admission of light were called dream- 
holes, as if wandering dreams drifted through them. h\ 
other cases we find grotesque confusions of thought such as 

160 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

now come to us only through the medium of the kitchen. 
Tin is defined as him by Grose, who adds that this is "par- 
ticularly [in] Hampshire, where everything is masculine 
except a boar-cat, which is always called site." In reading 
this I was reminded of certain handmaidens in my own 
household, who, after rejoicing all winter in the supposed 
masculinity of a favorite cat and the consequent freedom 
from all fears of an increase of family, came to me with the 
indignant announcement, the other day, "He's got a litter 
of kittens, Sir." 

If the result of this inquiry into the origin of our dialect 
is not just what was expected, it must be said that it 
does not in the least impair the value of our President's 
argument as to the debt of New England and America to 
the Kentish institutions. So complex and difficult are all 
matters of local derivation that it is no uncommon thing in 
history for the evidence of language to point one way and 
that of institutions and habits another. So far as these 
two early glossaries are concerned, their analysis would 
seem to show that the similarity of character which litis 
been so often pointed out between New Englanders and 
Scotchmen is to be traced in language as well — for a large 
part of these North of England phrases harder closely on 
the Lowland Scotch of Scott and Burns. It is a curious 
fact that the British visitors to this country who have 
most readily comprehended our character and ways have 
repeatedly been Scotchmen — among whom are conspicuous 
George Combe in the last generation and Professor Bryce 
and Sir George Campbell in the present. In many respects, 
certainly, we seem more like Scotchmen than Kentish- 
men. Nor is this in any respect a phrase of discourage- 
ment. Even. Dr. Johnson admitted that much might be 
made out of a Scotchman if he could only be caught young ; 
and as most of these present to-day were caught in America 
at as early a period of their age as it is possible to catch 
any one, there is certainly hope for all of us. 

Vol. IV. 

New Series. 

Part 3. 




American gmtiquarian jlarietg, 

■ * 



OCTOBER 21, 1886. 


Worcester : 

31 1 Main Street. 



1 J 


Proceedings at the Meeting . . . . , .j . . , jy 167 

Report of the Council. The connection of Massachusetts with 

Slavery and the Slave-Trade 178 

Report of the Treasurer , 223 

Report of the Librarian . . . 228 

Donors and Donations .... 239 

Archaeological Research in Yucatan 248 

1880.] Proceedings, 167 



The President, the Hon. George F. Hoar, LL.D., in 

the chair. 

The following members were present (the names being 
arranged in order of seniority of membership) : George E. 
Ellis, Edward E. Hale, Charles Dearie, George F. Hoar, 
William S. Barton, Andrew P. Peabody, George Chandler, 
Nathaniel Paine, Joseph Sargent, Stephen Salisbury, P. 
Emory Aldrich, Samuel A. Green, Elijah B. Stoddard, 
George S. Paine, William A. Smith, Francis H. Dewey, 
James F. Hunnewell, John 1). Washburn, Ben : Perley 
Poore, Edward H. Hall, Albert H. Hoyt, Reuben A. 
Guild, Charles C. Smith, Edmund M. Barton, Lucius R. 
Paige, Franklin B. Dexter, Charles A. Chase, Samuel S. 
Green, Justin Winsor, Henry W. Haynes, Edward I. 
Thomas, Horatio Rogers, Frederick W. Putnam, Solomon 
Lincoln, Andrew McF. Davis, J. Evarts Greene, Henry 
S. Nourse, William B. Weeden, Ebenezer Cutler, Reuben 
Colton, William W. Rice, Henry H. Edes, Grindall Rey- 
nolds, Frederick J. Kingsbury, George E. Francis. 

On motion of Colonel Solomon Lincoln the reading of 
the records of the last meeting was dispensed with and the 
record declared approved. 

The Recording Secretary reported from the Council their 
recommendation of the following named gentlemen' for 
membership in the Society : 

Mr. Lucien Carr, of Cambridge. 

Frank Palmer Gouldlntg, Esq., of Worcester. 


- - - : 

Each of these gentlemen was declared elected, a sepa- 
,ullot baring been take* on ea«:h mu 

Ohakxeb Dkj re, LL.Ij.. ,,ort which had been 

drawn up by him and adopted by the Council a* a part 

or' their report to the 5c lmu p.. 

Treasure! : ^rt in print, a M. 

Bartou, Esq., Librarian, read his rejx>rt, — all the above 

. ther ponstituf _ s report of the Cornell. 

Col j. I^ASHMHV, referring t part of the 

report of the Council which ft of money 

to the Society.. the foil _ motion, which wa» 

unanimously . 1 : 

That the Society accept with grateful acknowledgment 
the _ dollars made by their second Vice- 

Presi lent, Eh ...... $au$ . Eg .. . the 

sbury Building 1 l, reminded by this generous act of 
the unnumbered benefit- - 

honored father, which have identified hi* name with 
welfare and prosperity, and made for him a precious and 
enduriiig memory. 

lion of the iii _ i Ionian the Report of the 

Council was referred to the Committee of Publication. 

JcsTi.v WtM . . Esq., in seconding the motion lor refer- 
ence, said that the SUgg - . t the Librarian as to the 
preservation of newspapers brought to mind a matter of 
great important. Be had Uren informed that S0 ranch 
clay is used in the manufacture of paiier at the present day 
that their preservation for a century is extremely doubtful. 
H thought that it might lie advantageous for the Society 
to make some arrangements with the publishers of the lead- 
ing journals tor the printing of a few copies of each issue on 
material that could be preserved. 

Mr. Haub -aid that in connection with the Library and 
the report upon it, he wished again to call attention to the 
invaluable work of our associate, Mr. Bex : Peleev Pooeie, 
in the preparation of the wonderful descriptive catalogue 
of government publications. Una masterly index was fitly 

1886.] Proceedings. 169 

alluded to in the Librarian's Report of last April, but Mr. 
Hale said that it seemed to him that the literary journals 
of the country had hardly paid sufficient attention to it. 
In truth, it multiplies manifold the value of any collection 
of public documents, whether large or small, — and as there 
is in the world no complete collection of our documents, the 
value of such a catalogue is all the greater. Mr. Poore 
says that he has been fettered by the failure of the govern- 
ment to give him the proper assistance, and he seems to 
apprehend that very many errors will be found in his work. 
Many errors there must be in a book involving so many 
details unless, by good luck, it be made by archangels. 
But Mr. Hale felt bound to say that having used it since 
its publication, perhaps more than any other man, in con- 
nection with his work on the Stevens collection of Franklin 
papers, he had yet to discover the least omission or 

Hon. Mr. Hoau, in continuing Mr. Hale's remarks, 
called attention to the important literary work done by Mr. 
Poore in his collection of the American Constitutions and 
Charters. This work has been done very thoroughly and 
contains a mass of historical and political information much 
of which could not be obtained elsewhere but by a visit to 
the capitals of the respective states. 

Dr. Ellis said : 

A suggestion has come to my mind while I have been 
listening with much satisfaction to the admirable paper in 
which Dr. Deane has so thoroughly and successfully met 
and answered the slanderous and false charges made against 
Massachusetts in the Senate of the United States, as having 
originally engaged in a brisk and profitable slave traffic, 
and after the Emancipation Act having sold her slaves to 
the South. The suggestion came in the form of a question 
whether the repelling evidence of facts which Dr. Deane 
has presented as referring to Massachusetts was equally 
applicable to all New England. For as our associate has 

170 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

said, on time and occasion Massachusetts was held to stand 
for New England. Besides the direct traffic in slaves there 
was a commerce closely connected with it, in the article 
known as ''New England Rum," which was manufactured 
in large quantities by distilleries in Boston, Providence and 
Newport. I know nothing of the relative amounts in the 
business in each of those places, but I have received an 
impression that Newport profited very largely by its dis- 
tilleries, the products of which were turned to account in 
the slave-trade on the African coast. Miss E. P. Peabody, 
a devoted and confidential friend of Dr. Channing, in her 
4 'Reminiscences" of him (pp. 860, 3(>1), referring to the 
reflections cast upon him by Mr. Garrison, writes : "In 
the course of the controversy he was assailed with the 
charge of living in luxury on the proceeds of rum-selling 
and slave-trading which were charged on his uncle and 
father-in-law." Dr. Channing, in 1814, had married his 
cousin, daughter of a rich merchant in Newport. Miss 
Peabody writes that she "was extremely indignant at this 
brutal attack, and wrote to him to get his denial of the 
facts." He replied, "I am willing to answer your ques- 
tion, because it affects the reputation of those who have 
gone. I remember that forty years ago my wife's father 
owned a distillery, of which he sold the product to those 
who wanted it, without asking" questions about the use, 
which was then universal. 1 learn from one now living, 
and who knows more of the business then done by Mr. 
Gibbs than any other person, that now and then rum was 
sold to a firm supposed to be engaged in the slave-trade 
just as it was sold to other people. This, so far as I can 
learn, is the ground of the charge referred to in your letter. 
I know no other. The distillery was a very trifling item in 
Mr. G.'s vast concerns. The whole profit from it was a 
drop of the bucket compared with what he gained from a 
commerce spread over the globe, and the share of profit 
from selling to slave-dealers a mere nothing. I have paid 

1886.] Proceedings. , 171 

the debt many times, by my labors in the cause of slavery. 
[Written in 1838.] Such charges would make me smile, 
if they did not indicate unprincipled malice. For the sake 
of giving me a stab, a man is dragged from his grave, who 
died thirty-five years ago," etc. 

I would ask Dr. Deane if the exculpatory facts and the 
denials which he has advanced as relating to Massachusetts, 
especially as to selling emancipated slaves, are equally 
applicable to all New England, as sometimes represented 
by the Bay State ? 

Dr. R. A. Guild, in confirmation of the remark that 
Rhode Island was at one time engaged in the slave-trade, 
alluded to the diary of the late Thomas Robbins, D.D., of 
Hartford, the first volume of which, covering a period of 
thirty-one years, from 1796 to 1825, has recently been 
printed for private distribution at the expense of the family. 
In 1799 he visited his relatives in Bristol and dined with 
the husband of one of his cousins, Capt. James D'Wolf, an 
enterprising tea merchant, whose immense fortune , how- 
ever, as the editor states in a foot-note, was largely due to 
the African slave-trade, which he followed until 1808, when 
it was prohibited by law. Dr. Robbins speaks of the 
splendor of the house and furniture, alluding to a *' set of 
chinaware which cost two hundred and fifty dollars in 
Canton." On another visit, made in 1801, he "dined at 
Capt. D'Wolf 's on a West India turtle, — the richest enter- 
tainment I have ever been at." 

Mr. Ben : Pekley Pooke said, substantially, that the 
interesting statements concerning the early slave-trade, 
reminded him of the last cargo of slaves imported into the 
United States. During the administration of Franklin 
Pierce, one of the most indefatigable lobbyists at the capi- 
tol was a stout, middle-aged gentleman, known as Captain 
Corrie. He was prosecuting a claim for the military 
services of an association of South Carolina gentlemen, 
which had a shooting-club-house on an island off the coast 

172 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

of South Carolina, and which had, during the war with 
Great Britain, performed patrol service, for which pay was 
claimed. Jacob did not serve more faithfully for Rachel 
than Captain Corrie served his relatives and friends in this 
wearisome campaign. The Buchanan administration came 
into power, and Southern influences were predominant. 
Then it was that Captain Corrie succeeded, and the money 
obtained from the Treasury was invested in a beautifully 
iitted-up yacht called the " Wanderer." It could hardly be 
suspected that a craft so expensively ornamented and vict- 
ualled should be devoted to the befouling traffic of the 
middle passage. But Captain Kynders, a pot-house politi- 
cian, then Marshal of the city of New York, was informed 
that the "Wanderer" was about to engage in the slave- 
trade, and he took possession of her. Captain Corrie was 
indignant, and the Marshal and his deputies, after enjoying 
his good cheer, felt a sort of sheepish mortification at hav- 
ing taken her in hand with such a rude suspicion. The 
New York newspapers were indignant over the detention 
of a craft on which editors and reporters had been gener- 
ously entertained, and the Treasury officials at Washington 
ordering her release, she sailed away with flying colors and 
the good wishes of the United Slates officials, who, while 
she was under doubt, had feasted from her sumptuous 

A few months later — it was, T think, in December, 1858, 
— mysterious statements were made in the Southern jour- 
nals about the re-appearance of the " Wanderer" at Jeykl 
Island, near Brunswick, Georgia, where maugre her varnish 
and gilding, her French cooking, and her Kentucky 
whiskey, she had successfully landed three hundred and 
fifty slaves. She hailed from St. Hcleiui, and was without 
regular papers, as there was no American consul there, but 
she had informal papers from native officials without any 
seal attached. 1 The United States Marshal of Georgia made 

iThe " Wanderer" was subsequently captured, taken to Boston and con- 
demned. Her mainmast now serves as a Hag-stall' iu Union Park. 

1886*] "Proceedings. Vlt 

a feeble attempt to take : . ,n of U. v:-. thu-, 

landed, hut the federal authority at the South was then 
on the wane, and public Oj 

Degroee, — men, women and child/' . by rail- 

road, ifi .-.mall tqtrad*, i/jto the ioterior of Georgia Alabama 
and Mi**i**ippi, At that time able-bodied mole 
sold at auction at from |l,60ti 7 ;0, and the ncwly- 

imported A;';, | of at about one-half of the 

trade price. Tbe obtaining of lal>or at thi-> low rate, nrhiefa 
would in a few years double in value, was intended aj an 
argument in I 01 

Mr. Ha >ably the underhand j>ur- 

I of the slave-tra de WM not confined to any particular 
Near England town. i'. ..■•*•. i common tradition ... Port- 
iand, Maine, tliat the wealth I of tbe prom::. 

families of that city H 

- iety then proceeded to the choice of a President, 
by ballot, whieh resulted in the unanimous ehoiee of Hon. 
Gbobok J . Hoar, LL.i). y who accepted the office. 

»mmittee of whieh lion. SaWUBI A. GltKKM, MA).. 
mas chairman wa-s appointed to nominate candidate! for 
other ofieea to be tilled by election* That cornm; 
. u-d the following nomination* : 

ilon. Gnomon \j LL.Jj., of Waebing 

STKrcum SawnUBY, A.M.. of Worcester. 

C eajM .(knee: 

Hon, J. Hammono Tmranjmu, LLAj., of Hartford. 

SecnUury of DoifutMic I 

Chakle* Drank. LLAj.. of Cambrid, 

ifceoj ft reemrw: 

Hon. Jon D. Waaostnar, LLAj.. of Worcester. 

174 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 


Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of Worcester. 

All of the above officers being ex-officio members of the 

And the following Councillors : 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Boston. 
Joseph Sargent, M.D., of Worcester. 
Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., of Boston. 
Hon. P. Emory Aldricii, LL.D., of Worcester. 
Rev. Egbert C. Smyth, D.D., of Andover. 
Samuel S. Green, A.M., of Worcester. 
Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, D.D., of Cambridge. 
Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 
Hon. Edward L. Davis, of Worcester. 
Prof. Franklin B. Dexter, of New Haven. 

Committee of Publication : 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Boston. 
Charles Deanu, LL.D., of Cambridge. 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of Worcester. 
Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 

Auditors : 

Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 
William A. Smith, A.B., of Worcester. 

The report of the committee was accepted and the gentle- 
men named therein were elected by ballot to the respective 

While the committee of nomination were out, Mr. 
Nathaniel Paine called the attention of the Society to a 
valuable addition lately made to the collection of MS. Revo- 
lutionary Orderly Books. A volume containing orders from 
the Headquarters at Roxbury and Cambridge from July 21), 
1775, to January 12, 1776, had been presented by William 

1886.] Proceedings. 175 

A. Banister of New York, but temporarily residing in 
Worcester. Mr. Banister is unable to say with certainty 
who was the original owner of the volume, but thinks that 
it was his grandfather, Col. Seth Banister of Brooktield, 
Mass. Col. Banister at the time of the Shays insurrection 
in Massachusetts served as a lieutenant in a company which 
came from Brooktield to Worcester to aid in the defence of 
the courts. The period from August 25, 1775, to January 
12, 1776, was not covered by any of the orderly books 
heretofore in the possession of the Society. The volume 
also partially tills the gap made by the withdrawal of the 
Col. William Henshaw orderly books. These volumes, 
which covered most of the period from October, 1775, to 
August 25, 1776, were claimed by a descendant of Col. 
Henshaw, and by vote of the Council were given up. 
Within the past year another orderly book has been added 
to our collection, which contains orders between September 
6 and October 8, 1775. 

The Society's collection of MS. Orderly Books is a large 
one and has great value as an aid to historical students. 
In the report of the Council for April, 1881, which he had 
prepared, he called attention to this collection and alluded 
to a volume lately presented, containing orders of Col. 
Jonathan Bagley's regiment. The donor of the volume 
stated that Col. Bagley was in command of a Connecticut 
regiment, and it was so stated in that report. From infor- 
mation obtained since Mr. Paine is satisfied this was a 
mistake and that Col. Bagley was of the Massachusetts 
troops and not of those of Connecticut, and he took this 
occasion to make the correction. 

Stephen Salisbury, Esq., presented and read a paper 
on "The Antiquity of the Ruins of Yucatan, " which had 
been prepared by Mr. Edward H. Thompson, the Consul 
of the United States in Yucatan. The thanks of the Society 
were voted to Mr. Thompson, and the paper referred to the 
Committee of Publication, on motion of Prof. Putnam, 

176 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

who expressed the hope that the necessity of making deep 
excavations would be urged upon Mr. Thompson. 

Mr. Hale gave some account of the great collection of 
Franklin papers, formerly the property of W. Temple 
Franklin, lately purchased from Mr. Henry Stevens by the 
Government of the United States. He had studied these 
papers at Washington and he called attention to the addi- 
tional value which they give to the great collection of 
letters to Franklin in the possession of the American Philo- 
sophical Society. It is very much to be desired that these 
two important collections might be preserved together. 

Mr Hale said that he thought suflicient importance had 
not been attached to the two visits made by Franklin to 
France in 1767 and 1769. It is now evident that to the 
very close friendship which he then formed with the School 
of the French Economists was due the cordiality of his 
introduction in Paris, when he arrived there in 1776. His 
reception was not so much due, as it would seem, to his 
reputation as a natural philosopher as it was to his cordial 
intimacy with Turgot, Dupont, Dubourg, and the Marquis 
dc Mirabeau, who was the great patron of the Economists. 
Mr. Hale read the following letter, never published until 
now, as one among many illustrations of this intimacy ; 
Dupont, who afterwards visited this country, was one of 
the "pillars" of the new School of Economists : — 

"London, October 2nd, 1770. 

Dear Sir, — I received with great Pleasure the Assur- 
ance of your kind Remembrance of me, and the Continuance 
of your Goodwill towards me, in your Letter by M. le 
Comte Chreptowitz. ... I should have been happy to 
have rendered him every Civility and Mark of Respect in 
my Power (as the friend of those I so much Respect and 
Honor) if he had given me the opportunity. Put he did 
not let me see him. 

Accept my sincere Acknowledgements and Thanks for 
the valuable Present you made me of your excellent Work 

1886.]. Proceedings. 177 

on the Commerce of the India Company, which I have 
perused with much Pleasure and Instruction. It hears 
throughout the Stamp of your Masterly Hand, in Method, 
Perspicuity, and Force of Argument. The honorable Men- 
tion you have made in it of your Friend is extremely oblig- 
ing. I was already too much in your Debt for Favours of 
that kind. 

I purpose returning to America in the ensuing Summer, 
if our Disputes should be adjusted, as 1 hope they will be 
in the next session of Parliament. Would to God I could 
take with me Messrs. Du Pont, Du Bourg, and some other 
French Friends with their good Ladies ! I might then, 
by mixing them with my Friends in Philadelphia, form a 
little happy Society that would prevent my ever wishing 
again to visit Europe. 

With great and sincere Esteem and Respect, I am, 
Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient and most humble Servant, 

B. Franklin." 

The intimacy thus formed between Franklin and the 
Economists proved of the greatest importance afterwards. 
It is interesting to observe that Adam Smith was but a few 
months before him in forming the same acquaintance, to 
which, indeed, the English-speaking world owes "The 
Wealth of Nations." 

Prof. Frederick W. Putnam gave a brief account of 
the progress of excavation and of recent discoveries in the 
Indian mounds of Ohio, for which the thanks of the Society 
were voted to him and a copy of his remarks requested for 

The meeting was then dissolved. 


Recording Secretary. 



J^ent their J A '»erio an a,,*,- . 

>«-» o*;',rrr' rei> » E'"" s «»" »» 

"i- the uCT'- iU,d t0 k -p -u£ S";;-' &* t • 

** Counei, h , ve Y ^ V '' rt " e of bi8 

. Hon - "'0 Geokge p h J 0RCESTE ^ **? 4, I886 . 
President of thp a ' . 


lt8 completion i„ 

1886.] Report of the Council. 179 

1877 used for general repairs and improvements. This 
fund is now much reduced in amount. 

I now* desire to place at the disposal of the Council Five 
Thousand Dollars, to be added to the Salisbury Building 
Fund and invested by the Finance Committee, with the 
expectation that both the principal and the interest accruing 
shall be expended when occasion may require, under direc- 
tion of the Council and of the Committee on the Library in 
making such improvements and repairs of the property of 
the Society as in their judgment may seem best. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Stephen Salisbury. 

Three members of the Society have died since the semi- 
annual meeting in April last — the Hon. John Russell 
Bartlett, Professor Calvin E. Stowe, D.D., and Colonel 
Charles Whittlesey. 

Mr. Bartlett died on the 28th of May last at his residence 
in Providence, R. I. He was elected a member of this 
Society on the 30th of April, 185G. He was the son of 
Smith and Nancy (Russell) Bartlett, and was born in Provi- 
dence on the 23d of October, 1805. While an infant his 
family removed to Kingston, Upper Canada, and there he 
spent his boyhood and youth to the age of eighteen years. 
The schools in Kingston, an academy in Lowville, in one 
of the upper counties of New York, where he spent two 
years, and a school in Montreal, where he spent one year, 
afforded him such education as he received during this 
period. The instruction at these schools was principally 
elementary, but he learned to write an elegant hand, which 
he retained through life, and to be an accurate accountant, 
and he became qualified to assist his father in conducting a 
somewhat extensive business in Canada. He also acquired 
skill as a draughtsman, and in the sketching of scenery. 
He indulged in the athletic sports of the time, was fond of 
hunting and fishing, and in sailing and skating on the St. 
Lawrence. An intense love of reading, and of acquiring 

180 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

knowledge, historical and geographical, distinguished him. 
This wild and romantic lite had its charms, and left its 

In 1824, at the age of eighteen years, he returned to his 
native town of Providence on a visit to his mother's brother, 
Captain William Russell, a veteran dry goods dealer of 
North Main Street, who was the first to move into the 
44 Arcade" in Westminster Street, after that building was 
erected in 1827 and 1828. Mr. Russell made his nephew a 
clerk in his shop and here he remained three or four years ; 
and here he became acquainted with Cyrus But lei-, the 
wealthiest citizen of Providence, the owner of one-half of 
the Arcade building, and the President and principal owner 
of the Bank of North America, who, in 1828, appointed 
Mr. Bart let t to the place of bookkeeper in the bank. In 
this position he acquired the confidence and esteem of his 
employer. In 1831, on the organization of the Globe 
Bank Mr. Bartlett was chosen cashier, and in this employ- 
ment he remained for several years. Retaining his early 
love of literature he now became a member of the Franklin 
Society, of which Mr. William T. Grinnell was President, 
of the Rhode Island Historical Society, and of the Provi- 
dence Atheineum, of which latter institution he and his 
friends Dr. F. A. Farley and Dr. Thomas II. Webb were 
regarded as the principal founders. 

About the year 1831, the Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries were making enquiries relating to traces of 
early voyages of the Northmen to New England, and they 
published a request to New England antiquaries for infor- 
mation. The matter at length engaged the attention of the 
Rhode Island Historical Society, and Dr. Webb, Mr. 
Bartlett and Mr. Albert G. Greene were appointed to make 
the necessary enquiries. Fac-similes of the inscriptions on 
Dighton Rock and elsewhere were prepared and sent to the 
Northern Society, but with no expressed opinion as to 
their origin or importance, and they were printed in one of 

1886.] Report o) tht Qc |S1 

the .Society'-, volumes known at Ardiquiiata Ami 
published in 1837, with the tft Ijrfo Me-.-.r-,. 

Bsrtl c tt and Webb fby whom tbU performed), 

who were made honorary members of their \*Ay. 

Jfj 1836 Mr. BartleU rente 
and engaged for a tunc in ...... 

but ioon in ith Mr. ( fa lea Welford in 

the book-selling busine tder the frn name tlett 

and WcHbrd, who-/: place oj i was No. 7 A 

House Imilding, Here they dealt in foreign arid A 
book-, and their roof] ,rt for the I*:, . 

scholars and literary men of Hew Vork. C ms re-j- 

denee here lie took an active part in various literary socie- 
ties in tliat city. He had already been a member or 

r York Historical Society, and now be nm 
Corresponding Secretary, and 9 : the Ameri- 

can Ethnological Society, of which he and Mr. GaJbtrn 

re among the founder*, the latter being President until 
his death. B tlett often read 

papers on historical and ethnological -.. He was 

also chosen a member of many other learned sod 
Europe and America. He sbo published during tlm period 

reral books on bis chosen th hi 1847 

published a work e . Prog logj 

he published hi.-; Dictionary of Americanisms, irhieh went 
through four editions, a Dutch translation of which was 
published in Holland in 1854, and a Go man edition fin 
Lfipsie) in 1866. The work was favorably reviewed in 
BLu&wood and hi TXe^ A. 2c 7 », In 184 ;/ul>- 

bshed Kemmiseences of the H . Jlatin. 

Nev. re now opening before him. In 1850 Mr. 

Bartlett retired from the U>»k business and returned to 
home in Providence, but in June of that year he was 
appointed by Taylor United States OornrnUsioner 

to run the boundary line between the United State- and 
Mexico, under the treatj ia<Liloupe-H g in whi«:h 

182 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

duty he was employed for nearly three years, or till Febru- 
ary, 1853. During this period he made extensive explora- 
tions in Texas, New Mexico, Chihuahua, Sonora, California 
and the country now known as Arizona — the results of 
which appeared in 1854, in two volumes, with map.s and 

Returning now to his native city of Providence, he was 
in 1855 elected Secretary of State of Rhode Island, and to 
this otlice he was annually re-elected until 1872, a period 
of seventeen years. Soon after entering upon his office 
Mr. Bartlett made known to the General Assembly the 
condition of the records and papers in his office, and the 
Joint Committee thereupon appointed authorized the Secre- 
tary of State to classify and arrange all the manuscript 
documents in his office, and cause them to be bound in 
suitable volumes. The work was done, and the public 
papers in the archives of the State, about twenty-tive 
thousand in number, were put in order, restored, and 
bound in a hundred and ninety-two volumes and twenty- 
eight portfolios. Another important service was performed 
by Mr. Bartlett. During the first ten years of his Secre- 
taryship there were published in ten volumes, under his 
editorial supervision, the Records of the Colony and State 
of Rhode Island, printed by order of the General Assembly, 
1855-1865, illustrated with documents, letters and notes, 
many of the papers coining from the rich private collection 
of Mr. John Carter Brown. 

His term of office covered the excited period of the Civil 
War in which the officers of every State were burthened 
with unusual labors and cares, and of these Mr. Bartlett 
bore his full share. The responsibilities he assumed and 
the labors he performed at this time reflect the highest 
credit upon his abilities and upon his patriotism. 

In 1807 Mr. Bartlett visited Europe and attended the 
meeting of the Archaeological Congress held that year at 
Antwerp, as a delegate from this Society, and his report of 

1886.] Report of the Council. 183 

that meeting was laid before the Society in April of the 
following year. He also visited Europe in 1873 as one of 
the United States Commissioners to the International Prison 
Congress in London, and attended their meetings. 

In 1848 Mr. Bartlett received the honorary degree of 
Master of Arts at Brown University. He was for thirty 
years a member of the American Antiquarian Society, and 
for the same period of time a corresponding member of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. 

I have already mentioned several of his published works, 
but the entire list comprises many others. Of these the 
most important are the '^Bibliography of Rhode Island," 
published in 1864 ; "The Literature of the Rebellion," 
1866; "Memoirs of Rhode Island OlKcers in the Service 
of the Country during the Civil War," 1867 ; "History of 
the Manton Family of Newport," 1878; "Genealogy of 
the Russell Family," 1879; the "Naval History of Rhode 
Island," 1880. He was a frequent contributor to news- 
papers and magazines, in which he discussed those subjects 
to which his studies were principally devoted. 

After his final return to Providence, for several years, 
and to the close of his useful and busy life, Mr. Bartlett 
devoted much of his time and lent his valuable aid in 
building up and interpreting the noble private library of 
Mr. John Carter Brown of Providence — now one of the 
most complete collections of early books relating to the 
history of America in this country, perhaps in the world. 
Mr. Bartlett's connection with this library was at first inci- 
dental and probably grew out of his love of books relating 
to early American history. By the liberal disposition of 
Mr. Brown's great wealth was this collection brought 
together, and by like means was Mr. Bartlett enabled to 
prepare and print a valuable catalogue of this library, 
which alone was needed to reveal its treasures. Part I. of 
this catalogue — a small volume of 79 pages, with three 
hundred titles, and coining down to the year 1600 — was 

184 American AntiquarioM Society. [Oct. 

issued in 1865. Part II. — comprising books printed 
between 1600 and 1700 and containing 1152 titles — was 
issued in 1866. Part III., from 1701 to 1771, was issued 
in 1870; and Part IV., 1771 to 1800, was issued in 1871. 
These were sumptuous volumes, and were printed in the 
highest style of the art by Mr. Houghton of Cambridge, 
and were illustrated by the editor with valuable notes. 
But a yet more sumptuous volume awaited the recipient of 
Mr. Brown's bibliographical favors. In 1875, ten years 
after the issue of the first part of the catalogue, the gems 
or nuggets of the collection had so increased that a new 
edition of that part was issued containing 600 titles or lots, 
instead of 300. And this was yet further illustrated by 
fac-similes of a rare text, title-page, portrait, or map, 
united to generous annotations — all which make the book 
a luxury to behold. And to complete the description I 
will add that a second edition of Part II., 1600-1700, and 
now comprising 1642 titles, and containing 647 pages, and 
illustrated in a similar manner to the last, was issued in 
1882. Bibliographers are indebted for the last two volumes 
to the generosity of Mrs. Brown, the lamented death of the 
founder of the library having taken place before the vol- 
umes were completed. 

If Mr. Bartlett had done nothing more than edit this 
catalogue of Mr. Brown's library he would have left a name 
to be held in grateful remembrance by all American biblio- 

My acquaintance with Mr. Bartlett extended over a period 
of forty years. I knew his great worth. 1 respected him 
for his ability and learning and loved him for his modest 
and unselfish nature, which ever shrunk from notoriety or 
self-assertion. He was personally most useful to investiga- 
tors, and was ever ready to impart his ample stores of 
knowledge to others ; and while he was the custodian of 
Mr. Brown's books before the publication of the catalogue 
to which I have referred above, he was ever ready to serve 
as a key to unlock the treasures then beyond our reach. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 185 

Mr. Bartlett had been in feeble health for many months, 
but yet kept up his interest in the old themes ; the imme- 
diate eause of his death was paralysis of the heart. Living 
in the city of Providence the greater part of his life, he was 
in sentiment as well as by birth a Rhode Island man. He 
loved her institutions and studied and illustrated her 
history. He lived among her most illustrious men as one 
of them. His memory will be held in grateful recollection 
by his State, by his town, and by his many friends who 
ever saw in him the scholar and the gentleman. 1 

Prof. Stowe died on the 2 2d of August, 1880. He was 
elected a member of this Society April 26, 1865. He was 
born in Natick, Mass., April 26, 1802, graduated at Bow- 
doin College in 1824, and at Andovcr Theological Seminary 
in 1828. Here he remained two years, and in 1830 became 
professor of languages at Dartmouth College. While here 
he married a daughter of the Rev. Bennet Tyler of East 
Windsor, who died in 1833, in which year he was appointed 
professor of biblical literature in Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Here he became a co-laborer with the Rev. Lyman 
Beecher, whose daughter, Harriet Elizabeth, he married on 
the 5th of January, 1836. In addition to his professional 
labors in Lane Seminary, Prof. Stowe aided in laying the 
foundations of the present school system of Ohio, by lectur- 
ing and writing. He visited Europe in 1836 to procure a 
library for the Seminary, and to examine, on behalf of the 
State of Ohio, into the public school system of Prussia and 
other German states. On his return next year he pub- 
lished a report on Elementary Education in Europe, which 
was distributed in every school district of Ohio and else- 
where by authority of the State. This was followed by 
other reports on kindred subjects. 

!This sketch has been compiled partly from notices of Mr. Burtlett iu the 
Providence Journal of May 29,lN8(>,aud partly from an admirable paper on his 
•' Life aud Services" read before the Rhode Island Historical Society, Novem- 
ber 2, 1S.S(), by its President, Professor William Gannnell. Where 1 have 
noticed any variation iu these uotices as to dates, etc., I have not hesitated to 
follow the later and more elaborate account. 

186 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

In 1850, feeling his health impaired by too much work, 
he left Lane Seminary and became professor of divinity in 
Bovvdoin College, where he remained about two years. It 
was while living here that Mrs. Stowe became known to 
the world through the publication of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." 
One of the incidents which inspired this publication occurred 
during their life in Cincinnati, where Prof. Stowe and 
Charles Beecher, under cover of a dark night, carried a 
fugitive slave from Kentucky to a safe station on the 
"Underground Railroad." Just after their removal to 
Bowdoin College the Fugitive Slave Law was passed, and 
kindled in the soul of Mrs. Stowe the determination to 
show slavery in its true light. In a sketch of Mrs. Stowe, 
by the Rev. Dr. Parker, in a volume entitled "Eminent 
Women of the Age," is the following: — 

"One day, on entering his wife's room in Brunswick, 
Professor Stowe saw several sheets of paper lying loosely 
here and there, which were covered with her handwriting. 
He took them up in curiosity and read them. The death of 
Uncle Tom was what he read. That was first written, and 
it was all that then had been written. 'You can make 
something out of this,' said he. 'I mean to do so,' was the 
reply. Soon after, Mr. Bailey, who was then publishing an 
anti-slavery paper in Washington, solicited Mrs. Stowe to 
write a series of articles for its columns. The way was 
open, and she was ready, and, being called of God, by faith 
she went forth, not knowing whither she went. Her Uncle 
Tom should have a history of which his death scene should 
be the logical consequence and culmination. As she mused 
the fire burned. The true starting-point was readily found 
and gradually a most felicitous story-form was conceived, 
in which a picture of slavery as it is might be exhibited. 
'Uncle Tom' began to be published in the JS/ational Era in 
the summer of 1851 and was continued from week to week 
until its conclusion in March, 1852. 

"When Mr. Jewett, the Boston publisher, a few months 
after its publication in book form paid Professor Stowe 
$10,000, as the first instalment of profit on the sale, the 
professor said it was 'more money than he had seen in all 
his life.'" 


1886.] Report of the Council. 187 

In 1852 Prof. Stowe accepted the chair of sacred litera- 
ture in Andover Seminary, where he remained until 1864, 
when he removed to Hartford, Conn. Here he continued 
to live till his death, and for almost twenty years was 
practically retired from public life. He now employed a 
part of his time in an endeavor to complete an elaborate 
work on the "Origin and History of the Books of the 
Bible," of which the first part was published in 1867. xVs 
v I have already said he died on the 22d of last August. 

Prof. Stowe's social qualities made him a most attractive 
and entertaining companion, though of late years he had 
suffered somewhat from deafness. He was a great reader 
in several languages, and a close observer of events ; and 
he had a retentive memory. With an alert mind and a 
keen wit, he was a good talker — -original in phrase and 
striking in thought. He was more remarkable for the 
range than for the scientific accuracy of his scholarship. 
While the past kept fresh hold on him he was keenly alive 
to the present. Yet interested as he was in the daily news 
and in passing events, he kept his interest in the great 
master minds of the world. When too ill to be much or 
long absent from his bed there were two books that he 
always kept by him — the Greek Testament and Faust in 
the original. These books he always had within his reach, 
that he might take them up if he was wakeful at night, and 
he wore out edition after edition of them in that way. His 
christian faith was that of a child. Death for him had no 
terrors. He saw in it a welcome release. 1 

Colonel Whittlesey died on the 18th of October, 1886. 
He was elected a member of this Society on the 27th of 
April, 1870. He was born in Southington, Hartford 
County, Conn., on the 5th of October, 1808, being the 
oldest child of Asaph and Vesta Whittlesey. In 1813 the 
family removed to Ohio, and found a home in the wilder- 

1 This sketch of Professor Stowe has been compiled from a notice of him in the 
Hartford Courant of August 23, the day following his death. 

1 *> 

aa old Jog adbooUNMee, »iu»ted >m eaali of tie eeatre of 

uv^ r^of Charle, VVUrt/U- 
*e/'» edotatioa aotil lil'j, aie* a frwt \wMk%% mm 
ttt*A*A it ft aa aeadem/, at waieh the /oeajr pitmtr pm- 
wmtd m% *tudit» ctariag tie water tmtm, while m the 
ie oeeapiecl ht» time in hta tint tew on tie forar 
Mlil tie /ear 1*24, awl a* tea** ***** 
ttow a «peeial afAitwie 1m a military life be wa* f *o*ee 
three /ear* later, appointed to a eadeWigp at Weet Pea*. 
Here be o arj a ed hi* «tadiea riy ro a a l / , aad 
tie /ear 1*31, aad aa hreret attgad KiatiaaM 
to dot/ m tie Fifth Cwt^l £tat*e lafeatr/, with whieh 
eqpmiutkm ie *erred dariejr tie Malaga ie 

what in low** a* tie Btadk Hawk War. Xet Joeg after 
tit* period ie re**^eed, aad e ye d a bar ofiee ir. 
lawL iler^, iedeljpejg ie hi* <oe#4ee** for 

■pom baa, ie pe**ed hi* tiote aatii tie /ear 1*^7, wiea ie 

• . . v u,v, : ..,;,,.«. -■ v, ;',; ,,',..,.-..•. ^y ;V, r » . .. 

arork ie had a special feoe** May rs 

t& eoal aad awe* mi j aere oaade a/ tie mmvtj, 

two year* tie arork w aa <£*eontiaeed Uy be* 

*>ii*ui* mMm fr* lae UmJmm of 

1*47 ie waa eaplo/ed oy tie (Tailed 
i preiepeal e*r**j el tib 

IwfwriB Im bit aei ft* mmj M .****$** ri*er, 

h/ tie State of Wi 

1886.] ' Report of the Council. 189 

On his return to Cleveland Colonel Whittlesey became 
identified with a local military organization, which was 
early in the year 1861 tendered to General Scott; and 
when fears were felt that violence was intended to Mr. 
Lincoln, on his entering Washington, he with a number of 
others volunteered his services to General Scott as a mili- 
tary guard. In February, 1861, he became convinced that 
a crisis was at hand and he urged upon the Governor and 
Legislature of Ohio to be prepared for it. Within two 
days after the President's proclamation of the 15th of April 
he was at Columbus on the Governor's staff as assistant 
quartermaster general, engaged in the organization and 
equipment of the three months' men who had been called 
out, and he was immediately sent to the field in Western 
Virginia, where he served as State military engineer with 
the forces under Generals McClellan, Cox and Hill. At 
the expiration of his term of enlistment he re-entered the 
three years' service as Colonel of the Twentieth Regiment 
of Ohio Volunteers, and under General O. M. Mitchell was 
Chief Engineer of the Department of Ohio. In this capaci- 
ty he planned and constructed the defences of Cincinnati, 
and subsequently volunteered for the defence of that city 
when it was threatened. At the capture of Fort Donelson 
he was placed in charge of the prisoners taken. His active 
military career terminated with the second day of the battle 
of Shiloh, where he commanded the third brigade of General 
Wallace's division. For bravery on this occasion the third 
brigade and its commander were especially commended. 
His increasing infirmities and the critical condition of his 
wife's health had determined him to resign, but he remained 
until he could retire without detriment to the service, or 
misconstruction of his object. The deepest regret at his 
leaving was expressed by the leading commanders under 
whom he had served, whilst acknowledging the force of the 
reasons which impelled the step. 

After the close of the Civil War, and until two years 

190 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

before his death, Colonel Whittlesey devoted his time to 
scientific pursuits, und it was largely through his efforts 
that the Western Reserve Historical Society was formed, 
not lom»- after the close of the war. 

"The geological explorations of the country around Lake 
Superior and the Upper Mississippi were continued. Dur- 
ing his successive explorations in that region his attention 
had frequently been drawn to the evidences of ancient min- 
ing, long anterior to the advent of white men and apparently 
pointing to the residence or visits of races prior to the 
occupation of the country by the present Indian race. 
These traces of ancient civilization were followed with ever 
freshening interest, and exploration of the ancient works in 
Ohio and in various places in the Mississippi valley con- 
vinced him that the mound builders of Ohio and the Missis- 
sippi valley were kin, if not identical with the ancient cop- 
per miners of Lake Superior. This and other discoveries 
by Colonel Whittlesey have been received as of the highest 
importance by scientists engaged in the study of the ancient 
history of the American continent. The changes in the 
lake levels and the obscure phenomena of lake tides have 
also been the subjects of close study, and papers of high 
scientific value published among the Smithsonian contribu- 
tions to knowledge and other scientific collections." 1 

Colonel Whittlesey's pen was not idle. Some of his 
productions may be found in the Geological Reports of 
Ohio, 1838-39; "The United States Geological Surveys 
of the Upper Mississippi," 1847 to 1849; "The United 
States Geological Surveys of the Upper Peninsula of Mich- 
igan," 1850-51 ; "Life of John Fitch," in volume VI. of 
Sparks's American Biography, new series, 1845; "Fugitive 
Essays," 1854 ; -Ancient Works of Ohio," 1852 ; "Fluctu- 
ation of Lake Levels," 18G0 ; "Ancient Mining on Lake 
Superior," 18G3 ; "Fresh Water Glacial Drift," 18(H); 
"Mineral Resources of the Rocky Mountains," 18()3 ; early 

i Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 19, 18S6. This sketch bus been compiled 
from u notice of Colonel Whittlesey which appeared in this paper and also from 
a notice in the Cleveland News and Herald of the same day's issue, October 
1 ( J, the day following Colonel Whittlesey's death. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 191 

" History of Cleveland," 1867. His latest works recently 
issued are Tract No. ^(\ of the Western Reserve Historical 
Society, called "Colonel Bradstreet's Misfortune" and 
"Theism and Science." A recent writer remarks that 
Colonel Whittlesey's "work on the earthworks and mounds 
of Ohio was done with the greatest care, and his exposure 
of numerous frauds has been a valuable aid to science, 
while his paper on the ancient copper mines of Lake 
Superior is the standard memoir on that subject." 

Colonel Whittlesey was married October 4, 1853, at 
Oswego, N. Y., to Mrs. Mary E. Morgan nee Lyon, who 
survives her husband. 

I now propose to read some notes on a subject not new, 
in fact rather old, and I hope I may not tire the patience 
of my hearers. The subject is — The Connection of Massa- 
chusetts with the Slave-Trade and with Slavery. Grave 
charges have sometimes been made against Massachusetts 
in relation to this subject. They were repeated by Jeifer- 
son Davis in his message to the so-called Confederate States, 
April 29, 1861, x and more recently they have been served 
up to us anew in a more florid style in the Senate of the 
United States, in words which I shall now take for my text. 

In a debate on the 26th of March, 1884, on the subject 
of "Aid to Common Schools," Mr. Vance of North Caro- 
lina, in reply to a Senator from Massachusetts, after indulg- 
ing in some uncomplimentary remarks in reference to that 
State, proceeded, — "A State that is more responsible under 
heaven than any other community in this land 2 for the 
introduction of slavery into this continent, with all the 
curses that have followed it; that is the nursing mother of 
the horrors of the middle passage, and that after slavery in 
Massachusetts was found not to pay sold those slaves down 

i George Livermore's Historical Research, p. 4, Boston, 18G3. 

-The language, " any other community in this land," might seem to limit the 
comparison, tor the alleged responsihility, to the British colonies; hut when, 
immediately following, Massachusetts is culled " the nursing mother of the 
horrors ol the middle passage," it is clear that no limitation was intended. 

192 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

South for a consideration, and then thanked God, and sang 
the long metre Doxology through their noses, that they 
were not responsible any longer for the sin of human 
slavery, should at least be modest in applying epithets to 
her neighbors." 

"If I may be permitted," he continues, "to disturb the 
dignified solemnities of this body for one moment, I will 
state what this reminds me of. I once heard of an old 
maid who got religion at a camp-meeting. Immediately 
after she had experienced the change she commenced 
exhorting the younger and prettier women in regard to 
wearing jewelry and gewgaws, and warned them against 
the pernicious consequences to piety of such vanities. 
'Oh ! girls,' she said, 'I tell you, I used to wear ear-rings, 
and finger rings, and laces and furbelows like you do, but 
I found they were dragging my immortal soul down to 
hell ; and I stripped them every one off and sold them to 
my younger sister Sally.' That is the way Massachusetts 
relieved herself from slavery. That is the way she pic- 
served her whiteness of soul." 1 

Part of this language awakens the echoes which once 
resounded through the halls of Congress in the old slavery 
days. Passing over the sarcasm and wit shown in the illus- 
trative anecdote, it will be more significant to enquire if the 
allegations of fact upon which they rest are true. No 
authorities are cited tending to substantiate them. Ordina- 
rily it is difficult, often it is impossible to prove a negative. 2 
But in this case it is easy to prove the falsity of the charges 

iCong. Rec, March 26, 1864, p. 22x4. 

- At the time this sp< e< li WW made, and the passage above cited appeared in 
the newspapers, my friend and neighbor, the Hon. John C. Dodge, LL.D., 
urged me to write a reply to it which for several reasons I declined, and com- 
mended the subject to him, ofl'ering him any mat. -rials I might have for hi- Bse. 
He consented, and made considerable progress in the work, hut impaired eye- 
sight warned him to desist from making further extra demands upon it. and he 
laid his manuscript a-ide before finishing it — at lea>t according to his original 
intention. Mr. Dodge now kindly placed this paper in my hands with liberty 
to make such Use of it a- I might find convenient. 1 found it to be admirably 
prepared, and seeming fully to auswer the purpose for which it was designed by 

1886.] Report of the Council . 193 

alleged, and to show where the responsibility of introducing 
slavery into this continent actually rests. The Senator 
might easily have informed himself that the work of trans- 
porting negroes from Africa to the mainland and islands 
of this continent was almost exclusively done by English- 
men and in English ships. Mr. Bancroft writing in 1840 
summarizes the matter thus, — "While the South Sea 
Company satisfied but imperfectly its passion for wealth, by 
a monopoly of the supply of negroes for the Spanish islands 
and main, the African Company and independent traders 
were still more busy in sending negroes to the colonies of 
England. To this eagerness, encouraged by English legis- 
lation, fostered by royal favor, and enforced for a century 
by every successive ministry of England, it is due, that 
one-sixth part of the population of the United States — a 
moiety of those who dwell in the five States nearest the 
Gulf of Mexico — are descendants of Africans." 1 

I have cited this extract from Mr. Bancroft's History 
because the work is so easily accessible, the volume con- 
taining it having been published nearly fifty years ago. 
Let us look at some of the facts on which this statement 
rests. And I invite this inspection not merely by way of 
answering the charges alleged, which would require but 
little time and but a small space in this paper, but to bring 
before us some of the facts and statistics relating to the 
British slave-trade, in a narrative form, as more suitable 
to an occasion like this. 

"The history of English America," says Mr. Payne in 
his Voyages of the Elizabethan Seamen, "begins with the 
three slave-trading voyages of John Hawkins, made in the 
years 1562, 1564, and 1567. 2 Nothing that Englishmen 

him. I will add that I have here made free use of such of its notes and 
references as suited my purpose thereby saving to myself considerable time 
aud labor. 

i Bancroft's History of U. S., Vol. III., p. -102. 

2 It is not improbable tbat old William Hawkins, the father of John, had 
already made the Brazilian voyage in 1530 and lo32, by way of Guinea, though 
Hakim t is silent as to slaves. 

194 America ( j. 

had dona in connection with America, nrarionalj lo thoae 
voyage-, had Xearly sere 

r* before, John Cabot, aaffing for E | ned 

the Hew World, and some English adventurer* a* the 
tidings of cfiacovery ipread had erossed the Atlantic to 
Americas eo -.•.. But a* years passed the 1. 
age* to had become fewer and fewer, and a\ . 

eeaaed a I tageth e r . * Aa Pm tuguesc pla 

tioot in America multiplied the demand for negroes alao 
increased. The - Africa* settlements, but 

the Portuguese, who were the pioneer* in the negro »1 
trade on the coast of Africa, had many ; and with the a: 
the French were able to supply enough for both themselves 
and their neigh bor. But so rapid was the growth of the 
Brazilian plantation*, about the middle of the sixteenth - 
tury, that they absorU-d the entire supply and the Spanish 
colon Uu knew not where to look for negroes. I penury 

laves in the 3j .^me known to the Eng- 

lish and French captains who frequented the Guinea co 
and John Hawkina who had been engaged from boyhood in 
the trade with .Spain and the Canaries, resolved in I ' - 
take a cargo *>f negro slaved to Hispauiola.* 1 The old 
chronicler, Ilaklayt, haa preserved an account of 'these 
three expeditions, of the kidnapping of the negroes on the 
coast of Africa, and their transportation to the West Indies, 
written by eye-witnesses. The first voyage, which was 
successful, ci -as of the West Indies to the Eng- 

lish navigator. Hawkins sold hi* negroes in HUpaniola, 
delivering them at the northern porta on the island. The 
second voyage was likewise successful, for Hawkins entered 
the Caribbean Sea, visited the Spanish main, where he sold 
his living freight, and returned by the way of PI r J % — 
where he visited the French colony of Loudonniere — and 
the coast of North America, following very nearly the 


1886.] Report of the Council. 195 

track of Verraz2ano forty years before. This voyage won 
for him wealth and distinction, and in 1565 he obtained 
from the Queen his well-known coat of arms, having the 
crest of "a demi-moor bound and captive." The vessel in 
which he sailed on this voyage, the one he personally com- 
manded, was the "Jesus." His third voyage was disas- 
trous in the extreme, as In an encounter with a Spanish 
tleet at the port of San Juan de Ullua, in which he had 
taken refuge in a storm, he barely escaped to tell the talc. 
In his distress he was obliged to put on shore, on the Mexi- 
can coast, one hundred men, being one-half of his number, 
to struggle for themselves, and the subsequent history of 
those who survived forms an interesting episode in the early 
annals of America. 

It should perhaps be explained here why Hawkins was 
obliged to visit the Spanish ports id America by stealth 
to sell his negroes, when this species of merchandise was 
so much wanted. The Spanish colonists were eager to buy 
and to them Hawkins sold in spite of the remonstrance 
and opposition of the Spanish colonial officials, who had 
been instructed by the government at home to admit no 
English ships into their ports. For political reasons 
especially, great jealousy of the English existed in Spain, 
and after Hawkins's first and second voyages, express orders 
were issued against him. Hawkins was, therefore, an 
interloper on the coast. This was Hawkins's last slave- 
voyage, and he is the only Englishman who, during the 
sixteenth century, mixed himself up with the slave-trade. 1 

I might add that previous to Hawkins's slave ventures 
English merchantmen often visited the coast of Africa. 
We find them there in 1551, and in the following years 
down to 1556, but no slaves are mentioned as objects of 
traffic. 2 

i"Some Accouut of the Trade in Steves from Africa as connected with 
Europe aud America," Ac, by Jame- Uandincl, Esq., Foreign Office, London, 
1S42, p. 9. 

*Bandinel, 33, 36. ' ; It is said, that, in the year 1553, four aud twenty negroes 

196 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

England now began to realize the importance of enlarg- 
ing her commerce as a vent for her manufacturing products, 
and several commercial companies were chartered by royal 
favor in aid of their schemes for trading to different parts 
of the African coast. A few voyages were made, but 
negroes are not mentioned as objects of traffic. 1 

In 1618 a royal grant was made to the Governor and 
Company of Adventurers trading to Africa, which is the 
tirst instance in which the English seriously interfered with 
the exclusive sovereignty claimed by Portugal on that 
coast. They erected forts and established factories on the 
Gambia, but the profits not answering their expectations 
the company disbanded and the charter was suffered to 
expire. But that company did not meddle with the trade 
in slaves. 2 

In 1631 a second African company was chartered for 

were brought into this island from the coast of Africa, and immediately to an 
English port, as at that time we had no American or sugar trade." — Harring- 
ton's Statutes, 281, quoting Hakluyt. 

iBandinel, 39; Astley's Voyages, II., 158, 159. 

2Bandiuel.42,43; Edwards's, West ladies, II., 52, London, 1S19. There prob- 
ably were at this early period roaming vessels of the English as of other nations 
ready to pick up negroes on the coast of Africa or elsewhere nearer at home. 

In August, 1619, a Dutch man-of-war arrived in Virginia, and sold to the 
planters there twenty negroes, the first brought into the colony. This Dutch 
vessel was not a slaver from the coast of Africa. She had accidentally con- 
sorted, in the West Indies, with an English ship, the Treasurer, Captain 
Elf red, owned by the Earl of Warwick and Governor Arga.ll, and was sent out 
by the former with an old commission from the Duke of Savoy, authorizing 
her to take Spaniards as lawful prize. Manned and newly victualled from 
Virginia she set out on her roving voyage. " These twenty negroes were part 
of one hundred," says one authority, ''captured from a Spanish vessel by the 
Treasurer." (4 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1\., 4-7, and note p. -1). The remain- 
der were taken to Bermuda and placed on the Earl of Warwick's plantation. 
(Burk's Virgiuia, I., 319; Nidi's Virginia Company, pp. 120, 121.) 

Captain Arthur Guy, in 1028, in the ship Fortune of London, met and cap- 
tured a slaver from the Angola coast, and brought many negroes to Virginia 
and exchanged them for tobacco. Nidi's Virginia (\<r<>it>rttm, p. .V.). 

Dutch vessels are early found on the coast of Africa engaged in the slave 
business, and later they became one of the most active maritime powers to 
enlist in this traffic. In 1025 or 1020, the Dutch brought the first negroes to 
Manhattan. See Journals of the voyages of two Dutch slavers, the St. John 
and Arms of Amsterdam, 1059, 1003, which, with illustrative papers, were 
published in 1807, edited by E. B. O'Callaghau. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 197 

thirty-one years, and all persons except the patentees pro- 
hibited from trading to Guinea, between Cape Blanco and 
the Cape of Good Hope. As the English had now begun 
the settlement of plantations in the West Indies, negroes 
were in such demand as to induce the new company at 
great expense to erect forts and warehouses on the coast 
for the protection of their commerce. This marks the time 
when the English began to embark in the importing of 
slaves from Africa — the first since the days of Hawkins: 
but it does not appear that they had as yet entered upon 
what was called the "carrying trade" for others. The 
English, French, Dutch and Portuguese each supplied 
their own colonies with slaves. The Spaniards, as I have 
said, had no resources on the coast of Africa and were 
obliged to resort to other nations to supply their colonists. 
But the trade of this company was so interfered with by 
interlopers and private traders, united to the intense 
hostility of the Dutch, who had now acquired additional 
possessions in Guinea from the Portuguese, that the trade 
was laid open and so continued till after the Restoration. 
In 1641 the English -Barbadoes procured sugar-cane from 
Brazil, and after the fashion of the Portuguese black slaves 
were resorted to for its cultivation. 1 

In 1655, Cromwell, in failing to take St. Domingo, took 
Jamaica, and commenced peopling it with emigrants from 
England, Scotland and Ireland; and he had it "much at 
heart" to transport the Massachusetts colony thither. It 
does not appear that he contemplated the aid of negroes in 
cultivation. Xo sugar was yet produced here. But Jamaica 
was destined to play an important part in the history of the 
English slave-trade. 

In the year 16C2, Charles II. incorporated a third exclu- 
sive African company, of which his brother, the Duke of 
York, and other distinguished persons, were members. 
That company undertook to supply the British West India 

iBandinel, 44, 47. 48; Edwards, II., 52, 53. 

198 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

colonies with three thousand negroes annually. In 1664, 
the King, intending to make war on the Dutch, sent Sir 
Robert Holmes to the coast of Africa with orders to reduce 
the Dutch forts near Cape Verde, and their factories on the 
Guinea coast. In this war New York was taken by the 
English. These several African companies, however, 
though protected by patents and exclusive privileges, do not 
appear to have flourished, and from time to time they 
returned into the hands of the Crown the favors granted to 

In 1672— the third company having surrendered their 
charter to the Crown — the fourth and last exclusive African 
company was established. It was an incorporated company 
upon a joint stock, as the last company had been. It bore 
the dignified name of the ■" Royal African Company," and 
it had among its members the King, the Duke of York, and 
many others of rank and quality. The capital was £1 1 1,000 
sterling. The grant was from Port Sallee in South Barbary, 
to the Cape of Good Hope. They allowed the late com- 
pany £34,000 for their three forts at Cape Coast Castle, 
Sierra Leone, and James Fort, and. they exhibited great 
energy in prosecuting their business. They enlarged Cape 
Coast Castle, built forts at Accra, and five other places, 
and imported large quantities of dyestulls, of ivory, wax 
and gold, and supplied the British colonists with slaves. 
From the gold dust which they procured was struck the 
English coin known as the "guinea" — from the name of 
the country — 50,000 at one time, in 1673, and called 
"elephant guineas" from the stamp they bore. But by the 
Declaration of Right at the Revolution of 1688 all royal 
charters were attacked and the exclusive character of this 
company was taken away, though they still persisted in 
seizing the ships of the separate traders, which occasioned 
o-reat clamor and obstruction. In 1689 the company 


entered into a contract to supply the Spanish West Indies 

with slaves from Jamaica, and in 1697-8 the trade to 


1886.] Report of the Council. 199 

Africa which by the Declaration of Right was claimed to be 
laid open was expressly made so by Parliament under cer- 
tain conditions. By statutes of 9 and 10, W. and M., c. 
26, it was enacted "that for the preservation of the trade, 
and for the advantage of England and its colonies, it should 
be lawful for any of the subjects of his Majesty's realm of 
England, as well as for the company, to trade from England 
and the plantations in America to Africa, between Cape 
Mount and Cape of Good Hope, upon paying for the afore- 
said uses a drnVy of 10 p. cent, ad valorem for the goods 
exported from England or the plantations, to be paid to the 
collector at the time of entry outwards, for the use of the 
company." 1 Also a further 10 per cent, was to be paid on 
all goods imported into England or the plantations from the 
coast aforesaid. This act was limited to thirteen years, 
and Astley says it was renewed in 1712.- On the 18th of 
April, 1707, a circular letter from the Board of Trade was 
addressed to all the British American colonies, asking for 
information as to whether the act just cited has accomplished 
its purpose in allbrding the best means for "the well supply- 
ing of the plantations and colonies with sufficient number of 
negroes at reasonable prices," which is "the chief point to 
be considered in regard to that trade," it being "absolutely 
necessary that a trade so beneficial to the kingdom should 
be carried on to the greatest advantage." 3 The struggle 
now was between the African Company, with its abridged 
monopoly, and the private traders, "the subjects of his 
Majesty's Realm of England," as to which offered the best 
method for supplying the colonies with negroes in sufficient 
numbers and at the most reasonable prices. 

It appears that there had been annually imported into 
the British colonies between 1679 and 1689 — a period of 
ten years — by the African Company, and by interloping 

i Edwards's West Indies, Vol. II., pp. 51-56; Statutes of the l{ealm,Yo\. 
VII. ; Bandinel, pp. 52, 53, 51. 
a Astley's Voyages, Vol. II., pp. 1G0, 161. 
*B. I. Col. Bee, Vol. IV., p. 53. 

200 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

traders, about 4,500 slaves, and in the last named year, as 
we have already seen, the company entered into a contract 
with the Spanish government to supply her colonies with 
slaves from Jamaica, which island was to be the entrepot; 
and it likewise appears that from 1G98 to 1707 there were 
landed in the British colonies, partly by the company and 
partly by British traders, about 25,000 negroes a year. 1 
The direct supply of slaves from Africa to the Spanish 
colonies was, however, at this time, engrossed by the 
French, and it was not till 1713 that the English took part 
in the carrying trade. 2 

We have now arrived at a new era in the history of the 
British slave-trade. In the year 1713, the French contract 
with Spain having expired, the Spanish government made 
over to an English company by formal royal contract the 
privilege of supplying the Spanish-American colonies with 
slaves from Africa. The Spanish term for contract, "Assi- 
ento" was now specially applied to this agreement. The 
contract was called " The Assiento" and the company the 
" Assientisls" The contract was held of such importance 
as to form the subject of a stipulation in the preliminaries 
of the treaty of peace of Utrecht, and it was confirmed in 
the sixteenth article of that treaty. It was to last for thirty 
years. 3 The treaty was really between Philip V. of Spain 
and Anne, Queen of England ; and this is the language of 
the agreement: — "Her Britannic Majesty did offer and 
undertake, by persons whom she shall appoint, to bring 
into the West Indies of America belonging to his Catholic 
Majesty, in the space of thirty years 144,000 negroes, at the 
rate of 4,800 in each of the said thirty years;" 4 advancing 
him 200,000 crowns for the privilege and paying a duty of 
thirty -three and one-half crowns for each slave. And they 
might import as many more as they could sell the first 

1 Report of Prio. Council on trade with Africa, Bandinel, p. 56. 

2 Buiidiuel, p. 50. 
ajiaudiuel, pp. 57-01. 

* Bancroft, Vol. III., p. 232. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 201 

twenty-five years at a reduced scale of duty. 1 "Exactest 
care was taken," says Mr. Bancroft, "to secure a monopoly. 
No Frenchman, nor Spaniard, nor any other person might 
introduce one negro slave into Spanish-America, for the 
Spanish world in the Gulf of Mexico, on the Atlantic, and 
along the Pacific, as well as for the English colonies, her 
Britannic Majesty by persons of her appointment, was the 
exclusive slave trader. England extorted the privilege of 
filling the new world with negroes." 2 As large profits 
were expected, the King of Spain took one-quarter of the 
stock and gave his note for it, and the Queen reserved to 
herself one-quarter, while the remaining one-half was left 
for her subjects. Thus, continues Mr. Bancroft, the Sover- 
eigns of England and Spain became the largest slave 
merchants in the world. By advice of her minister Queen 
Anne assigned her portion of the stock to the South Sea 
Company which contracted for this carrying trade. 

It is calculated that for twenty years after this contract 
the number of slaves annually exported from Africa by the 
English was 15,000, of whom a third to a half went to the 
Spanish colonies ; and that for the following twenty years 
the number was 20, 000. 3 

The slave-trade part of the assiento had all along been a 
losing business, the only thing which sustained the com- 
pany being' the privilege reserved of sending annually a 
ship to Puerto Bello with merchandise — a clause in the 
contract which opened a wide field for fraudulent profit, as 
well as for complaint, resulting finally in loss, and was one 
occasion of the war which in 1739 broke out between Eng- 
land and Spain. 

In 1739, twenty-five years from the date of the assiento 
agreement, the English company had got in debt to Spain 

iBundinel, pp. 57, 68; Journal House of Commons, Vol. XVII., p. 341, Art. 
XII., p. 342; Mem. of Lord Boliugbroke, by G. W. Cooke, second ed., Vol. I., 
p. 233, London, 183G. 

^ Bancroft, III., 232. 

3Bundinel, p. 59. 

202 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

to the amount of £68,000, and the King of Spain threatened 
to suspend the contract if the sum was not paid. The war 
between the two countries interrupted the contract which 
soon after came to an end. 

The English African company, in the mean time, had 
been entirely ruined by the assiento speculation, and in 
1729 were obliged to come before Parliament for assistance 
to keep up their forts and factories. We have already 
seen that the trade had been conditionally opened by gov- 
ernment to English traders to her own colonies, so that the 
company's monopoly had been infringed upon. Parliament 
granted them from 1729 to 1749 £80,000, so important 
was it to keep alive one of the important agencies for trans- 
porting slaves from Africa. 1 But in 1750 the company was 
dissolved, their charter, forts and all their property sur- 
rendered to government who paid their debts, and the 
African trade was placed under a new company so that the 
business should be open to all his Majesty's subjects. 2 
Although the African company now ceased to export 
negroes from Africa it must not be supposed that the num- 
ber of slaves exported in English vessels had diminished. 
The carrying trade had become open to the English gener- 
ally, and though other nations, the Dutch, the French, and 
lastly the Spaniard now by degrees entered into the busi- 
ness, still, from 1750 down to the time of the American 
Revolution, the English were by far the greatest exporters 
of slaves from Africa, and the number was constantly 
increasing. 3 

iBaudinel,p. GO. 

2 The preamble to the act of 1750 recites : — " Whereas the trade to Africa is 
very advantageous to Great Britain, and necessary for the supplying the planta- 
tions and colonies thereunto belonging with a sufficient number of negroes at 
reasonable rates, and for that purpose the said trade ought to be free to all his 
Majesty's subjects," etc. (Statutes at large.) 

a The following chronological summary may be interesting: — In 1703 a com- 
mittee of the House of Commons reported that '* the trade is important and 
ought to be free"; in 1711 a committee once more report that " the plantations 
ought to be supplied with negroes at reasonable rates," and recommend an 

1886.] Report of the Council. 203 

Edwards says that from 1733 to 1766 the average 
annual exportation of slaves from Africa by England might 
be estimated at 20,000, but that immediately before the 
troubles with America the number had increased to 41,000. 
And Macpherson in his History of Commerce, states that 
the number shipped in 1768 by all nations for America and 
the West Indies was estimated at 97,000, that of these the 
British shipping took 60,000. ] 

Edwards 2 estimates that between 1680 and 1700, twenty 
years, the African company and the private traders exported 
from Africa 300,000, which is 15,000 a year. From 1700 
to 1786 to Jamaica alone 610,000, or about 7,000 annually. 
Of the number in the same interval, imported into the 
southern provinces of North America as well as the Wind- 
ward Islands such precision cannot be employed, but 
Edwards is of opinion that Jamaica may be one-third of 
the whole, and that the total import into all the British 
colonies of America and th'e West Indies from 1680 to 
1786, or one hundred and six 3'ears, may be put at, 
2,130,000, an annual average of 20,095. 

I have a list of slave ships which sailed from England 
from 1771 to 1787, eighteen years. In 1771, 192 ships 
sailed from Liverpool, London and Bristol, provided for 
47,000 slaves — 107 ships from . Liverpool alone provided 
for 29,250 slaves. In 1772, 175 vessels were employed; 

increase of the trade; in June, 1712, Queen Anne, in her speech to Parliament, 
boasts of her success in securing to Englishmen a new market for slaves in 
Spanish America; iu 1729 George II. recommended a provision at the national 
expense for the African forts, and the recommendation was allowed ; at last, in 
1749, to give the highest activity to the trade, every obstruction to private 
enterprise was removed and the ports of Africa were laid open to English com- 
petition, for "the slave trade," iu the words of the statute, " is very advanta- 
geous to Great Britain." "The British Senate," writes Horace Walpole to Sir 
H.Mann, February 25, 1750, ''have this fortnight been pondering methods to 
make more effectual that horrid traffic of selling negroes; it has appeared to us 
that six and forty thousand of these wretches are sold every year to our planta- 
tions alone." (Bancroft, III., 414.) Bandiuel, pp. 01, 63. 

iBandinel, p. G3. 

2 Vol. fl.,p. 64, ed. of 1819. 

204 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

1773, 151; 1774, 167; 1775, 152 ;. 1776, 101. 1 In the 
three following years owing to the American Revolution 
there was a brief suspension of the trade, but at its close it 
Avas renewed. 

And here I may mention, incidentally, that so large was 
the death-rate among slaves in the West Indies and so 
small the natural increase, that in 1840, the whole negro 
population in the English islands, including mixed breeds, 
did not exceed 763,000. Burke, in his account of the 
European settlements in America, in 1755, states, that at 
that period the number of negro slaves in the British 
possessions in the West Indies was about 240,000. and 
that of the white population 90,000; and that in Virginia 
there were about 100,000 negro slaves, with a white popula- 
tion of between 60,000 and 70,000; and that the English 
imported annually at least one-sixteenth part of the existing 
negroes to keep up the stock, making an importation of 
about 15,000 annually for the* British West Indies, and of 
6,200 for Virginia. 2 This shows that the number* had 
to be made good by constant importation. It was different 
in the original colonies of the United States. With an 
estimated importation as a seed plot of, say, 350,000, from 
1619 to 1808, these had increased in 1830 to 2,328,642 3 or 
in 1860 to near 4, 000, 000. 4 

"We shall not err very much," says Mr. I^mcroft, "if, 
for the century previous to the prohibition of the slave- 
trade by the American Congress, in 1776, we assume the 
number imported by the English into the Spanish, French, 
and English West Indies, as well as the English continental 
colonies, to have been, collectively nearly three millions, 
to which are to be added more than a quarter of a million 

i Edwards, II., 05, 60. 

*Bandinel,G4, 05. 

ST. G. Bradford and S. G. Goodrich, Atlas. 1GG, 167. 

4 About 30,000 wore found in Louisiana at the time of her incorporation into 
the Uniou. H. C. Carey, " Sla re Trade, Domestic and Foreign," Philadel- 
phia, 1850, pp. 13, 17. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 205 

thrown into the Atlantic on the passage." And these statis- 
tics, I may add, are the lowest ever made by any writer. 
"English ships fitted out in English cities," continues Mr. 
Bancroft, "under the special favor of the royal family, of 
the ministry, and of parliament, stole from Africa, in the 
years from 1700 to 1750, probably a million and a half of 
souls, of whom one-eighth were buried in the Atlantic, 
victims of the passage." 1 

Here we see who is principally responsible, since the 
beginning of their settlement, for introducing slaves from 
Africa into the British-American colonies. It is the story 
briefly told of the British slave-trade; of the transference, 
not of the seeds of a race merely, but of a people, from one 
continent to another. It was generally regarded at the. 
time as a respectable business. For many years the public 
conscience uttered no reproaches, but finally it was aroused. 

But, it may be asked, did not Massachusetts, or some of 
the citizens of Massachusetts, engage in the African slave- 
trade? Undoubtedly they did, to a certain extent, and It 
have no wish to screen Massachusetts from her responsibility 
in this business. Her citizens shared, more or less, in the 
opinions of the time, on the moral, social and economical 
problems which underlay society, and were subject to the 
debasing influences which sometimes attended commercial 
and mercantile enterprises ; but there was always a protest 
from the heart of the people against this crime to humanity, 
from the time of Joseph Sewall in 1700 to Nathaniel Apple- 
ton in 1769, which ere long made itself felt as a controlling 
influence in the community. 

The Massachusetts colonists became early a commercial 
people. They built ships and freighted them with their 
own productions, and traded to the West Indies, the Span- 
ish main and to Europe, quite regardless of the English 
Act of Navigation — after the passage of that act in 1651. 
And as it is well known that there were a few negro slaves 

i Bancroft, III., 411, 412. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 207 

In this case it was doubted whether the authority of the 
government extended so far as to punish a citizen for acts 
committed on the coast of Africa. 

Edward Randolph in 1676, and Governor Bradstreet in 
1680, report a few slaves brought here from Guinea and 
Madagascar, and from the West Indies, but do not mention 
who brought them. The latter says that "no company of 
slaves have, been brought since the establishment of the 
colony fifty years ago, except about two years ago, after 
twenty months' voyage to Madagascar, a vessel brought 
forty or fifty negroes." 1 

Sir Josiah Childe in his New Discourse of Trade," first 
published in 1668 (a remarkable book for its day), has an 
interesting passage on the commerce of New England, — 
and where he speaks of New England he probably means 
Massachusetts — in which he enumerates her articles of 
export and import, describes the whole course and extent 
of her trade, but says not a word of negroes, except to 
draw a comparison between New England and Barbadoes, \ 
where slaves were employed as laborers. And Edward 
Randolph, referred to above, in a long and interesting 
report to the Privy Council in 1676, on the resources of the 
country, her agriculture, her manufactures, the character 
and extent of her commerce with her sister colonies and 
with foreign nations, says, near the close of this section of 
his paper: — "There are some ships lately sent to Guinea, 
Madagascar and those coasts, and some to Scanderoon, 
laden with masts and yards for ships." 3 

Governor Dudley, in 1708, in replying to the circular 
letter from the Board of Trade, to which I have already 
referred, says that from January 24, 1698, to December 
25, 1707, 200 negroes arrived in Massachusetts — that the 
African company had not any factory or ships here. 

13 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., VIII., 337. 
2 See pp. 212-214 of edition of 1698. 
8 Hutchinson Papers, p. 495. 

208 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

"Some traders on their own account, a long time since, 
have been on the coast of Guinea and imported slaves. 
The last was Thomas Winsor, who brought slaves from 
Africa in 1699, and also twenty-five of them in 1700." l 
The duties belonging to the African company are enclosed 
by the writer. "Such money," says Mr. Felt, "appears 
to have been what the company claimed by their charter, 
which allowed them the monopoly of the slave-trade with 
the English dominions." 

More slaves were brought into the colony as the new 
century opened. Some of them probably coming from the 
West Indies, and some of them direct from the coast of 
Africa ; and to whatever extent the African slave-trade was 
prosecuted from Massachusetts, it seems to have been, 
prior to the middle of the eighteenth century, confined to 
a comparatively few vessels. Statistics unhappily are 
wanting, and we must reason from general facts and con- 
temporary opinions. We have already seen that the Afri- 
can companies had, by their charters, a complete monopoly 
of the trade — from 1631 to 1698 — except during small 
intervals of time, and from the last named date to 1750, 
the trade was so far opened that "any of the subjects 
of his Majesty's Realm of England" could participate in it 
— by implication no others. There can be liltle doubt that 
interloping vessels from Massachusetts sometimes visited 
the coast before the trade was freely opened in 1750. The 
companies struggled hard from the beginning to maintain 
their monopoly. I have a long and interesting letter — a 
printed broadside — dated November 15, 1690, addressed 
to a member of Parliament, protesting against the opening 
of the trade, and claiming that the business required so 
much capital to carry it on that it could be conducted to 
advantage only by an incorporated company and a joint 
stock. In the year 1750 the trade was thrown open, and 
Massachusetts and other colonies took part in it. 

l Felt, American Statistical Association, Vol. I., p. 586. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 209 

One of the best authorities on the subject of slavery in 
Massachusetts was Dr. Jeremy Belknap of Boston, an emi- 
nent historical scholar, and the founder of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society. He was born in Boston in 1744. 
In order to correctly answer several queries from Judge 
Tucker of Virginia relating to slavery in Massachusetts, 
Dr. Belknap, in 1795, addressed some forty letters of 
enquiry to eminent and venerable citizens of the State ; and 
from the letters he received in reply and from personal 
conferences with others, united to his own knowledge, he 
drew up an answer to Judge Tucker, which was published 
three years later in the fourth volume of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society Collections. 1 Concerning the slave-trade 
he says : — 

!The letters received by Dr. Belknap, of this correspondence, or so many of 
them as are preserved, were printed by me nine years ago in 5 Massachusetts 
Historical Society Collections, III., 379-403. Of the writers of these, only 
seven in number, five have given their opinions on the subject in hand. 

Dr. John Eliot, born in 1754, writes,— u The African trade was carried on: 
aud commenced at an early period; to a small extent compared with Rhodf 
Island, but it made a considerable branch of our commerce (to judge from the 
number of our still-houses, and masters of vessels now living who have been in 
the trade). It declined very little till the revolution. Some excellent writings 
were dirt'used previously to this, and the sentiment of the people was against it; 
but the merchants who had been engaged in the business still continued sending 
their vessels for slaves, till the trade was prohibited by act of the court, 17SS." 

Samuel Dexter of Weston, the father of Samuel Dexter, the statesman, born 
172G, writes,— " If any such trade really existed at an early period, I may have 
read something about it, but can now recollect nothing. It certainly never 
was, at any time, carried on to a great extent in Massachusetts. Adventurers 
from here have been concerned in a trade from Africa to the West Indies; but 
[ know of none since Thomas Boylston, now in London, quitted it. McCarthy, 
and, I believe, Job Prince, were his captains; the former, divers voyages. 
Vessels from lthode Island have brought slaves into Boston. Whether any 
have been imported in that town by its own merchants, I am unable to say. I 
have, more than fifty years ago, seen a vessel or two with slaves brought into 
Boston, but do not recollect where they were owned. At that time [1745] it 
was a very rare thing to hear the trade reprobated." 

Thomas Pembertou, born 1728, writes,— •« We know that a large trade to 
Guinea was carried on for many years by the citizens of the Massachusetts 
colony, who were the proprietors of the vessels and their cargoes, out and 
home. Some of the slaves purchased in Guinea, aud I suppose the greatest 
part of them, were sold in the West Indies, some were brought to Boston aud 
Charlestovvn, and sold to town and country purchasers by the head. . . . This 
business of importing aud selling negroes continued till nearly the time of the 

210 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

"The African trade was never prosecuted to a great 
extent by the merchants of Massachusetts. No records or 
memorials are remaining by which anything respecting it, 
in the last century, can be known. . . . By the inquiries 
which I have made of our oldest merchants now living, I 
cannot tind that more than three ships in a year, belonging 
to this port, were ever employed in the African trade. The 
rum distilled here was the main-spring of this traffic. The 
slaves, purchased in Africa, were chiefly sold in the West 
Indies, or in the southern colonies ; but when those markets 
were glutted, and the price low, some of them were brought 
hither. Very few whole cargoes ever came to this port. 
One gentleman says he remembers two or three. I remem- 
ber one, between thirty and forty years ago, which con- 
sisted almost wholly of children. At Rhode Island the 
rum distillery and the African trade were prosecuted to a 
greater extent than in Boston ; and I believe no other sea- 
port in Massachusetts had any concern in the slave business. 
Sometimes the Rhode Island vessels, after having sold their 
prime slaves in the West Indies, brought the remnants of 
their cargoes hither for sale. Since this commerce has 
declined the town of Newport has gone to decay. .-..LA 
few only of our merchants were engaged in this kind of 
traffic. It required a large capital and was considered as 
peculiarly hazardous, though gainful. It was never sup- 
ported by popular opinion ; and the voice of conscience was 

controversy with Great Britain. The precise date when it wholly ceased I 
cannot ascertain, but it declined and drew to a period about the time the British 
Parliament attempted to enslave the colonists by arbitrary acts." 

Judge James Winthrop, born, say in 1751, writes,— " I have no certain infor- 
mation, but believe it was never carried on to any considerable extent but by 
way of Rhode Island." 

Dr. llolyoke, a physician of Salem, born 1728, to Judge Tucker's second 
query, "if the African slave trade was carried on thither ?" writes,— " Yes, 
but never, I believe, to any great extent. When it commenced I know not, 
nor when it began to decline. But few cargoes, I believe, have been brought 
in here within this thirty-five or forty years. The older merchants in Boston 
can best answer this question. The slaves which were brought here directly 
from Africa came, for the most part, I believe, in American vessels. But the 
trade was not generally agreeable to the people, and several openly expressed 
their disapprobation of it. Judge Lowell about the latter end of the last 
century published a small tract against it, entitled ' Joseph Sold, Memorial.' " 

As has been said above, Dr. Belknap made extensive enquiries of our oldest 
merchants as well as of others, whose hitters are not preserved, and he has 
given the results of his investigation in the paper noticed above. 

] 0M,j Bepori of (he Ommett 21 1 

against it. A degree of infamy was ittsrsed t/, Ac Am 

: in ft ; f u r t u d of them, . 

(self b*t hour-,, bit. 4 -A their snssms in it." 

] be di -tilling of rurn was one of if of Masta- 

chusett*, and continued to be for many 
wai supplied to most o: 

bade, the {few E isdtosd fisheries as n 

. . trade ec 

iJr. I^ir p posed that Boston was the only sea-port 

in Massachneetta from which -: hut D 

. furnished mesM 
from Salem, an important commer . He notices 

one in 1 703 whiv Ghosts; one 1773 nad 

dies with slaves :. r Gambia; 

hi 1 7tfS : sod one in 1787 
traffic: and in 1701 another ar. rinam from the 

coast of Africa. Visi*. e coast of Africa or r*eisg 

employed is the AH t necessarily in. 

that the vessel was a slav 

I these vessels occasionally took their cargoes 
the : southern colonies Is probable, for I fine 

the instruction-! § to the captains of two vessels before 

sailing on their ii-mal voyages a clause rig them w 

cert , .-rices to ^ .irleston; ssd f>e lie .< nap 

that the slaves were chiefly sold in the West Indies 
or in the aostft olonies. About the time of the Stamp 

Di B knap says the trade begs* to decline, ane* 
17*^ it was prohibited by law. This could not have bees 
done, he says, previous to the Revolution as the gover n or s 
sent bitber were Jsetliwtril sot to enssfst to any acts made 
for that purpose. 

■ this review of the evidence, alio wing it to weigh 
against Massachusetts all it will possibly bear, it U certain 
that the -.hare which that colony had in the planting of 
slavery in the new world was hot a drop in the backet 

i^itftab o/StOem, Tot IL, Salem, IMS. 

212 American Antiquarian Society. "Oct. 

compared with that of England. Nor is this all. I have 
no wish to draw any invidious comparisons between sister 
colonics, but I arn here compelled to say that Rhode I-land 
was engaged in the slave-trade to a far greater extent than 
Massachusetts was. We have seen uhat Dr. Belknap says 
on this point, and Dr. Samuel Hopkins of Newport, in 
177G, in a tract advocating the abolition of slavery. 1 says, 
M As Rhode Island has been more deeply interested in the 
slave-trade, and has enslaved inure of the poor Africans 
than any other colony in New England, it has been to the 
honor of that colony that she has made a law prohibiting 
the importation of any more slave-. - 

If we take into account only the 350,000 slaves estimated 
to have been brought into the southern colonies of the 
United States during all the period we have been reviewing, 
we can imagine how .small a part of them could on any 
probable hypothesis have been supplied by Massachusetts 

\Ye come now to the charge that after slavery in Massa- 
chusetts was found not to pay the -laves were sold down 
south. Here again no proof is offered, and no case is eited. 
Probably the speaker had no case to cite. The charge is 
indefinite as to time. When did the people of M Bsachn- 
setts find that slavery did not pay? Slavery never at any 
time was profitable here, and white servants were preferred 
when they could be obtained. I propose now to show what 
slavery was in Massachusetts, and to see if on any grounds 
of probability the charge above made could be true. 

We have seen when negro slaves were first brought into 
the colony — in 1637-38. There was never any positive 
law establishing the in-titution here. Negro slavery existed 
then all over the civilized world by virtue of public law or 
custom. It came into Virginia and into New York, that is, 
Manhattan, before the Massachusetts colony was founded, 

i A Dialogue concerning the Slavery of the Afi it ■■■, . Norwich. 1776. p. 
-The prohibitory law was not. however, pa.>se»i till October. 17-7. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 213 

and into all the other colonies from time to time since, as 
the tide comes in. Mr. Hurd in his book on "The Law 
of Freedom and Bondage in the United States," I., 225, 
says : — 

"The involuntary servitude of Indians and negroes in the 
several colonies originated under a law not promulgated by 
legislation, and rested upon prevalent views of universal 
jurisprudence, or the law of nations, supported by the 
express or implied authority of the home government." 

But in the Massachusetts Body of Liberties, adopted in 
1641 — the first code of laws — it is provided, that "there 
shall never be any bond slavery, villanage or captivity 
amongst us unless it be lawful captives taken in just wars 
and such strangers as willingly sell themselves or are sold 
to us." And this law was substantially reenacted three 
several times, the last time in 1672. 1 Its meaning has been 
the subject of some controversy, but in view of the above 
facts there can be little doubt that it was regarded by its 
authors as a limitation of slavery, and not as an establish- 
ment of the right to hold slaves. By its terms there coulfl 
be but two classes of slaves, prisoners of war and persons 
sold or purchased. The children of slaves were, therefore, 
by law, free. I have never seen any contemporary adjudi- 
cation of this provision of law — and by "contemporary" I 
mean during the existence of slavery in Massachusetts — but 
later, in one of those pauper settlement cases which came 
before the Supreme Court in 1796, the court decided that a 
child born in Massachusetts of a slave mother was by the 
law of Massachusetts free. 2 Still it must be admitted that 
the common usage in Massachusetts for a long time was 
to regard the children of slave mothers as slaves in fact. 3 
Perhaps this was inevitable. The child needed a home and 
required to be fed and clothed, and as it grew up and 

1 3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Col., VIII., 231 ; and the several digests of laws. 
2 Littleton v. Tuttle, 4 Mass. Rep., 123. 

3 See Judge Parsous's statement in 1803, in 4 Mass., 128, note, referring to the 
Littleton case in 1796. 

214 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

became one of the family of servants it came to be regarded 
as having the same relation to the family as its mother had, 
and the protection of its master was thrown round it to 
preserve it from pauperism and crime. And whatever 
significance may have been attached to this provision of 
law at first, it seems in time to have been lost sight of. 
Governor Dudley reports in 1708 that there were 400 
servants in Boston, one-half of whom were born here. 1 

Slavery in Massachusetts was different from what it was 
in the West Indies, or even in the Southern States. 2 It 
was probably as mild in its character as could well be con- 
sidering the material which constituted it. Of course it 
was a form of slavery — the subjection of one man's will to 
another man's will. The foundation of slavery, as old as 
human nature itself, says Dr. Maine in his treatise on 
Ancient Law, is ''the simple wish to use the bodily powers 
of another person as a means of ministering to one's own 
ease or pleasure." What slavery actually was here can be 
gathered, not so much perhaps by the laws which* were 
enacted to regulate it, as from the knowledge of those 
who lived among it, and who knew the public sentiment 
and the customs of society respecting it, and the relations 
which grew out of them. The cases adjudicated in the 
courts were rarely reported, but their influence in favor of 
liberty though silent was sure. In simple and unmitigated 
slavery, the slave has no rights. In Massachusetts negroes 
were generally regarded as human beings, who had some 
rights which white men were bound to respect. 

The great lawyer and statesman, Nathan Dane, born in 
1752, and living in the midst of slavery here thirty years, 
and probably knowing many persons whose memory went 
back to 170S, when there were but 550 slaves in the colony, 
is an intelligent witness to the status of slavery in Massa- 

He says : — "The negro or mulatto slave in New Eng- 

iFelt, Stat. Asso., p. 580. 

2 See St. George Tucker's Dissertation on Slavery, Philadelphia, 1796, passim. 

1886.] Report of the Council 215 

land always had many rights which raised him above the 
absolute slave." The master had no right to his life, that 
is, if he killed him he was punishable as for killing a free- 
man ; he was liable to his slave's action for beating, wound- 
ing, or immoderately chastising him, as much as for 
immoderately correcting an apprentice, or a child ; the slave 
was capable of holding property, as a devisee or a legatee, 
as the damages recovered for personal injuries; if any one 
took the slave away from his master without his consent, 
the master could not sue in trover, but only as tor taking 
away any other servant. On the whole the slave had the 
right of property and of life as apprentices had, and the 
only difference was, "an apprentice is a servant for time, 
and the shive is a servant for life." A slave, however, 
could be sold, and in some States he could be taken in 
execution for his master's debts. 1 

Slaves were sometimes admitted to be church members 
and sometimes served in the militia. They were enlisted 
in the army in the old French war. They were competent 
witnesses even in capital trials and in suits of other slaves 
for freedom. The right to marry was secured to them in 
1705 by a statute of the province, and their banns were 
published like those of white persons. In 1745 a negro 
slave obtained from the Governor and Council a divorce for 
his wife's adultery with a white man. 2 

1 Dane's Abr., II., 313. Mr. Dune, in treating of Slavery in New England, 
takes these illustrations, with slight variations, from Reeve's Domestic Rela- 
tions, p. 340, — to which he refers in the margin of his book — that is, from the 
chapter beaded, " Of Slavery as it once was in Connecticut." Dr. Moore, in 
his "Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts," p. 100, takes exception 
to some of these rights claimed, as applied to Massachusetts, and thinks they 
are not sufficiently fortified by reference to statutes or to judicial decisions. 
As to trover, in 1703 trover had been maintained in Massachusetts for a negro. 
— Quincy's Rep., Gray's note, 98. 

Governor Hutchinson in a letter to Lord Hillsborough, in May, 1771, says, 
that "slavery by the provincial laws gives no right to the life of the servant, and 
a slave here is considered as a servant would be who had bound himself for a 
term of years exceeding the ordinary term of human life; and I do not know 
that it has been determined he may not have property in goods, notwithstand- 
ing he is called a slave."— Moore, p. 132. 

2 Quincy's Rep., Gray's note and citations on slavery in Massachusetts, p. 30. 

216 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

Reference has already been made to the opportunities 
which Dr. Belknap had of knowing what slavery was in 
Massachusetts. In 1795 he wrote to Judge Tucker of 
Virginia as follows: — "The condition of our slaves w r as 
far from rigorous, no greater labor was exacted of them 
than of white people. . . . They had always the free 
enjoyment of the Sabbath as a day of rest. ... In the 
maritime towns the negroes served either in families or at 
mechanical employments ; and in either case they fared no 
worse than other persons of the same class. Li the country 
they lived as well as their masters, and often sat down at 
the same table in the true style of republican equality" 1 

The number of slaves in Massachusetts was never large. 
Under the first charter they were inconsiderable. 2 Under 
the province charter there were in 1708, 550; in 1720, 
2,000, including a few Indians; in 1735, 2, GOO ; in 1742, 
1,514 in Boston; in 1754, 4,489; in 1764-65, 5,779; in 
1776, 5,249. The last two items include both slaves and 
free blacks. In 1790, the number of blacks, by the United 
States census, was 6,001, which number included, says Mr. 
Felt, about 200 mixed Indians. 3 From these statistics it is 
reasonable to suppose the number of slaves in Massachu- 
setts never much exceeded 4,500, at any one time, and the 
greatest proportion they ever bore to the whites was about 
one to forty or fifty, say one slave to seven or eight families. 

Such according to the best evidence now attainable was 
slavery in Massachusetts. It is difficult to conceive of 
slavery existing at all in a form less rigorous than that 
which prevailed here. But even in this mild form it was 

U Mass. Hist. Coll., TV., 200. 

2 The statement of a " French Protestant Refugee," in 1089, that every house 
in Boston has one or two negroes, must be an exaggeration {Iteport, ete., pub- 
lished in Brooklyn, 1868, p. -10). Kdward Randolph, who was iilwnys extrava- 
gant in his statistics relating to Massachusetts, says, writing in 1070, "There 
are not above 200 slaves in the colony " ; and Governor Bradstreet, writing in 
1080, reported " about 120 negroes in the colony." 

8 Felt, Am. Stat. Asso., I., 208-214; Moore's Notes, p. 150; 1 Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll., IV., 198. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 217 

never in harmony with the general sentiment of the people. 1 
This appears in many ways. In the first place, but few 
ever participated in it. Then follow other considerations. 
We have already noticed the action of the General Court 
of the colony in 1645 against the crime of kidnapping or 
man-stealing on the coast of Africa. Then in 1701 Boston 
instructed her representatives to use their influence in the 
General Court to have an end put to negroes being slaves, 
and to encourage the bringing in of white servants. Boston 
at this time contained not less than three-fourths of all the 
slaves in the province. From 1755 to 17(56 frequent peti- 
tions were sent up to the General Court from Boston, 
Salem, and from other parts of the State for the suppression 
of slavery. In 1766 John Adams says he was present at 
the trial of a suit of a negro woman against her master for 
her liberty, and that he had often heard of such suits 
before — and we know that from that time forward such 
suits were frequent, and juries always found for the negro. 
John Adams said he "never knew a jury by a verdict to 
determine that a man was a slave."' 2 In 1771 and twice in 
1774 the legislature passed bills to prohibit the importation 

x Itisuot to be denied that the negro raee, bond or free, was not regarded 
here as a desirable element of the population. They were generally ignorant 
and degraded, and required to hi- looked after and eared for as ehildren, and 
strict regulations were made to ensure order among them, to see that they 
should have employment, and to provide for a healthy sanitary condition. 
Special reference is here made to the Town Records and the Selectmen's 
Records of the Town of Boston, printed in the Reports of the Kecord Com- 
missioners, for the orders adopted to secure these desirable ends. Strangers 
were sometimes warned to depart, but in this respect white and black fared 
alike, it being a precaution taken to avoid the contingent liability of supporting 
paupers. For a like reason a law of the province in 1703 forbade the manu- 
mission of a slave unless the master gave bonds to support him if he came to 

A few years after the abolition of slavery here, in order to prevent an 
irruption of negroes into the State, the legislature, on the 20 of March, 178S, 
passed a law requiring all negroes not citizens of any State In the union, but 
resident here, to depart in two months, under a severe penalty. " The design 
of this law," says Dr. Belknap, " is to prevent deserting negroes from resorting 
hither in hopes to obtain freedom, and then being thrown as a dead weight on 
this community." 

2 5 Mass. Hist. Coll., III., 401, 402; Hildreth, II., 5G3-5G5. 

218 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

of slaves, both of which failed to receive the assent of the 
Royal Governor. 1 

In 1776, September 17, two slaves taken on board an 
English prize ship were brought into Salem and ordered to 
be sold, but the General Court forbade the sale and ordered 
such prisoners to be treated like all others ; and the House 
resolved "that the selling and enslaving of the human 
species is a direct violation of the natural rights alike vested 
in them by their Creator, and utterly inconsistent with the 
avowed principles on which this, and the other States have 
carried on their struggle for liberty." 2 

This public sentiment against slavery at last became so 
strong that it brought about its abolition. It was largely 
stimulated by the controversy with Great Britain, at which 
time the whole subject of freedom was opened. John 

1 Several attempts were made in Massachusetts to abolish slavery by legisla- 
tion, and petitions were presented to the General Court from time to time 
asking for its abolition; several of these came from the negroes themselves. 
In June, 1777, the question again came up before the legislature and a commit- 
tee of the house was chosen to prepare a letter to the Congress sitting at^jPhila- 
delphia on the subject and report it to the House. They say, " This question 
has at different times for many years past been a subject of debate in former 
houses, without any decision on the main principle, and although they have 
generally appeared as individuals convinced of the rectitude of the measure, 
nothing further has heen done than to have a Bill before them, which after 
some debate, from various circumstantial obstacles and embarrassments, has 
subsided. The last House resumed this question in consequence of a petition 
from a number of Africans, and ordered a Bill to be brought in, which after 
one reading was referred over to this House, and is now before us. and has 
been considered in a first and second reading. Convinced of the justice of the 
measure, we are restrained from passing it only from an apprehension that our 
brethren in the other colonies should conceive there was an impropriety in 
our determining on a question which may in its nature and operation be of 
extensive influence without previously consulting your Honors. We therefore 
have ordered the Bill to lie, and ask the attention of your Honors to this matter, 
that, if consistent with the union and harmony of the United States, we may 
follow the dictates of our own understandings and feelings, at the same time 
assuring your Honors Unit we have such a sacred regard to the union and har- 
mony of the United States as to conceive ourselves under obligations to refrain 
from every measure that should have a tendency to injure that union which is 
the basis and foundation of our defence and happiness." — Proc. Mass. Hist. 
Soe., X., 332, 333. After the reading of this letter it was " ordered to lie," and 
the records are thereafter silent respecting it. 

2 Moore's Notes, p. 148, et seq.; Felt's Salem, II., 278; Washburn's Lecture, 
Lowell Inst. Course, p. 210. 

1886.] Report of the Council. 219 

Adams says they talked about "the rights of mankind," 
and afterwards omitted the kind. Some masters voluntarily 
liberated their slaves, and some slaves claimed their liberty 
in the courts, and by their counsel pleaded their rights as the 
King's subjects ; that by the law of England no man could 
be deprived of his liberty but by the judgment of his peers. 
He claimed the common law right, which was ignoring 
wholly the civil law on which slavery rested. And Judge 
Dana told Dr. Belknap, as I infer from a note of the latter, 
that on some occasions the plea was, that though the 
slavery of parents be admitted yet no disability of that 
kind could descend to children. 1 This would seem to be a 
survival of the rule of limitation announced in the Body of 
Liberties. But such judgments or opinions could have had 
no legal effect beyond the immediate case before the court. 
I have already quoted the remark of John Adams, that he 
never knew a case in which the jury found against the 

The slight hold which slavery had upon Massachusetts 
about the period of the Revolutionary War, and at the time 
the Constitution of the State was adopted, in 1780, was 
wholly loosened by the judicial decision in the well-known 
case of Quork Walker, three years later, in which reference 
was made to the now celebrated clause in the Bill of Rights 
to the new constitution of the State. But it is a note- 
worthy fact that the arguments of counsel in favor of the 
slave in that case, in one of the trials, as per brief of Levi 
Lincoln, printed by me a few years ago in 5 Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., III., 438, barely alluded to the Constitution, 
but base their pleas almost wholly on what we now call the 
higher law doctrine — that there was never any law in the 
State establishing slavery, and (hat all laws against natural 
rights are void. And Judge Cushing's charge and opinion 
in the final suit before the Supreme Judicial Court are 
much the same. 2 

1 Belknap to Judge Tucker us above. 
H'roc. Mass. Hist. Soc., XIII., 294. 

220 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

What the immediate practical effect of this decision was 
upon the muster and slave we know pretty well. That 
many slaves remained with their masters is certain. The 
decision was, no doubt, generally welcomed, and what 
slaves wished to leave did so. 

Dr. Belknap tells us of the condition of the liberated 
slaves. Many of those in the country who left their masters 
came to the seaport towns. Often their fate was a hard one, 
and physically their last condition was worse than the first. 

The foregoing statement of what slavery was in Massa- 
chusetts and how it ended, is nearly conclusive evidence of 
the falsity of the charge we are considering. But this is 
not all. Dr. Belknap tells us that "for the negro to be 
sold to the West Indies or to Carolina was the highest 
punishment that could be inflicted or threatened." 1 

The horror with which the kidnapping of negroes was 
regarded, that is the decoying of them out of the State for 
sale down south, or in the West Indies, was shown in a 
case which occurred in the month of February, "lT^.S. 
One Avery, a native of Connecticut, by the assistance of 
another fellow, decoyed three unsuspecting black men on 
board a vessel in Boston harbor, and sent them down into 
the hold to work. While thus employed the vessel set sail 
and went to sea, having been previously cleared for Marti- 
nico. Governor Hancock and Mr. L'Etombe, the French 
consul, at once wrote letters to the governors of all the 
islands in the West Indies in favor of the negroes. The 
men were offered for sale at the Danish island of St. 
Bartholomew. They told their story publicly and the 
governor of the island prevented the sale. They were 
liberated and arrived at Boston on the 29th of July follow- 
ing, which was a day of jubilee, says Dr. Belknap, not only 
among their countrymen, but among all the friends of jus- 
tice and humanity. 2 

il Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., IV., 200. 

2 Dr. Belknap in 1 Mute. Hist. Soc. Coll., IV., 204, 205. 

Advantage was taken of this affair to renew the application to the legislature 

1886.] Report of the Council. 221 

What a singular phenomenon would be presented of a 
community, which abolished slavery because they believed 
it was wrong, and then turned round and sold their slaves 
into a worse bondage. 

But the census refutes the story. If the negroes were 
run down south, they came back again to be counted. I 
have already cited the facts of the census. In 1770, seven 
years before the abolition of slavery, there were 5,249 
blacks in the colony. In 1790 the United States census 
finds 6,001 colored persons here, which number includes 
some 200 mixed Indians. 1 Here they are, and here they 
lived and died. 

It is not impossible that there has been, here and there, 
an isolated case of a slave being sold to go south, but that 
does not sustain the charge. Crimes are committed in 
every community. "There are traditions of slavery and 
slave-holding times lingering in many families and villages 
in Massachusetts. Slavery, its incidents and evils are dis- 
cussed in town histories, sermons and other writings, but} 

for the abolition of the slave-trade, that is, to prohibit any citizen of the State 
from pursuing the business. The colored population too joined in the petition, 
and Dr. Belknap and other clergymen lent their intluence. An act was passed 
March 20, 1788, " to prevent the slave-trade, and granting relief to the families 
of such unhappy persons as may be kidnapped or decoyed away from this 
Commonwealth." It was enacted " that no citizen, residing within this Com- 
monwealth shall, for himself or any other person, either as master, factor, 
supercargo, owner, or hirer in whole or in part, of any vessel, directly or 
indirectly, import or transport, or buy, or sell, or receive on board his or their 
vessel, with intent to cause to be imported or transported any of the inhabitants 
of any state or kingdom in Africa, as slaves, or servants for term of years, on 
penalty of lifty pounds for every person so received on board . . . and two 
hundred pounds for every vessel littcd out with such intent . . . and all insur- 
ance made on such vessels shall be void." 1 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., IV., 202, 
20.'). Dr. Belknap, in March, 171)0, speaks of a person, who, to evade the laws 
of the State had gone to France u to tit out his ship for tin detested business." 
lie had begged a copy of Clarkson's Essay to send to this man, hoping it might 
" serve to gall his conscience a little," and some time or other " to bring him to 
serious recollection." 5 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., III., 210. 

*I do not refer above to the census returns of 1784, giving 4,377 blacks, nor 
to those of 1786, giving 4,371 blacks, because Mr. Felt says these returns are 
made without allowances for such " as may have been either deficient or not 
made at all." {Statist. Asso., I., 214.) 

222 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

after careful examination and inquiry," says an intelligent 
and careful investigator of this subject, "I have been able 
to find but one instance of selling slaves to £0 south. In 
Wilbraham, a remote town nearly bordering on the State 
of Connecticut, there were five slaves at the time of the 
adoption of the Constitution, in 1780, and two of these, it 
is said, were decoyed by their masters into Connecticut and 
thence on board a vessel at Hartford, which dropped down 
the river and they were never more heard of in Wilbraham. " 
The story, from the position of the parties involved, seems 
almost incredible, but the particulars are told by Dr. R. P. 
Stebbins in his "Historical Address," at the centennial 
celebration of the town of Wilbraham in June, 1863. I 
had heard of this affair, and have searched for other cases. 
I have in my own library a large number of town histories 
and centennial addresses, including that of Dr. Stebbins, 
referred to above, and I have examined and caused to be 
examined for me, altogether, some one hundred and fifty 
town histories of this State for this purpose ; but thk case 
of Wilbraham stands alone. 1 

For the Council, 


1 Since this paper was read before this Society I have had a favorable oppor- 
tunity of examining further into the truth of this Wilbraham story, and it 
seems to me very doubtful. The author of the address was certainly mistaken 
in some of his alleged facts, and I cannot but think that the main story — that 
the two negroes referred to were sold down south — is not true. 

1886.] Report of the Treasurer. 223 


The Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society here- 
with submits his semi-annual report of receipts and dis- 
bursements, for the six months ending October 1, 1886. 

The Finance Committee lias directed the Treasurer to 
transfer to each fund, from the income of the investments, 
two and one-half per cent, on the amount of each fund as 
it stood April 1, 1886. After doing this there remains to 
the credit of income $443.37. 

A detailed statement of the investments of the funds of 
the Society, showing the par and market value of the 
various stocks and bonds is given as a part of this report. 

The total of the investments and cash on hand October 1, 
188(5, was $102,472.36, divided among the several funds 
as follows : 

The Librarian's and General Fund, $39,705.48 

The Collection and Research Fund, 17,704.15 

The Bookbinding Fund, 0,441.9-2 

The Publishing Fund, 19,474.70 

The Isaac Davis Hook Fund, 1,020.74 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund, t 2,398.54 

The Benjamin F. Thomas Local History Fund, 1,155.87 

The Salisbury Building Fund, 4,803.90 

The Alden Fund, 1,055.79 

The Tenney Fund, 5,000.00 

The Haven Fund, 1,152.55 

The George Chandler Fund, 508.17 

Premium Account, 851.12 

Income Account, 443.37 

Total, 1102,172.30 

The income of the Tenney Fund for the past six months 
has been transferred to the Librarian's and General Fund. 

In his last report the Treasurer called the attention of 
the Society to the Salisbury Building Fund, and the fact 


224 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

that it was nearly exhausted. He now has the pleasure of 
informing the Society that Vice-President Salisbury has. 
within the past few days given his check for five thousand 
dollars to be placed to the credit of this fund which was 
founded by his honored father. This generous gift of Mr. 
Salisbury will provide for the care and maintenance of the 
building for a long time to come. 

The cash on hand, included in the following statement is 
$15,753.78. The Finance Committee have made arrange- 
ments for the safe investment of $10,000 of this amount 
with a mortgage of real estate as security. 

The detailed statement of the receipts and disbursements 
for the six months ending Oct. 1, 1886, is as follows : 


1886.' April 1. Balance of cash as per last report $12,290.90 

" Oct. 1. Received for interest and dividends to date 2.420.30 

'• " " Received for annual assessments 105.00 

" " " Received from sale of publications 80.50 

" " " Contribution to Salisbury Building Fund.. 5,000.00 

" " " Cash for mortgage note paid 5,000.00 

Total |>24,980.76 


By Salaries to Oct. 1,1886 , $1,610.98 

Expense of repairs on the building 301.22 

Expense of publishing semi-annual "Proceedings,"... 246.16 

Loans on real estate security 4,700.00 

Deposited in savings banks 1,052.97 

Expense of binding newspapers = • . 45.70 

Books purchased 81.59 

Bank stock purchased 798.00 

E. M. Barton, Librarian, sundry expenses 103.99 

Incidental expenses 60.87 

Fuel 222.50 

Total $ 9,232.98 

Balance in cash Oct. 1, 1886 15,753.78 

Total $24,986.76 

Condition ok tiik ABVKtUL Funds. 
The Librarian's and General Fund. 

Balance of Fund, April 1,1886 $39,932.62 

Income to Oct. i , 1886 998.30 

Transferred from Tenuey Fund 125.00 


1886.] Report of the Treasurer. 225 

Paid for salaries $919. 99 

Paid for coal 222.50 

Incidental expenses 117.95 



1886, Oct. 1. Amount of Fund $39,795.48 

The Collection and Researcfi Fund. 

Balance April 1,1886 $17,921.49 

Income to Oct. 1, 1^6 448.03 


Paid part of salaries of Librarian and Assistants, $616.66 

Paid for books, etc 18.71 


1886, Oct. 1. Amount of Fund $17,704.15 

The Bookbinding Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1886 $6,410.70 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 160.25 

Expense of binding newspapers and periodicals 129.03 

1886, Oct. 1. Amount of Fund $6,441.92 

The Publishing Fund. 

Balance April 1 , 1886 $19,161 .40 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 479.02 j| 

Publications sold 80.50 

Paid for printing "Proceedings," 246.16 

1886, Oct. 1. Amount of Fund £19,474.76 

The Isaac Davis Book Fund. 

Halance April 1, 1&80 $1,609.47 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 40.22 

Paid for books 22.95 

1886, Oct. 1. Amount of Fund $1,626.74 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1S86 $2,340.04 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 58.50 

1886, Oct. 1 . Amount of Fund $2,393.54 

The Benjamin F. Thomas Local History Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1886 $1,165.90 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 29.15 

Paid for local histories 39.18 

1886, Oct. 1. Amount of Fund $1,155.87 

226 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

The Salisbury Building Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1886 $161.10 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 4.02 

Contribution to Fund by Stephen Salisbury 5,000.00 

Paid for repairs on building 301.22 

1880, Oct. 1. Balance of Fund $4,803.00 

The Alden Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1886 $1,030.04 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 25.75 

1886, Oct. 1. Amount of Fund $1,055.79 

The Tenney Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1886 $5,000.00 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 125.00 

Transferred to Librarian's and General Fund 125.00 

1880, Oct. 1. Balance of Fund $5,000.00 

The Haven Fund. 

Balance April 1, 1886 $1,141.69 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 28.52 

$1,170.21 | 
Baid for books 17.66 

1886, Oct. 1. Balance of Fund $1,152.55 

The George Chandler Fuud. 

Balance April 1, 1886 $495.67 

Income to Oct. 1, 1886 12.50 

1886, Oct. 1. Amount of Fund $508.17 

Total of the Twelve Funds $101,177.87 

Balance to credit of Premium Account 851.12 

Balance to credit of Income Account 443.37 

Oct. 1, 1886. Total $102,472.30 

The following statement shows the investment of the various funds, giving 
the par and market value of the stocks and bonds October 1, 1886, also the 
amount of cash on hand. 

Statement of thk Investments. 

No. cv/i/.z-* I'*"' Market 

of Shares. OWVKS. Value. Value. 

6 Central National Bank, Worcester $ 600.00 $ 855.00 

22 City National Bank, Worcester 2,200.00 2,926.00 

10 Citizens' National Bank, Worcester 1,000.00 1,300.00 

4 Boston National Bank, Boston 400.00 484.00 

228 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 


The present report covers six months of unusual activity 
though not of remarkable occurrences in the history of the 
library. The daily routine has not been unlike that of 
other periods, but in connection with it special work has 
been done with more or less success in several new direc- 
tions. The plan for the distribution of our duplicate news- 
papers, outlined in your Librarian's last report, has been 
carried out, and as a result we are no longer concerned 
about an over-weighted newspaper attic. At least one-half 
of this duplicate material has been sent away on exchange 
account, where it will be the most useful. In this way the 
Library of Congress, for instance, has received frbm us 
nearly lifty cases of American newspapers, while various 
State, city, town, college and historical society libraries 
have filled not a few of their local newspaper gaps from 
the same source. That both our desire to dispose of the 
balance of this material and at least a partial knowledge 
of what we have to offer may appear together, a rough 
alphabetical list of the larger lots remaining is given. 

Boston: Advertiser, Centinel, Christian Register, 
Chronicle, Courier, Gazette, Journal, Mercury, Messen- 
ger, New England Farmer, Palladium, Patriot, and 

New York: Chronicle, Harper's Weekly, Herald, Inde- 
pendent, Iron Age, Nation, Post, Round Table, Scientific 
American, Spectator, Times, Tribune, and World. 

London : Illustrated News. 

Providence: Journal. 

Springfield: Republican. 

1886.] Beport of the Librarian. 229 

Washington: Intelligencer. 

Worcester: Gazette, Home Journal, National JEgis, 
Palladium, Press, and Spy. 

Correspondence in relation to this duplicate material is 
solicited, and the suggestion ventured that such an oppor- 
tunity is not often likely to occur. 

And here it seems an important question to consider 
whether newspapers shall be preserved, in the interest 
of American history, and if so what is the duty of this 
Society and that of kindred institutions in relation thereto. 
To the first query we may hear answers varying from 
an absolute no on the one hand to an unqualified yes 
on the other ; and they may come from persons of equal 
intelligence. Without undertaking to state the views of 
either party, is there not a middle ground which we may 
safely take, and from which we — as an American society 
founded by an American editor and printer — may urge the 
preservation of at least carefully selected representative 
newspapers? That ground is, I submit, their importance 
not only on account of the multitude of facts they con- 
tain but because of the varied treatment which the same 
subject receives as viewed from different sides. May not a 
judicial mind of a later and calmer period thus have at hand 
party statements which he may wisely examine, carefully 
weigh and fairly use ? If, then, the importance of this great 
work is admitted, the question arises, how shall it best be 
accomplished? It will generally be conceded that the 
collection in the National Library at Washington should 
be the largest and broadest of all : and doubtless in the 
new library building Mr. Spotford will see that its rapid 
growth is abundantly provided for. Our own contribution 
to that end has already been mentioned, and the example 
may well be followed. Two very important factors in an 
attempt to solve the newspaper problem, namely, money 
and space, are there most likely to be found. 

We are justly proud of our well-tilled newspaper room, 

230 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

though comparatively little has been added to the invalua- 
ble eighteenth and early nineteenth century collection as 
left by Dr. Thomas. It should be remembered that the 
large unbound portion of this collection has been bound at 
the charge of the Bookbinding: Fund. Is it too much to 
hope that a newspaper fund, bearing some honored name, 
will some day be established, and that by its judicious 
use gaps even in the revolutionary and pre-revolutionary 
period, as well as during the war of the rebellion, will be 
filled? Our newspaper tiles begin with the first number of 
the first continued newspaper in America — that of the 
Boston News-Letter of Monday, April 24, 1704 — and end 
with this morning's issues. Is it not possible that our 
special mission in this direction is the perfecting of our 
early files, or perhaps as well the carrying forward our 
collection not indefinitely but through the second century 
of American newspaper life, say to the opening of the 
twentieth century? And yet we are constantly met by 
the querist who wonders, as we have so fair a starty why 
we cannot "go on forever," and asks "who will under- 
take the great work if you do not?" Perhaps the news- 
paper collections of the future are to be arranged and 
preserved by States, each State placing its own leading 
newspapers in charge of its State librarian or in the absence 
of such an official, in the care of the State historical society. 
In any event each city or town provided with a public 
library should preserve in binding its own newspapers, 
and it would be well also to send files to the State library 
or the State historical society and the National Library. 
In the absence of a library in the city or town of publica- 
tion and the existence of one at the capital city they should 
most certainly there be preserved. The advantage of 
having these authorities at home is suggested by the fact 
that we have just finished transcribing from an Eastern 
city's newspapers of 1780-1800, in our possession, all 
the local musical and dramatic material therein contained 

1886.] Report of the Librarian. 231 

for use in preparing a chapter of the history of that 
city. Senator Sumner's last visit to the library was on 
a fruitless search — while preparing his works for the 
press — for one of his stirring addresses reported in but 
one of his city papers, and that not preserved where 
printed. And so once more your Librarian earnestly 
pleads for the preservation of representative American 
newspapers, either by the nation, by States, by municipali- 
ties or by private corporations. Since writing the foregoing 
I have read in Mr. S. N. D. North's Census Report on the 
Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United Status — to 
which it will be remembered we contributed as Appendix 
D, a list of the bound files of our American newspapers — 
the following pertinent paragraph from the pen of Mr. 
Ains worth R. Spoiford, Librarian of Congress, and thus by 
virtue of his office custodian of by far the largest collection 
of newspapers in America. He says : 

''While no one library, however large and comprehen- 
sive, has either the space or means to accumulate a tithe dp 
the periodicals that swarm from a productive press, there 
are valid reasons why more attention should be paid by 
librarians to the careful preservation of a wise selection 
from all this current literature. The modern newspaper 
and other periodical publications afford the truest, the 
fullest and, on the whole, the most impartial images of the 
age we live in that can be derived from any single source. 
Taken together, they afford the richest material for the 
historian or the student of politics, of society, of literature 
and of civilization in its various aspects. What precious 
memorials of the day even the advertisements and brief 
paragraphs of the newspapers a century ago afford us ! 
While in a field so vast it is impossible for any one library 
to be more than a gleaner, no such institution can afford to 
neglect the collection and preservation of at least some of 
the more important newspapers from year to year. A 
public library is not for one generation only but it is for 
all time. Opportunities once neglected of securing the 
current periodicals of any age in continuation and complete 
form seldom or never occur. The principle of selection 

232 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

will, of course, vary in different libraries and localities. 


This collection should embrace not only newspapers, maga- 
zines, etc., but a complete collection of all casual pam- 
phlets, reports of municipal governments, with their sub- 
divisions, reports of charitable or benevolent societies, 
schools, etc., and even the prospectuses, bulletins, etc., of 
real-estate agents and tradesmen. Every library should 
have its scrap-books (or series of them) for preserving the 
political broadsides and fugitive pieces of the day which in 
any way reflect or illustrate the spirit of the times or the 
condition of the people. These unconsidered trifles, com- 
monly swept out and thrown away as worthless, if carefully 
preserved and handed down to the future, will be found to 
form precious memorials of a bygone age. * * * 

And that library which shall the most sedulously gather 
and preserve such fugitive memorials of the life of the 
people among which it is situated, will be found to have 
best subserved its purpose to the succeeding generation of 

These are weighty words from high authority, and, no 
apology is offered for quoting them at length. 

Our book of accessions shows the following, additions to 
the library and cabinet since our last report : By gift four 
hundred and sixty-six books, thirty-eight hundred and 
seventy-nine pamphlets, one bound and one hundred and 
twenty-six unbound volumes of newspapers, seven framed 
and two unframed engravings, seven manuscript volumes, 
six photographs, four maps, four arrow-heads, two draw- 
ings, two coins, a Mexican bridle, an historic cane, a 
lottery ticket, confederate currency and postage stamps. 
By exchange three hundred and twenty-two books and four 
hundred and eleven pamphlets. From the binder forty- 
seven volumes of periodicals ; making a total of seven hun- 
dred and ninety-eight books, forty-two hundred and ninety 
pamphlets, one hundred and twenty volumes of news- 
papers, et cetera. The sources of increase are two hundred 
and ten in number, as follows : From forty-three members, 
ninety-one persons not members and seventy-six societies 

1886.] Report of the Librarian. 233 

and institutions. It seems best to make a very few special 
acknowledgments under each of these heads. Hon. Horace 
Davis has sent his friendly tribute to Mr. Alexander 8. 
Taylor, who, with Mr. Davis, for many years represented 
this Society on the Pacific coast. The difficulty in pro- 
curing the facts desired for his paper was so great that the 
material, though intended for the Council report of Octo- 
ber, 1884, was first printed in the Overland Monthly of 
May, 1886. An exhaustive list of Mr. Taylor's works is 
appended to the paper. Hon. P. Emory Aldrich's gift of 
temperance literature is large and fills many gaps in a 
department not over supplied, at a time when material for 
the history of the temperance reformation in all its phases 
is much sought for. Receipts of this class have not been 
so large as might have been expected when we remember 
that the Society has had some earnest advocates of the 
cause among its earlier and later members. Vice-Presi- 
dent Salisbury's donation of historical material in print and 
manuscript, is large and includes the ledgers of Messrs. £>. 
and S. Salisbury, 1757-1783, and of Daniel Waldo, 1820- 
1844. He has answered trans-atlantic and other calls for 
his Yucatecan reprints, and the publishing fund has thereby 
been increased. Hon. J. Carson Brevoort has made a 
further addition to his valuable Japanese collection. Mr. 
J. Fletcher Williams, librarian of the Minnesota Historical 
Society, has added to our very complete set of the territo- 
rial and State documents of Minnesota, the rare Revised 
Statutes compiled by Wilkinson and printed in 1851, copies 
of which, he assures us, are "scarcer than honest politi- 
cians." William Harden, Esq. , has set an excellent example 
by using his camera for our benefit in the photographing of 
an interesting specimen of pottery now in his possession. 
It is an Indian burial urn found on the island of Ossabaw, 
near the coast of Georgia. Henry W. Taft, Esq., has not 
only presented his Judicial History of Berkshire, but as 
one of the Directors of the Pittsfield Athenaium has trans- 

234 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

ferred to us a box of early publications. We have to 
acknowledge from William S. Barton, Esq., about twenty 
volumes of historical, scientific, political and educational 
pamphlets. Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull has presented a 
copy of the Memorial History of Hartford County, Connec- 
ticut, of which he was the editor and to which he has in 
various ways contributed. It is perhaps enough to say 
that it is largely patterned after the Memorial History of 
Boston. Others of our members have been called and will 
be called to like important work, and thus the body be 
duly honored by the good deeds of its members. Mention 
is made of the receipt of your Librarian's short paper upon 
the First Conference of American Librarians, read before 
the American Library Association at Milwaukee in July 
last, simply that the fact may be indexed in the Proceed- 
ings of a society which had so large an interest in it. The 
convention was held in New York in October, 1851, 
twenty -five years before the birth of the present energetic 
association. It is to be hoped that the beautiful tribute 
paid at Milwaukee by President Poole to one of America's 
ablest and most genial librarians, the late Mr. Lloyd P. 
Smith of the Philadelphia Library Company, may be fol- 
lowed by discriminating sketches of other deceased mem- 
bers of the convention of '51. Mrs. Samuel II. Colton 
has made an important addition to our already large col- 
lection of Horticultural periodicals ; and one of our younger 
donors has brought us from Michigan a few choice speci- 
mens of Indian arrow-heads picked up by him on one of 
Tecumseh's camping-grounds. Mrs. Elijah Dudley has, at 
our request, sent her imperfect war file of the Worcester 
Transcript to aid us in completing our own. Two large, 
miscellaneous lots of pamphlets and newspapers have come 
to us ; one from the family of the late Hon. Peter C. 
Bacon ; and the other from the family of the late William 
E. Green, Esq., through Hon. Andrew H. Green of New 
York and Mr. Martin Green of Worcester. We have 

1886.] Beport of the Libraria n. 235 

received copies of the centennial number of the Hampshire 
Gazette, Northampton, Mass., from Mr. Henry S. Gere, 
the proprietor. To this interesting issue we were able to 
contribute the third number for reproduction. No copy of 
the first number is known to be in existence, and our num- 
ber two is slightly soiled. George S. Taft, Esq., has 
placed in the library a copy of his compilation of Senate 
Contested Election Cases, the material for which work was 
chieiiy drawn from our shelves ; and Rev. Samuel May has 
not forgotten to forward his supply of college and benevo- 
lent society pamphlets with which he has favored us for 
many years. Through the liberality of Mr. William A. 
Banister we add another orderly book to our collection. 
It covers the period from July 21), 1775, to January 12, 
1776, and the entries were made at Roxbury and Cam- 
bridge. The catalogue of the Boston Public Latin School, 
received from the Rev. Henry P. Jenks — the compiler of 
the catalogue and author of the Historical Sketch — will be 
of constant value to us for biographical purposes. j 

We acknowledge the annual reports of the Brooklyn 
Library — for a much longer period known as the Mercan- 
tile Library Association — and of the newly christened 
Buffalo Library for long years called the Young Men's 
Library of Buffalo. In heartily commending these changes 
of names, we are reminded of the importance of properly 
naming institutions as well as persons, places and things. 
We have good authority for believing that "a good name 
is better than great riches," and this may be true in the 
long run, of a library. The great library of a great city 
or town, unless privately endowed and named, should 
— other things being equal — bear the name of the place 
where it is located. If " Public " can be added thereto, 
so much the better. Is it not partly, at least, for this 
reason that, for example, the Chicago Public Library was 
for many years more widely known than the St. Louis 
Public School Library, now known as the St. Louis Public 

236 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Library? How little "The Library of the Surgeon-Gen- 
eral's Office" would indicate its size and value but for Dr. 
Billings's great catalogue of it, and how imperfectly "The 
Library of Congress " suggests our National Library, or, 
as its librarian has already been quoted as calling it " The 
Library of the United States." As »*The Library of the 
General Court " has entirely given place to the "Massa- 
chusetts State Library," so "The Library of Congress" 
should be known by some name more clearly indicating its 
national character when transferred to its new quarters. 
That our members of this national society may need to 
help on this desirable change appears from the fact that 
boxes sent by us to the National Library remained in the 
freight house until the rail-road company was notified that 
they were intended for the Congressional Library. While 
endorsing the quaint saying in the Wits Academy of 1635, 
that "As in sweet oyle, ointment and wines; so in books, 
antiquity doth add estimation and price," may Ave not 
admit that in so far as even our own name suggests tojthe 
careless that we do not collect works of the present, it 
may be misleading. 

We have been informed, though not officially, that part 
four of the American Library of the late George Brinley is 
nearly ready for sale by Leavitt and Company of New 
York. For this and the final sale we have to our credit 
an unexpended balance of about one thousand dollars. At 
the sui>i>*cstion of our Treasurer, the accumulated files of 

OB * 

newspapers have been left unbound, that the Bookbinding 
Fund might be allowed to increase. The putting our 
magazine literature into covers as soon as volumes are 
completed, is undoubtedly a more expensive way than to 
buy bound sets for our periodical alcoves, but \\\%\ Condition 
of the Collection and Research Fund has hut encouraged 
such an expenditure as would be requited for that purpose. 
Our continued interest in the effort of the Department 
of the Interior to gather and redistribute United States 

1886.] Report of the Librarian. 237 

public documents has been still further shown by the send- 
ing for that purpose of nearly a thousand additional vol- 
umes from our duplicate room, — a total contribution of 
nearly three thousand volumes. It was my privilege also 
to introduce a resolution at the Library Conference of 
1886, which committed the Association to the principle of 
redistribution as well as to an approval of this particular 
plan which Mr. Ames is working so successfully. It is of 
course well known that many village and private libraries 
are burdened with this government material which now 
that it is to be made permanently useful might properly be 
returned to the place whence it came, that it may be sent 
where it is needed. Mr. John G. Ames, Superintendent 
of the Document Room, United States Department of the 
Interior, will supply free transportation labels, and post- 
masters w r ill furnish mail bags. We would gladly act as 
forwarding agents, especially for our members and corre- 
spondents, but under the circumstances the double handling 
does not appear to be necessary. Your individual interest- 
in this matter is urged, as it is really of national importance. 
Having been strongly impressed with the easy and wide 
adaptability of this plan of redistribution, and the possi- 
bility of grafting it upon our exchange system, and feeling 
moreover that we are in a truly national sense a "society 
for the diffusion of knowledge," I have ventured to take 
for you the lead in this larger and more inclusive move- 
ment. It has so far been a labor of great satisfaction and 
our returns, while not always immediate, are sure to be 
abundant. Our associate, General Francis A. Walker, 
President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
but echoes the sentiments expressed by various States, 
municipalities, societies, colleges, schools, etc., when he 
writes that "the scheme you have undertaken to forward 
is a most useful one. In the present case it has given us 
the use of pamphlets greatly desired." 

Mr. Colton's well-earned and much-needed leave of 

238 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

absence during the months of May and June allowed him 
a hasty trip to England and Scotland, which was alike 
profitable to himself and to the Society. Let me add in 
closing that such a measure of success as your Librarian 
may have achieved in the administration of library affairs, 
is largely due to his faithful assistants and to the Library 
Committee of the Council. 

Respectfully submitted. 




Donors and Donations. 239 

ISonors anti Donations. 


Aldeich, Hon. P. EMORY, Worcester.— Eighty-nine temperance pamphlets; 
and files of "Law and Order," 1885-80, and "'National Temperance Advo- 
cate," 1878-S6. 

Amoky, Col. Thomas C, Boston.— His "Life of Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, 
Baronet. His English and American Ancestors." 

Barton, Mr. Edmund M., Worcester.— His paper on " The First Conference 
of American Librarians"; one book; fifteen pamphlets; and " St. John's 
Echo," in continuation. 

Barton, William S., Esq., Worcester.— Thirty-two books; and fifty pam- 

Brevoort, Hon. J. Carson, Brooklyn, N. Y.— «* A Manual of Chinese Run- 
ning-Hand Writing, especially an it is used in Japan." 

Brock, Mr. ROBEliT A., Richmond, Va.— His papers upon "The Portrait of 
the Earl of Chatham"; and on " Coal and Iron." J 

Campbell, Hon. James V., Detroit, Mich.— Report of the Pioneer Society of 
the State of Michigan, Vol. VII. 

Clarke, Mr. Robert, Cincinnati, O.— A sketch of the Woman's Art Associa- 
tion of Cincinnati. 

Davis, Mr. Andrew McF., Cambridge.— His " Indian (James: an historical 

Davis, Hon. Edward L., Worcester.— Thirty-three pamphlets. 

Davis, Hon. Horace, San Francisco, Cal. — His sketch of Alexander S. Taylor; 
and two pamphlets. 

Dexter, Prof. Franklin B., New Haven, Conn.— " Addresses at the Induc- 
tion of Professor Timothy Dvvight as President of Yale College." 

Edes, Mr. Henry II., Charlestown. — Three books; one bundled and two pam- 
phlets; three maps; the Daily Commercial Bulletin; and the Commercial 
and Financial Chronicle, in continuation. 

OILMAN, Daniel C, LL.D., Baltimore, Md. — His address before the Phi Beta 
Kappa Society of Harvard University, July 1, 1N86. 

Green, Hon. Samuel A., Boston.— His (irotou Historical Series XIII.-XV.; 
his report as General Agent pro tern, of the Peabody Education Fund; three 
books; sixty-one pamphlets; and the American Journal of Numismatics, as 

Green, Mr. Samuel S., Worcester.— His annual report as Librarian of the 
Free Public Library of Worcester; and his paper upon Aaron Bancroft. 

240 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Hale, Rev. Edward E., D.D., Boston— His Memorial of Rev. Rufus Ellis, 
D.D.; and " Lend a Hand," as issued. 

Harden, William, Esq., Savannah, Ga.— Photograph of an Indian burial urn. 

HITCHCOCK, Prof. EDWARD, Amherst.— His Twenty-fifth Annual Report as 
Professor of Physical Education and Hygiene in Amherst College. 

Hoar, Hon. George P., Worcester.— One book; four hundred and fifty pam- 
phlets; five photographs; one map; one engraving; and the Official Records 
of the Rebellion, as issued. 

Hoyt, Mr. ALBERT H,, Boston.— His brochure on "The Name Columbia." 
Huntington, William R., D.D., New York.— His " The Hook Annexed: its 

Critics and its Prospects"; "The Book annexed to the Report of the Joint 

Committee on the Rook of Common Prayer"; and the " Notification to the 

Dioceses of the Proposed Change in the Prayer Rook, 1883-1886." 
Jones, Hon. Charles C, Jr., Augusta, Ga.— His Biographical Sketch of the 

Honorable John Habersham of Georgia; and his Tribute to General Robert 

Moore, George H m LL.D., New York.— His Notes on the History of the Old 

State House in Boston, second paper; and Bandelier's " Romantic School in 

American Archaeology." 
Nelson, Hon. Thomas L., Worcester.— Lincoln's History of Worcester. 
Paine, Rev. George S., Worcester.— Seven framed, colored lithographs; and 

a parcel of business broadsides. 
Paine, Nathaniel, Esq., Worcester.— One hundred and fifty pamphlets; the 

Spy, Gazette, Roston Journal and miscellaneous newspapers, in continuation. 
Peet, Rev. Stephen D., Clinton, Wis.— His American Antiquarian and 

Oriental Journal, as issued. 
Perry, Right Rev. Wm. Stevens, D.D., Davenport, Iowa.— His Episcopal 

address of 1886; his ''Service of Song in the House of the Lord"; three 

books; and the Iowa Churchman, as issued. 
Poole, William F., LL.D., Chicago, 111.— His thirteenth annual report as 

Librarian of the Chicago Public Library; and The Dial, as issued, containing 

articles by him. 
Putnam, Mr. Frederick W., Curator, Cambridge.— The eighteenth and 

nineteenth Annual Reports of the Trustees of the Peabody Museum. 
Reynolds, Rev. Grindall, Concord.— His " Concord Eight, April P.), 1775" ; 

and his " Story of a Concord Farm and its Owners." 
Rice, Hon. William W., Worcester.— One book. 

Salisrury, Stephen, Esq., Worcester.— Sixty-eight books, ehielly archaeo- 
logical and historical ; one hundred and sixty-eight pamphlets; five account 

books, 1707-1844; and fifteen tiles of newspapers. 
Smith, William A., Esq., Worcester.— The Weekly Underwriter, in contin- 
Smucker, Hon. Isaac, Newark, O.— His paper on Indiana Territory; and 

nine Ohio pamphlets. 
Taft, Henry \V\, Fsq., Pittsfield.— Four papers of the Berkshire Historical 

and Scientific Society, including one by Mr. Taft. 
Thomas, Hon. Edward 1., Rrookline.— The Constitution and Ry-Laws of the 
Congregational Club, Boston. 

1880.] Donors and Donations. 241 

Trumbull, Hon. J. Hammond, Hartford, Conn.— The Memorial History of 

Hartford County, Conned icut, 1633-1864, two volumes, quarto. 
Washburn, Hon. John D., Worcester.— Nineteen books; sixteen pamphlets; 

and six files of insurance periodicals, in continuation. 
Whittlesey, Col. ^Charles, Cleveland, O.— Three pamphlets containing 

articles by him. 
Winsor, Mr. Justin, Cambridge.— Arnold's ''Expedition against Quebec, 

1775-1776. The Diary of Ebenezer Wild," edited by Prof. Winsor; Harvard 

University Bulletin and Bibliographical Contributions, as issued; and one 

Winthkop, Hon. ROBERT C, Boston.— His addresses and speeches on various 

occasions from 1878 to 1886. 


Ames, Mr. John G., Washington, 1>. C. — Report regarding the distribution of 
Public Documents. 

Bachelder, Mr. Frank R., Worcester.— The Academe, as issued. 

Bacon, Hou. Peter C, The Family of, Worcester.— Fifty-three books; 
forty-two numbers of Proceedings of the Society; one hundred and forty- 
eight numbers of magazines; two hundred and thirty-three pamphlets; the 
Boston Patriot for 1809; and Harper's Weekly, 1802-1806. 

Bailey, Mr. Isaac H.,Ne\v York.— His Shoe and Leather Reporter, as issued. 

Baker, Mr. William A., London, G. B.— Design for a United States five cent 
piece. | 

Baldwin, Messrs. John D., and Company, Worcester.— Their Daily and 
Weekly Spy, as issued. 

Banister, Mr. William A., New York.— A manuscript revolutionary 
orderly-book, July 29, 1775-January 12, 1770. 

Battell, Mr. Bobbins, and Miss Anna Battell, Norfolk, Conn.—'" Diary 
of Thomas Bobbins, D.D., 1790-1851," Vol. I. 

Blanchard, Messrs. Frank S. and Company, Worcester.— Two pam- 
phlets; and their Nut-Shell Guide, as issued. 

Boardman, Mr. Samuel L., Augusta, Me.— His Home Farm, as issued. 

Bradlee, Rev. Caleb D., Boston.— His sermon on " God the Eternal Sup- 

Brooks, Rev. William H., D.D., Secretary.— Journal of the ninety-sixth 
meeting of the Diocese of Massachusetts. 

Burbank, Mr. Charles H., Librarian, Lowell.— The Lowell City Library 
Report for 1885. 

Chalmers, Mr. Patrick, Wimbledon, ,G. B.— Ills "James Chalmers the 
Inventor of the Adhesive Stamp not Sir Rowland Hill." 

Chamberlin, Mr. Henry II., Worcester.— His "Main Street, Worcester, in 

Chase, Thomas, LL.D., Haverford, Pa.— His " Liberal Education: its Objects 
and Methods." 

Chittenden, Mr. J. Brace, Brooklyn, :N. Y.— The W T I, Vol. I., 1885-80. 

242 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Colton, Mrs. Samuel II., Worcester. — Nineteen bound volumes of "The 
Magazine of Horticulture'*; eight bound volumes of ** The Horticulturist"; 
and one hundred and twenty-two numbers of magazines. 

Cook, Mr. Henry II., Barrc— His Gazette, as issued. 

Cox, Hon. William It., Raleigh, N. C— One pamphlet. 

Darling, Gen. Charles W., Utica, N. Y.— His "Anthropophagy, Ancient 
and Modern." 

Denny, Christopher C, Esq., Leicester.— His ''Genealogy of the Denny 
Family in England and America, Descendants of John Denny." 

Dewey, Mr. Melvil, Librarian, New York.— Circular of Information for 
1886-7} of the Columbia College School of Library Economy. 

Dickinson, Master G. Stuart, Worcester.— Nine pieces of Rebellion cur- 
rency; and a collection of Canadian postage stamps. 

Dodge, Mr. James H., Auditor, Boston.— His annual Report, 1885-80. 

Doe, Messrs. Charles II. and Company, Worcester.— Their Daily and 
Weekly Gazette, as issued. 

Dudley, Mrs. Elijah, Millbury.— The Worcester Evening Transcript, 1802- 
G4; and one Bible, 8 vo, Philadelphia, 1814. 

Dyer, Mr. John N., Librarian, St. Louis, Mo.— The St. Louis Mercantile 
Library Association Report for 1886. 

Earle, Pliny, M.D., Northampton. — Proceedings and debates of the Penn- 
sylvania State Convention of 18o7, twelve volumes; and three books and 
eight pamphlets, relating to insanity. 

Everett, Oliver II., M.D., Worcester.— One pamphlet. k 

Fisher, t harles II., M.D., Secretary, Providence, It. I.— His Rhode Island 
Board of Health Report, 1880. 

Flick. Mr. Lawrence P., Philadelphia, Pa.— His ''French Refugee Trap- 
pists in the United States." 

FOOTE and Uorton, Messrs., Salein.— Their '' Gazette," as issued. 

Foster, Mrs. Leroy, Worcester- ■" The Liberator," 1849-1854; and "The 
Herald of Freedom," 1840. 

Funk and Wagnalls, Messrs., New York.—" The Voice," as issued. 

Gass, Mr. L. H. R., Brooklield.— One hundred and two books; eighty-three 
numbers of magazines; and seventeen pamphlets. 

Gere, Mr. Henry S., Northampton.— His centennial number of the Hamp- 
shire Gazette. 

Gould, Mr. Samuel C, Manchester, N. II.— Addenda to his Manchester, N. 
II., Bibliography. 

GOULDING, Frank P., Esq., Worcester.— His address delivered at the Cele- 
bration of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Incorporation 
of Grafton. 

Green, Hon. Andrew H., New York, and Green, Mr. Martin, Worcester. 
— Twenty-one books; eight hundred aud seventy-one pamphlets; seventeen 
tiles and a large collection of miscellaneous newspapers. 

Greene, Mr. Richard W., Worcester.— "El Mercurio," as issued. 

Greenwood, Mr. Isaac J., New York.— The Rainborowe Family. 

1886.] Donors and Donations. 243 

Haven, Mrs. Eliza A., Portsmouth, N. H.— Five books; and one pamphlet. 
IIayden, Rev. Horace E., Wilkesbarre, Pa.— His "Account of various silver 

and copper medals presented to the Indians by England, France and Spain." 
Hayes, Mr. John L., Cambridge.— His "Reminiscences of the Free-Soil 

Movement in New Hampshire, 1845." 

HiLDHETH, Mr. John L., Cambridge.— His "Brief account of the Funds that 

came from the Estate of Edward Hopkins, Cambridge, Mass." 
Howland, Mr. Henry J., Worcester.— Sixteen books. 

Hoyt, Mr. James Phillips, Newton, Conn.— "Outline of the Phillips Gen- 
ealogy for Three Hundred Years." 
Huubard, Luther P., Secretary, New York.— The Eightieth Anniversary 

Celebration of the New England Society in the City of New York. 
JENKS, Rev. Henry F., Canton.— Catalogue of the Boston Public Latin 

School, 1035-1885, with Historical Sketch prepared by Mr. Jenks. 
Kellogg and Stratton, Messrs., Fitchburg.— Their " Sentinel," as issued. 
Lancaster, Mr. George Y., Worcester.— " The British-American," as issued. 
Lawton, Mrs. C. P., Woreester.— The first annual Report of the Worcester 

Young Women's Christian Association. 
Leamon, Mr. Jacor, Lawrenceburg, Tenn.— His Press, as issued. 
Leuville, Le Marquis de, Paris, France.— One pamphlet. 
Little, Prof. George T., Brunswick, Me.— His Memorial of Alpheus Spring 

Packard, 171)8-1884:; and his report as Librarian of Bowdoin College, 1885-6. 
Manderson, Hon. Charles F., Omaha, Neb.— Poore's " Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the Government Publications of the United States, 1774-1881." k 
Marston, Mr. Charles F., Worcester.— Two hundred and eighty-eight 

numbers of the Baptist Missionary Magazine; and the Christian Watchman, 

May, Rev. Samuel, Leicester.— One book ; and one hundred and twenty-seven 

McNeil, Mr. Theodore, Worcester.— An Egyptian copper coin of A. D. 

Merriam, Mr. JOHN W., Worcester. — Four Indian arrow-heads from 

Messingek, Mr. David S., Worcester. — A cane made from wood taken from 

the old " Central School House," Worcester, 1784. 
Morse, Mr. Richard C, Secretary, New York.— Y. M. C. A. International 

Year Book, 1880. 
Nott, Mr. Samuel, Springfield.— His drawings of the first locomotive used in 

New England and of a modern loeomotive. 
Nutter, Mr. Charles S., Coneord, N. 1L— The Doctrines and Discipline of 

the Methodist Episcopal Chureh, 1800. 
Perry, Mr. Amos, Providence, R. 1.— Rhode Island State Census, 1885. 
Prime, Mr. Temple, Huntington, L. I.— His " Descent of Comfort Sands and 

of his Children." 
Rice, Mr. Franklin P., Worcester.— Chamberlin's " Worcester Main Street 

in 1822." 

244 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Hider, Mr. Sidney S., Providence, It. I.— His " Book Notes," as issued. 

Robinson, Miss Mary, Worcester.— One book ; and three historical pamphlets. 

Roe, Mr. Alfred S., Worcester.— Files of the " Boston Journal of Chem- 
istry," 18G9-71; "Boston Weekly Journal," 18G1-G5, 18G9; "TJmj Shaker," 
1871; "Scientific American," 1877; thirteen pamphlets; and one historical 

Royce, Prof. Josiah, Cambridge.— Flis " California from the Conquest in 184G 
to the Second Vigilance Committee in San Francisco." 

Russell, Mr. E. Harlow, Worcester. — Catalogue of the Massachusetts State 
Normal School at Worcester, 188G. 

Sargent, Mr. Charles F., Worcester.—" The Helping Hand," as issued. 

SIBLEY, Mrs. JOHN L., Cambridge.— An engraving of John Langdon Sibley. 

Slafter, Rev. Edmund F., Boston.— His " Memoir of Rev. William Stoodley 
Bartlet, A.M."; and his report as Registrar of the Diocese of Massachusetts, 

Staples, Mr. Samuel E., Worcester.— His paper on the "Pond Plain Dis- 
trict," Dedham. 

Stratton, Mr. Charles E., Boston.— The Seventh Report of the Class of 18GG 
of Harvard College. 

Sturgis, Mrs. Henry P., Boston.— Four pamphlets. 

Sumner, Mr. George, Worcester.— Two manuscripts relating to Worcester 
County; and a Lancaster, Mass., lottery ticket. 

Taft, GEORGE S., Esq., Uxbridge.— His "Compilation of Senate Election 
Cases from 178 ( J to 1885." t 

Titus, Rev. Anson, Amesbury.— His Historical Address delivered at Charl- 
ton, July 4, 187G. 

Turner, Mr. John N., Ayer.— His " Groton Landmark," as issued. 

Underwood, Mr. William, Worcester.— A Mexican bridle; forty-nine early 
almanacs; and numbers of the " Massachusetts Spy," 1803-13. 

Washburn, Rev. Philip M., Worcester.—" All Saints Parish," as issued. 

Webb, Rev. Samuel IL, Providence, R. I.— Four Rhode Island diocesan con- 
vention journals. 

Wesby, Messrs. Joseph S. and Sons, Worcester.— Three hundred and eighty 
town documents. 

Willey, Mr. Henry, New Bedford.— His " Preliminary outline of the de- 
scendants of Isaac Willey of New London, Conn." 

Winthrop, Mr. Robert C, Jr., Boston.— His Memoir of Hon. David Sears. 

WiTHERBY, RUGG and Richardson, Messrs., Worcester.— Files of the 
" Scientific Americau," and the " Engineering and Mining Journal," in con- 

Woodward, Mr. P. IL, Hartford, Conn.— His Memoir of Ashbel Woodward, 
M.D., of Franklin, Conn. 

from societies and institutions. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.— Their Proceedings, 
January to March, 188G. 

1886.] Donors and Donations. 245 

American Academy of Arts and .Science*.— Their Memoirs and Proceed- 
ings, ai leaned 

American Baptist Missionary Union.— Their Magazine, £w issued. 

American Oriental Society.— Their Proceedings at Boston, May, 188C. 

American Philosophical Sucieiv.— Their Proceedings, No. 123; and Lint 
of Surviving Member-, UH, 

American Seamen's Friend Society.— Their Fifty-eighth Annual Report; 
and their Sailor's Magazine, m honed. 

Arcii-EOLOGICal Institute of America.— The Seventh Annual Report. 

Boston Public Lirrary.— The Bull* tin, as issued. 

Boston Towns Men's Christian Lnton— The Annual Report for laoo-on. 

Bostonian Society.— Proceedings at the annual meeting, January 12. 

British in American nJti h .eoloohjal Sooiet y.— Their Journal, Vol. 
I., Ho. 1. 

Brooklyn Library.— The Twenty-eighth Annual Report. 

Buffalo Historical Society.— Their Annual Report, ltwti. 

Buffalo Library.— The Fiftieth Annual Report of the Young Men's Asso- 
ciation of Buffalo. 

Canadian Ins in lie.— The Proceedings, No. 145. 

Chicago Historical Soctei y.— ~ la Memory of Edward Channing Lamed." 

City Library Association 01 the city of Sirin',held.—T1i- Annual 
Report for lvso-SG. 

Connecticut State Library.— Six Connecticut .-itate documents. 

Davenport Academy oi Natural ^ctenc ;•.-.. —Th-ir l'roe.-ediugs. Vol. IV. 

Drury College.— The Thirteenth Annual Catalogue. 

Eclectic Medical College ov the City of New York:.— Two college 

Enoch Pratt Free Library of Baltimore.— The Finding List of .May, 

LsSlx Institute.— Their OollcetSoaw and Bulletins, af issued. 

Free Plreic Library and News ROOM, Plymouth, G. B. — The Ninth 

Annual Report. 
Franklin Institute.— Catalogue of their dupl; 
General Society of Mechanics and Trvdevien of Tea City of New 

York.— An account of their Centennial Celebration, I 
Good Health Publishing Com fan v.— Their " Good Health," a» issued. 
Historical Society o» Pennsylvania.— 1 neir ■• MagiTtnr of History and 

Biography," as boned. 
Indiana Historical Society.— Tlieir Proceedings, No. I. 
Iowa Historical Society*.— Their Historical Record, as issued. 

KaNsaS HISTORICAL SOCIETY*.— Their Transactions, Vol. III. 

Lackawanna Instii ute.— Report of the Seranton Board of Tr 
Library Company of Philadelphia.— Their Bull-tin, as issued. 

246 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Maryland Historical Society.— " The Archives of Maryland as illus- 
trating the Spirit of the Times of the Early Colonists"; and Hall's " Great 

Seal of Maryland." 
Massachusetts Agricultural College. —The General Catalogue, 1862- 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of.— The Acts and Resolves of 188G; and 

a Memorial of Stephen Nye Gill'ord, Clerk of the Massachusetts Senate. 
Massachusetts General Hospital, Trustees of.— The Seventy-second 

Annual Report. 
Massachusetts Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons.— Their 

Proceedings, September 9-June I), 188G. 
Massachusetts Historical Society.— Their Collections, V~( I. L, Sixth 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society.— Their Transactions, 1885, Part 

Massachusetts Medical Society.— Their Communications, as issued. 
Massachusetts State Library.— Forty-one books; and four pamphlets. 
Mercantile Library Association of the City of New York.— Their 

Sixty-fifth Annual Report. 
Minnesota Historical Socikty.— The Revised Statutes of the Territory of 

Minnesota, 1851. 
Museo Nacional de Mexico.— Anales, Tomo III., EntregaiK 
New Bedford Public Library.— Their Thirty-fourth Annual Report; and 

New Bedford City Documents, 1885-80. \ 

New England Historic Genealogical Society.— John Harvard and ids 

Ancestry, Part Second; Genealogical Gleanings in England, Parts XII. and 

XIII. ; and their Register, as issued. 
New Jersey Historical Society.— Their Proceedings, Vol. LX.,Nos. 1 and 

2; "Documents relating to the Colonial History of New Jersey," Vol. X.; 

and the " Huguenots on the Hackensack." 
New York Academy of Sciences.— Their Transactions, Vol. V., Nos. 4 

and 5. 
New York Evening Post Printing Company.— The Nation, as issued. 
Old Residents' Association, Lowell, Mass.— Their Contributions, Vol. 

III., No. 3. 
Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore.— The Nineteenth Annual 

Peabody Reporter Company.— Their Reporter, as issued. 
Pipe Roll Society.— Their Rules, List of Members, etc. 
Rhode Island Historical Socikty.— Their Proceedings, 1885-8G. 
Seventh Day Advent Missionary Society.— Their " Signs of the Times," 

as issued. 
Smithsonian Institution.— The Annual Report for 1884. 
Societe des Etudes Historiques.— Their " Revue," as issued. 
Societe de Geographie.— Their publications, as issued. 

1886.] Donors and Donations. 247 

Societe Nationals des Antiquaires de France.— Their " Memoirs," as 

Society of Antiquaries of London.— Their Archseologia and Proceedings, 
as issued. 

State Publishing Company.—*' The State," as issued. 

Travelers' Insurance Company.— Their Record, as issued. 

United States Bureau of Education.— The " Circulars of Information," 
as issued. 

United States Department of the Interior.— Thirty volumes of public 
documents, to fill vacancies; mid the " Patent Oftice Gazette," as issued. 

United States War Department.— Index-Catalogue of the Library of the 
Surgeon-General's Office, Vol. VIL; and the Report of the Chi :f of Engi- 
neers fur the year 1885, four volumes. 

Virginia Historical Society.— Documents relating to the Huguenot emi- 
gration to Virginia. 

Wilmington Institute of Wilmington, Delaware.— The Twenty-ninth 
Annual Report. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association.— Eighteen files of news- 

Worcester Law Library Association.— Massachusetts Acts and Resolves 
of 1879. 

Worcester National Bank.— The New York Evening Post, in continuation. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity.— Their Proceedings for the year 1885. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society.— Their Proceedings and 
Collections, Vol. II., Part 2. 

Yale College.— The Triennial of 1886; the Obituary Record of 1880; and 
Yale College in 188G. 

Young Men's Christian Association of the City ok New York.— The 
Thirty-third Annual Report. 

248 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 



As I look over the result of archaeological work, this fact 
forces itself upon me : how hard it is for an investigator, 
with a pet theory, to avoid moulding the facts to suit his 
theory rather than to shape his theory to suit the facts. 
In my researches among these ruins, I shall try to make 
the discovery of the truth my only object, and if in this 
pursuit I am led into false premises, into ideas conflicting 
with facts, I shall most certainly endeavor to put such 
ideas aside. 

In this paper I purpose to confine myself to observations 
upon the ruins in general, leaving descriptions of special 
objects of archaeological interest for the future. 

No one, however skeptical, can look upon these monu- 
ments of a lost race without amazement, not at their artistic 
character, although this is of no mean order, but because 
of their massiveness, and, as they tower above the forest, 
the grandeur of their appearance. These edifices are not 
generally constructed of large stones, like the ruins of the 
ancient East, but of a composition of lime and small frag- 
ments of rock called by the Mayas "sac-cab." Upon this 
composite backing, cubes of stone are then laid, thus 
giving the buildings the appearance of solid stone structures, 
when in reality they are in many cases simply stone-plated 
as it were. Upon the unornamcnted portions of these 
structures the stones are simply plain, smooth cubes. 
Plain walls, however, are rare. The edifices are all more 
or less adorned, and many of them are literally encrusted 
with ornaments, statues and strange symbols. I regard 

1886.] Archaeological Research in Yucatan. 249 

the Temple of the Serpent at Uxmal as the best example of 
this that I have yet seen, while the House of the Governor 
is unquestionably the grandest edifice. This is fortunate, 
because Uxmal, of all the ruins still in a measure pre- 
served, is the easiest of access. 

When first viewing the terraced mounds upon which 
these ruined edifices were built, it seems almost incredible 
that man could in this climate have piled up such accumula- 
tions of material. From the narrow platform crowning the 
terraced mound upon which stands the House of the 
Diviner, I could over-look nearly a league of forest tree- 
tops ; and away to the left the huge almost mountain-like 
pile supporting the House of the Governor rose above it, 
only to be in turn eclipsed by the Great Mound at Izamal. 
These mounds are generally spoken of as having been con- 
structed of earth and rock. I believe them to have been 
constructed in most cases entirely of rock, some portions 
being faced with stucco, while the earth has naturally 
accumulated as detritus after their abandonment. Myj 
excavations among the mounds at Nolo and Ouichen bear 
me out in this belief. 

The duty of certain sacerdotal officials here, as well 
as in Mexico, at the time of the conquest, was to keep 
the sanctuaries and their approaches swept clean and free 
from unseemly things. May we not then believe, that in 
these ruined cities, this, a sacred duty, ended only with 
the abandonment of the city itself? Perhaps not always 
even then was the detritus allowed to accumulate. I have 
been told by the natives of the interior, of a certain ruined 
temple, whose floors of lime are still kept as clean and white 
as snow, by the natives of Tulum the aboriginal city. 

I find it hard to concede to these ruins the great age 
assigned them by certain archaeologists. Neither can I 
ascribe to them the modern origin as given by M. Charnay. 
I believe the truth to lie in a mean between the two views. 

The ruined condition of a building or of a collection of 

250 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

buildings, affords very uncertain evidences of age, either in 
cold or in tropical climates. In the one frost, and in the 
other rapid vegetable growth are potent factors of ruin. 
A perfectly constructed editice of stone can long withstand 
these destructive agencies, but an inherent architectural 
defect, though apparently slight, will cause the ruin of a 
building, that would otherwise have lasted until time itself 
was wearied with the record. A builder when working 
with cubes or plates, whether of stone, brick or wood, 
should always see that the joints are broken or well pro- 
tected. To neglect this gives weakness to a structure hard 
to over-estimate, and yet I find this defect common in 
Yucatan ruins. But for this, I believe that many a once 
magnificent structure, now an utter ruin, would still be left 
a grand object for study. It may perhaps be thought that 
I am giving undue prominence to this fault of construction ; 
that, inasmuch as the whole edifice is built of solid masonry 
with only a comparatively thin plating of stone, the loss of 
a few plates, more or less, can have but little effect jupon 
the permanency of the .structure itself. This is not so. 
Were the joints of the stone cubes or plates Avell broken or 
protected, the growing rootlets or softening lime could 
displace a cube or two without more than local damage ; 
but let a growing root or trickling stream of water find 
an open running joint, and a serious menace is at once 
developed, that sooner or later will inevitably cause the 
destruction of the whole facade, and it is in these facades, 
encrusted with statues, symbols and hieroglyphics, that the 
chief archaeological value of the edifices consists. Intact 
and in their places, these stones may solve important prob- 
lems. Displaced they become simply objects of curiosity, 
and of no more archaeological value than the scattered ashes 
of Diego de Landa's manuscripts. 

A large portion of the eastern front of the Governor's 
House, so called, at Uxmal is a fallen, shapeless mass, and 
that the ruin began with a defect of this kind can be plainly 
seen. At Zayi and Oebatche are similar cases of destruc- 

1886.] Arckceological Research in Yucatan. 251 

tion, proceeding from similar causes. At Labna, the Portal, 
a most artistic structure, and one that would not suffer by 
comparison with the architectural works of any age or land, 
would, I believe, have been much more perfect to-day, but 
for the ruin that crept in through a defect of this nature. 
In many regions the debris that has accumulated in the pro- 
gress of time serves as a base for calculations, more or less 
correct as to age or date of abandonment, but in the ruins 
of Yucatan that I have visited this factor does not exist. 
Instead of being almost overwhelmed and hidden beneath 
an earth deposit, I find rarely more than a scant six inches 
encumbering the floors of chamber and corridor, and in 
many cases they are entirely clear and exposed to view. 
Had this been the case at Uxmal only, it might, in part at 
least, be explained by the fact that when the Empress 
Carlotta visited Yucatan, Uxmal enjoyed the benefit of a 
general cleaning and clearing in anticipation of the visit 
that she soon after made. Not only was this accumulation 
noticeably absent at Uxmal, but also at Kabah, Labna, j 
Ocbatche and even at Zayi, whose ruins are rarely visited 
even by the natives themselves. As the ruined edifices 
are built upon mounds of greater or less altitude, debris 
could only accumulate from two sources : brought up from 
below by living agencies, bird, beast or reptile, or by the 
natural agencies of the elements, decay and the erosion of 
time upon the material of which the building itself is con- 
structed. The tendency of matter is to seek a lower level, 
and the high winds sweeping through chamber and corridor 
would expel a great portion of the debris, force it down the 
pyramid and lodge it in the angles and at the terraced base, 
which theory is corroborated by the evidence. The debris 
that is found in the chambers of the ruins consists of sub- 
stances conveyed there by living agencies, nut shells, well- 
gnawed bones and bat's excreta, combined with the frag- 
ments of the almost stonelike lime composite that once gave 
the chamber walls a hard, smooth Hnish. The elevations 
upon which they are built, their shapely terraces, now 

252 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

destroyed by the fallen ruins, have often become shapeless 

J believe that few, if any, of the structures now standing 
have been habitations of man, as constant abodes. The 
massive buildings, built upon still more massive mounds 
can only be those "buildings built upon high places," 
spoken of by the chronicler; not merely temples, but halls 
of justice and public business. In them were probably 
held councils and conferences on important a (fairs, while 
from the narrow stone platform in front, to the concourse 
of people below, were proclaimed the edicts of law and 
religion, of peace and war. Below were clustered the 
dwellings of the multitudes that made these edifices a 

Concerning the houses of the people, of which I have 
found traces for leagues around Labna, I hope to know 
more later. 

I believe that much useful knowledge can be gleaned 
from the sites of what were once the ancient Maya homes. 
In the search among the grander ruins, this fact has been 
overlooked ; and yet some of the almost obliterated sites 
may yield more facts, and a clearer insight into Maya 
history and home life, than the massive piles that tower 
above them. 

I am aware that a large number, and perhaps a majority, 
of archaeologists hold to the belief that the edilices, not 
devoted to religious purposes as temples, were simply 
communal dwellings, and within them dwelt all the people 
that composed the so called city. Those who hold to that 
belief will, I doubt not, strongly criticise my view. Never- 
theless I thoroughly believe that I am correct in this 
opinion — that the dwellings of the people covered a large 
space of territory, but in most cases being built of perisha- 
ble material they have disappeared. Eminent archaeologists 
have asserted that there were no such dwellings, because no 
traces of them exist in the explored ruins. I believe this 
to be an error. The whole region around Labna is dotted 

1886.] Archreolog leal Research in- Yucatan. 253 

with low mounds and small rectangular terraces. Some of 
these arc but slightly raised above the surrounding level 
while others are of a greater altitude, though compared 
with the mounds that support the ruined edifices they are 
very low. Now if these do not mark the sites of what 
were once dwellings, to what purpose can we conceive that 
they were put? Those who are familiar with the habits 
engendered by a life in the tropics will be ready to affirm 
that they were not built simply for the pleasure of working. 
Their numbers, if not their situations, preclude any idea of 
their having once been the sites of additional temples, even 
in a land where it is popularly supposed strong religious 
zeal existed. Reason would tell us that each of these 
almost innumerable small mounds and terraces, that encom- 
pass the region of Labna, and many other ruins, marks the 
site of what was once a dwelling-place, — a home. As I 
purpose to make this the subject of a special paper I shall 
not now enlarge upon it. 

I hope before many months to be able to submit some} 
interesting results of my researches at Labna, to be able to 
tell you whether the long line of worked stones, that I found 
buried in the forest mould indicates a once paved roadway, 
or whether it will prove Labna to have been a walled city. 
I hope to tell you more about the inscription that I have 
discovered, graven upon a stone symbol, of which I send 
you photographs, and also that success has crowned my 
search for the missing portion of a most interesting statue. 
I have chosen this city of Labna as my special field of 
study, not only because it is a rich field for archaeological 
research, but also because it has thus far escaped the hands 
of modern vandals. Too near the haunts of the dreaded 
sublevados to suit the taste of curiosity seekers, it has 
escaped their visitations, while no hacienda exists in its 
neighborhood to covet the worked stones that it contains. 
It thus realizes my ideal object of archaeological study — an 
undisturbed ruined city. 

Many archaeologists seek to prove that the civilization of 

254 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. '86. 

the ancient Mayas was born in the East. Others go to the 
opposite extreme and assert that the civilization of the East 
was but the offspring, and this the mother. I believe the 
civilization of the Mayas to have been a distinct and an 
original one ; and while at some period it may have had 
contact with that of the East, this contact was too slight to 
impress itself decidedly upon it. That there must have 
been some points of coincidence between the two civiliza- 
tions is most natural. Man is a creature of very finite 
ideas and actions. In all ages and in all lands, he has had 
and can have, only the straight and curved lines with which 
to delineate, and a certain number of articulate sounds with 
which to form his words or to express his ideas. Hence it 
would be almost marvellous, if in some manner there did 
not appear certain apparently striking points of similarity 
between the civilization of the ancient East and that of the 
West. At this moment there occurs to my mind nearly a 
dozen words in the language of the Mayas, that not only 
closely approximate in sound to certain words in the Anglo- 
Saxon tongue, but stranger still, have a meaning almost 
identical : and yet who will affirm that this indicates any 
connection, linguistic or otherwise, between the Maya and 
the Anglo-Saxon? The thought is of course absurd. 
That these ruins indicate a considerable civilization, I can- 
not doubt. That it was a civilization of the highest order, 
I can find no proof. It may be true in regard to Yucatan 
ruins that as one enthusiastic archaeologist affirms, "hidden 
from sight of man to-day, to-morrow to be discovered, lie 
abundant proofs that this is the oldest, if not the highest, 
civilization the world ever held"; but the light of to-day 
does not show it. These ruins tell of a civilization, of a 
state far above the nomads of the West and above the 
communal Pueblos of the South-west, but not of that 
advanced state of progress that v sends forth a far-reaching 

Vol. IV.' 

New Series. 

Part 4. 



gjtmmran ^ntiparian ^arietg, 



APRIL 27, 1887. 

fck 31 1 Main Street. 

. • .1887. 




, Page. 

Proceedings at the Meeting ; Qy pres ; Earl Percy Letters ; 

Sketch of Hon. John Davis; Colony of Nox 255 

Report of the Council : The Great Charitable Trusts >>f England; 271 

Pliny -Earle Chase. . 316 

Report of the Treasurer ............... . ". 322 

Report of the Librarian 327 

Donors and Donations ...;...... 339 

The Roxbury Latin School — an Outline of its History 348 

Selections from Letters received by David Daggett, 1786-; 

1802 . I 307 

Explorations in Yucatan 379 


This number of the Proceedings completes Vol. IV. ; a title-page 
and index for the volume will be issued with the next number. 

April, 1887 ] Proceedings. 255 



' The President, the Hon. George F. Hoar, LL.D., in 

the chair. 

The following members were present (the names being 
arranged in order of seniority of membership) : Edward E. 
Hale, Charles Deane, George F. Hoar, Andrew P. Peabody, 
George Chandler, Thomas C. Amory, Nathaniel Paine, 
Joseph Sargent, Stephen Salisbury, Samuel A. Green,. 
Elijah B. Stoddard, George S. Paine, Edward L. Davis, 
William A. Smith, Charles H. Bell, James F. Hunnewell, 
Egbert C. Smyth, John D. Washburn, Thomas W. Higgin- 
son, Albert H. Hoyt, Charles C. Smith, Francis A. 
Walker, Hamilton B. Staples, Edmund M. Barton, Charles 
Devens, Thomas L. Nelson, Lucius R. Paige, Franklin 
B. Dexter, John J. Bell, Charles A. Chase, Samuel S. 
Green, Justin Winsor, Henry W. Hayncs, Edward I. 
Thomas, Solomon Lincoln, Andrew McF. Davis, J. Evarts 
Greene, Henry S. Nourse, William B. Weeden, Ebenezer 
Cutler, Reuben Colton, Robert N. Toppan, Henry IT. 
Edes, Frederick J. Kingsbury, Edward Channing, Lucien 
Carr, Frank P. Goulding. 

The Recording Secretary read the records of the last 
meeting, which were approved. 

The same officer reported from the Council their recom- 
mendation that the following named gentlemen be elected 
to membership in the Society : 
i 19 

., 5 1 

256 A?uerican Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Rev. Henry Wilder Foote, of Boston ; 
James Phinneit Baxter, Esq., of Portland, Maine ; 
As resident members. 

John Beddoe, F.R.S., of Bristol, England; 
Edward Hurlburt Thompson, Esq., of Merida, Yucatan ; 
As foreign members. 

All of these gentlemen were declared elected, a separate 
ballot being taken on each name. 

Charles A. Chase, A.M., read a report which had been 
prepared by him and adopted by the Council as a part of 
their report to the Society. 

Nathaniel Paine, Esq., Treasurer, submitted his report 
in print, and Edmund M. Barton, Esq., Librarian, read 
his report. 

The reports above named being before the Society as the 
report of the Council, the Recording Secretary read the 
following letter : 

71 Chester Square, April 27th, 18fi7. 

My Dear Mr. Washburn : 

I sincerely regret that on account 
of my health I shall not be able to attend the semi-annual 
meeting of the American Antiquarian Society to be held 
this day : an occasion of the deepest interest I am sure it 
will be. As a slight mark of ray kind remembrance I 
enclose one hundred dollars for the addition of any books, 
to any department of the library, which the gentlemen 
interested may think best. 

Very respectfully, 

R. C. Waterston. 

It was unanimously voted that the Secretary be author- , 
ized to return the grateful acknowledgments of the Soeiety 
to the Rev. Mr. Watkkston for his generous and timely 


Charles C. Smith, Esq., moved that the report of the 
Council be adopted and referred to the Committee of 

1887.] Proceedings. 257 

Mr. Washburn, seconding the motion of Mr. Smith, 
spoke of the unusually interesting character of that portion 
of the report which related to the charitable and educational 
trusts of England, and especially of the casual illustrations 
therein given, of the power of imagination to illumine and 
make picturesque even 

brawling courts 

And dusky purlieus of the l;iw." 

Indeed, in no proceedings of a serious nature, not even in 
the writing of history, has the aid of the imagination been 
more signally and successfully invoked, than in the very 
difficult branch of the law which relates to perpetuities in 
connection with charitable uses. In the application of 
what is known in the books as cy pres, the Court seems in 
many instances to have resolved itself into a tribunal of the 
imagination. What would the testator have probably done, 
or have been content to do, had he known before his death 
or period of incapacity, that the charitable dispositions con- 
tained in his will could not, for reasons of law or fact, l>e 
carried into execution ? The very hall in which we are 
assembled calls to mind the early Massachusetts case of the 
American Academy vs. Harvard College, in which Chief 
Justice Shaw, then recently appointed to the bench, 
delivered a memorable opinion on the subject of the 
bequests of Count Rum ford. One of the most interesting 
contributions to the literature of the law, valuable hardly 
less as an historical than as a legal discussion, is the opinion 
of Chief Justice Gray of Massachusetts, in the recent and 
leading case of Jackson vs. Phillips. 

The doctrine of cy pres (the imaginative department of 
the law of trusts) has not received in the American courts 
an interpretation exactly identical with that of the courts of 
England, but as this is not a professional discussion, it is 
not necessary to point out the distinction. Nor, in an 
extemporaneous expression, is it desirable to more than 
glance at the picturesque nature of any of them. The 

258 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

mention, however, in the report, of Christ's Hospital where 
Thomas Nevvcomc "said 'Adsum'f and fell back," calls to 
mind a case in Vernon's Chancery Reports, memorable and 
curious alike for the character of the defendant, the nature 
of the bequest, the tone of the discussions, and the suc- 
cessive and diverse judgments of court. It was an informa- 
tion by the Attorney-General against Richard Baxter, 
author of the " Saint's Rest" and the "Call to the Uncon- 
verted, " no stranger, alas ! to courts or prison. Poor 
suffering Baxter, worn by disease, and dying daily, had, 
by the will of Robert Mayot, a beneficed clergyman of the 
Church of England, been bequeathed the sum of 6001., to 
be distributed by him amongst sixty pious ejected ministers. 
The testator adds, "I would not have my charity misunder- 
stood. I do not give it them for the sake of their non- 
conformity : but because I know many of them to be pious 
and good men, and in great want." The Attorney-General 
alleged in the information that the charity was against law 
(the Act of Uniformity, as will naturally occur to the pro- 
fessional or historical student), and invoked the imagina- 
tive discretion of the court. 

Baxter's answer and the arguments on each side are 
quaintly interesting. The Lord Keeper said he had no 
doubt in the case and would decree the charity (that is the 
use) void, and that in accordance with his Majesty's 
pleasure the money should be applied for the building of 
Chelsea College. But it was then urged that if the charity 
was void the money ought to remain with the executor ; 
but the court said it was the use which was void — not the 
charity. Then it was thereupon claimed the charity ought 
to bo applied eodem genere> and the testator having desired 
to benefit ejected ministers, at least it should be decreed to 
go "amongst the clergy." And this view prevailed with 
the Lord Keeper, who thereupon decreed it for the main- 
tenance of a chaplain for Chelsea College, instead of for 
the building. 

1887.] Proceedings. 259 

This was in 1684, but after the due and proverbial delay, 
the case came before the Lords Commissioners at Trinity 
term, 1689 (not long before Baxter's death), and they 
reversed the decree of the Lord Keeper. Although these 
were described as ejected ministers, and so as a class under 
the ban of the Act of Uniformity, yet, as the testator was 
himself a conformist, and Baxter in his answer swore that 
he also was a conformist, it might well have been the 
intent, and the court would imagine the testator so express- 
ing it, that, though these men are ejected ministers, their 
wants are to be supplied and their necessities relieved, not 
because they are ejected, but because they are needy and 
suffering men. And, indeed, the words of the testator, 
quoted from his will, quite naturally bear, even call for, 
that interpretation. And so the Lords Commissioners 
adjudged the use not void and ordered the money to be 
paid out and distributed according to the will. Whether 
Baxter actually did this, or whether he was then so far gone, 
in controversies and sufferings that this pleasure was denied' 
him %n proprld persond, is not at this present moment 
remembered. The whole story of Baxter's connection with 
courts and prisons, as set forth by Orme and Calamy, is 
touching and pathetic in the extreme, but perhaps hardly 
germane to the motion before the meeting. 

Rev. Egbert C. Smyth, D.D., remarked that a new 
charitable trust had recently been established at Oxford for 
the education of independent clergymen. 

Mr. Hoar added an expression of the hope that the sub- 
ject of the report would in due time be considered by the 
writer in its relation to similar trusts in this country. 

Mr. Smith's motion was then adopted. 

The President laid before the Society, reading briefly 
from the manuscripts, three letters of Earl Percy, who was 
in command of the British detachment at Lexington and 

260 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The first, dated May 6th, 1771, is signed Percy, is ad- 
dressed to his relative, Bishop Percy, and encloses a manu- 
script song of considerable merit. The writer affects to 
have received it from a person who assured him he got it 
from an officer of the Royal Scotch. But it seems clear 
that this is i\ mere playful fiction, and that the song is by 
Lord Percy himself. The song is in his handwriting. On 
the corner of the sheet which contains it, is written in the 
Bishop's hand, " Composed by Earl Percy, 1771." 

The other letters are signed Northumberland, written 
after the author came to the dukedom. It is agreeable to 
think of this young officer, like Burgoyne and Andre, as a 
votary of the muses. I am not aware that he is mentioned 
as an author in any biographical sketch. 

Cove of Cork, May 6th, 1771. 
Dear Sir. 

I am to return you many thanks for your Lettey, & 
the Hermit of Warkworth which I assure you I admired 
very much. I have by accident met with a Scotch song in 
this Island which I never saw before ; whether it is an old 
one or not I dont know, but the Person who gave it me, 
assured me he got from an officer of the Royal Scotch that 
was quartered here about two years ago, & told him it was 
a very old one. However as I know you to be curious in 
these matters I have enclosed it to you. We have at hist 
got our Route, & march tomorrow se'night for Dublin, 
where we shall arrive the 27th. If it is in my power to do 
anything for you there, I desire you will let me know I'bcg 
my best Comp ts . to M ,s . Percy & am 

Your very sincere Friend 



The Reverend 
D 1 . Percy 

Northumberland House 
Free London 


1887.] Proceedings. 261 


Composed by Earl Percy, 1771. 

My Annie ye're the bonniest Lass 

That 'ere gave Sheperd Glee, 
And tho' fu' blithe young Jeanny was, 

She's nae sae blithe as ye. 
Then come awa my Bonny Lass, 

Flee to your Soger's Arms, 
Our daies in muckle bliss we'll pass 

Free frae a' dread Alarms. 
Your lip's sae saft, your Breest's of Sna, 

Twa Di'monds are your Eyne. 
Your Beauty stole my heart awa, 

I wad that ye were mine. 
Then come awa my bonny Lass &c. 

When 'ere ye trip it o'er the Lee 

Or thro' the bonny Broom, 
Wi' ye to gae my heart's a' Glee, 

Without ye 'tis a' gloom. 
Then come awa &c. > 

4th. I 

When ainse ye're mine, there's Nane by word, 

Or Deed, dare to affend ye. 
For I can wield my trusty sword, 

And aye wull I defend ye. 
Then come awa &c. 

Fu' blithe and gay's a Soger's Life, 

Ye ken it well enough, 
Free frae a* sorrow, frae a' strife, 

Tis better nar the Plough. 
Then come my Lassie come awa, 

Gar the Ploughman gang his gait, 
Ye are sae blithe, ye are sae bra 

A Soger Lad's your fate. 

[Extract from (he lip's answer.] 
"The late most important Enquiry on which the House 
of Commons has been so long engaged, and which so 
entirely engrossed every attention in England could not but 
attract a similar notice here, and though it brought to light 
great improprieties of private conduct, which very justly 
deserved censure, yet removed imputations of public mis- 

1887.] Proceedings. 201 


Composed by Earl Percy, 1771. 

My Annie ye're the bonniest Lass 

That 'ere gave Sheperd Glee, 
And tho' fu' blithe young Jeanny was, 

She's nae sae blithe as ye. 
Then come awa my Bonny Lass, 

Flee to your Soger's Arras, 
Our daics in muckle bliss we'll pass 

Free frae a' dread Alarms. 
Your lip's sae saft, your Breest's of Sna, 

Twa Di'monds are your Eyne. 
Your Beauty stole my heart awa, 

I wad that ye were mine. 
Then come awa my bonny Lass &c. 

When 'ere ye trip it o'er the Lee 

Or thro' the bonny Broom, 
Wi' ye to gae my heart's a' Glee, 

Without ye 'tis a' gloom. 
Then come awa &c. y 

4th. | 

When ainse ye're mine, there's Nane by word. 

Or Deed, dare to attend ye. 
For I can wield my trusty sword, 

And aye wull I defend ye. 
Then come awa &c. 

Fu' blithe and gay's a Soger's Life, 

Ye ken it well enough, 
Free frae a* sorrow, frae a' strife, 

Tis better nar the Plough. 
Then come my Lassie come awa, 

Gar the Pleughman gang his gait, 
Ye are sae blithe, ye are sae bra 

A Soger Lad's your fate. 

[Extract from the Bp's answer.] 
"The late most important Enquiry on which the House 
of Commons has been so long engaged, and which so 
entirely engrossed every attention in England could not but 
attract a similar notice here, and though it brought to light 
great improprieties of private conduct, which very justly 
deserved censure, yet removed imputations of public mis- 

262 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

conduct which hud been so industriously and universally 
propagated that they were every where rec d . with implicit 
credit, and therefore their confutation and removal is a 
great public benefit. So that the Enquiry has proved 
advantageous is the opinion of many judicious persons." 

Alnwick Castle, 14 th . Oct 1 . 1804. 

My Dear Lord 

At the same time I thank you for your Letter 
of the 5 th . I must lament to perceive it written and signed 
by another hand. It is not indeed much easier for me to 
write the answer, for as the fingers of my right are become 
rigid & contracted I hold my pen with much diiliculty & 
some pain ; even the hot milk lias [not] been able to preserve 
me from the consequences of my disorder, & indeed I have 
been for some time obliged to relinquish the medicine, 
from the heat of the milk having too much relaxed the coats 
of my stomach. 

It afforded me much satisfaction to find that the mincjs of 
the generality of the Irish had been weaned from tpeir 
predilection for French Principles. The Imperial Title 
assumed by Buonaparte, suits ill with the Republican sys- 
tem, & I entertain no doubt but the Emperor of the French 
Republick, will prove as great a Tyrant, as any of the 
Emperors of the Roman Republick formerly. 

My Brother has hitherto been permitted to remain on his 
Parole quietly at Geneva. For a little while they removed 
his son to Verdun, but they allowed him very soon to 
return to his Father. By the last Letters I understand 
they were both in perfect health, & appear to be in good 
spirits. Lady Beverley and her Daughters are safe in Eng- 
land, but not without having had some alarms, as they 
came over in the same Packet with Mr. Drake. 

The Duchess, & my Daughters, unite with me in compli- 
ments & the best of Wishes to you, & M'\ Percy. My 
sons are both absent from us ; Lord Percy at Cambridge, 
& Algernon at Eton. I am certain you will be pleased 
to know, that Lord Percy is continuing a third year at 
the University, altho a Nobleman, at his own particular 

1887c] Proceedings. 263 

Adieu My Dear Lord, & be assured I ever am, with the 
greatest regard 

Your sincere Friend 
and obedient Serv*. 


Norths House, 23' 1 . Jan ry . 1809. 

ans'w 1 . 23' 1 . March 1809. 

My dear Lord. 

Three days ago 1 had the pleasure of receiving 
your Lordship's letter of the 7 th ., which in common with 
others was delayed by the deep snow, & bad weather, we 
have had lately. It afforded me very great pleasure to 
learn that your Lordship's health continued so good. I 
natter it continue the same for many years to come. M r . 
Meade is too young to be ahMictcd as yet witli the Rheuma- 
tism. I have lately received great benefit from taking 
every morning about three or four grains of the Columbo 
root in powder, in a thin dish of chocolate, at breakfast. It 
mixes perfectly with the chocolate, which entirely takes oil' 
the bitter taste of the columbo root. This I would recom- 
mend to M 1 Meade ; as my disorder is at last discovered to 
be clearly Rheumatick, & not gouty. Would they had 
made this discovery some years ago. 

I did not know where M rs . Turnbull resided, till I 
received your Lordship's Letter. I am very sorry to find 
she is under any difficulties, & shall take the Liberty of 
writing to Colonel Isted upon the subject. 

Lord Paget is just arrived, & has brought an account, 
that Gen 1 . Junot attacked our troops near Coruiia, after the 
Cavalry were embarked, & the Infantry just on the point 
of embarking. The British troops fought with the greatest 
coolness and bravery, & repulsed the enemy in every point, 
aching [sic] several Prisoners. We have however lost S h 
John Moore, who was killed by a cannon shot, together with 
L l . Col : Napier, &U. Colonel Mackenzie. S 1 . David Baird 
is very severely wounded, & has been obliged to have his 
arm amputated. L*. Colonel Wynch is likewise Avounded. 
The dispatches are not yet arrived, so that the particulars 
are not known. They are however hourly expected, as the 
Vessel, on board of which the officer is who is bringing 
them, sailed from Cor una an hour before Lord Paget. The 
action took place on the 16 th . of this month. 

264 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The Duchess, Lord Percy, & the rest of my family 
desire I will oiler their compliments, & best wishes to your 
Lordship, M 1 . & M ls . Meade, together with my own. 

I have the pleasure to be with the greatest Esteem & 

My dear Lord 
Your Lordship's 

Most sincere Friend 
& obedient Servant 

The Eight Reverend 
The Lord Bishop of Dromore. 
The President also called the attention of the Society to 
a brief sketch of its former president, Hon. John Davis, 
which had recently come to his notice. It is an admirable 
portraiture. It is contained in a little book entitled, Gal- 
lery of American Portraits, by George Watterston. This 
collection of very spirited sketches was published in 1830. 
It is now nearly forgotten. 

Watterston was Librarian of Congress, 1825-29. ttle 
published several works, among which were : Memoir on 
the Tobacco Plant, Washington, 1817, 8vo. Letters from 
Washington", 1818, 12mo. Course of Study Preparatory 
to the Bar or the Senate, 1823, 12mo. Wanderer in 
Washington, 1827, 12mo. The Lawyer: or Man as he 
ought not to be, Charlestown, Mass., 1829, 18mo. Tabu- 
lar Statistical Views of the Population, Commerce, Naviga- 
tion, Public Lands of the United States (jointly with Van 
Zandt and Nicholas Biddle), Washington, 1829, 4lo. 
Continuation of same, 1833, 8vo. Gallery of American 
Portraits, 1830, 12mo. New Guide to Washington, 1842, 
18mo; 1847, 18mo ; 1848, 18mo. 


[From Gallery of American Portraits]. 

Mr. Davis is a native of Massachusetts, and has been a 
member of the House of Representatives for about six 
years. He does not often address the body to which he 
belongs ; but when he does, it is with great ability and 

1887.] Proceedings. 265 

effect. He is sedate, grave, and circumspect, reflecting 
intensely on the subject brought up for discussion, and 
speaking only when it is of such a nature as to require the 
lights and energies of superior minds. On such occasions 
he investigates profoundly, prepares himself with facts to 
illustrate and develope, and comes forth as a most eloquent 
and powerful advocate. His mind is capable of constant, 
laborious, and intense application ; is clear, acute, and 
vigorous; not easily swayed by ingenuity, or led astray by 
feeling ; seeking truth, through all the meanders of subtlety, 
and drawing her into light, and presenting her in all her 
native and undisguised loveliness. Like the well trained 
hunter, he is never driven from the pursuit of the game by 
false scents', but perseveres, whatever may be the irregularity 
of the course or the obstructions of the way, till he brings 
out the truth, and exposes the fallacies of those who have 
endeavored to conceal it. His information on the great 
questions of national policy is extensive and accurate, and 
his reasoning solid and irresistible. His positions are laid 
down broadly, and demonstrated with clearness. He never 
loiters on the outskirts of his subject, or strives to amuse 
his hearers by pretty conceits or idle verbiage. He deal:} 
in demonstration, and when he brings his proposition to a 
close, it is like the quod erat demonstrandum of the mathe- 
matician. Almost every mind is satistied, or finds it diffi- 
cult, if not impossible, to extract the wedge he has driven 
in. His speeches are fine specimens of practical logic and 
accurate reasoning, close, clear, and conclusive. Mr. D. 
docs not deal much in theory ; he is more practical than 
speculative, and bends his whole powers to produce convic- 
tion, without aiming at beauty or splendor of diction in 
what he says. His thoughts are "apples of gold," but not 
" in a net-work of silver." His style is plain and unostenta- 
tious, and suited to the weight and gravity of the subject 
which he discusses, and though correct, is not very ilowing 
or ornamented. His frame is large, and apparently muscu- 
lous ; his countenance grave, and marked by the traces of 
thought, and exhibits great shrewdness and penetration. 
As a legislator, he is vigilant and active, always at his post, 
and always prepared to support or resist, by his eloquence 
or vote, any measure which may be introduced into the 
House that he conceives to be conducive or injurious to the 
interests of the nation. 

266 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The letters and the biographical notice were referred 
to the Committee of Publication. 

J. Evarts Greene, Esq., presented and read a paper 
on the subject of the Roxbury Latin School, which was 
with the thanks of the Society referred to the Committee 
of Publication. 

Andrew McF, Davis, Esq., said: During an examina- 
tion of the early records of Harvard College, which I made 
last winter, I met with a curious error in the transcription 
of a will, by means of which the College authorities seem 
to have had doubts raised in their minds whether there was 
not an alternative title for the Colony of New Haven. 
There was evidence also that this doubt lingered in their 
minds for fifty years. I found in the records what seemed 
to me to be an explanation of the error. The explanation, 
although plausible, did not carry absolute proof within 
itself and I inserted an inquiry in the March number of the 
Magazine of American History, asking assistance from 
others in procuring evidence that the explanation was cor- 
rect. When I published this inquiry I had no idea that 
the records themselves would furnish this proof, but feared 
that it would be necessary for this purpose to discover the 
original will in England. A further examination of the 
College archives has, however, placed me in possession of 
material bearing upon the subject, which is practically as 
satisfactory as though I had seen the original will, and 
enables me to say that the explanation of the error, which 
was suggested in the Magazine of American History, may 
be regarded as proved to be correct. 

The circumstances under which the error occurred and 
the discovery of the proof of its origin will be found in the 
following statement : — 

In 1670, William Penoyer of England gave an annuity 
from his estate in Norfolk for "exhibitions." The phrase 
in the original will in which the testator specifically desig- 

1887.] Proceedings. 267 

nated the manner in whieh the scholarships should be 
assigned read as follows : "With the residue thereof two 
fellowes & two sehollars for ever shall be educated, main- 
tained, & brought up in the Colledge called Cambridge 
Col ledge in New England, of which I desire one of them 
as often as occasion shall present, may be of the Lyne or 
Posterity of the said Robert Penoyer if they be capeable of 
it & the other the Colony of now or of late called New 
Haven Colony," etc. A copy of this clause was received 
by the Treasurer. Whether he forwarded the copy which 
he received or made a second copy does not appear, but a 
copy received from the Treasurer was produced at a meet- 
ing of the President and Fellows held in August, 1671, 
and was entered in full upon the College Book in connec- 
tion with the records of that meeting. By the time that 
the clause of the will relating to these exhibitions, found 
its way upon the College Book, it had become transformed 
so that the phrase "The Colony of now or of late called 
New Haven," read "The Colony of Nox or of late called? 
New Haven." There are in the early College books several 
collations of the exhibitions and trust funds. The Penoyer 
will is entered in these books four times ; once in Book 
1, twice in Book 3 and once in Book 4. Each time the 
error is repeated. 

That the College authorities were puzzled by the phrase 
"The Colony of Nox or of late called New Haven," and 
that they thought there might have been some reason for 
Penoyer's use of the alternative title for the Colony of New 
Haven, is shown by the fact that it is several times recog- 
nized in the assignments of this exhibition. In 1679, 
"James Ailing and Noadiah ltussell both sehollars of the 
Colonic of Nox or New Haven," were designated to receive 
the Penoyer annuity. Increase Mather and Thomas Brattle, 
in their correspondence with Samuel Crisp, the representa- 
tive of the Penoyer estate, both dwell upon the fact that 
students from the Colony of Nox received the benefits of 

268 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

the trust. Mention is made, either in the records or in 
Leverett's Diary, of students from the ''Colony of Nox," 
or in more guarded phrase as "being supposed to he a 
scholar belonging to the Colony formerly called the Colony 
of Nox," in 1694, in 1716 and in 1721. Later than this I 
have found no reference to the Colony of Nox. Founded 
in the Records of Harvard College in 1671, it lived in the 
same seclusion until 1721 and then for a time disappeared 
from history. In 1862 allusion was made to it by Mr. 
Sibley in a note to a paper which was published in the 
Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society. No 
attempt was made at that time to follow up its history. 

At first sight it may seem strange that the College 
officials should have perpetuated this blunder for so many 
years. It must be borne in mind, however, that they were 
extremely anxious to have those from whom they might 
hope for gifts understand that trusts would be administered 
according to the intentions of their founders. They met 
with this phrase in what they supposed to be a correct 
transcript of Penoyor's . will. Penoyer had relatives in 
America and evidently had friends in the Colony of New 
Haven. In describing the Colony he had apparently used 
a name with which they were not familiar, but it seemed as 
though this alternative title was used for designating more 
particularly a colony which had but recently lost its 
identity. In 1662 the charter granted to Connecticut had 
comprehended the Colony of New Haven. The very 
circumstances which led Penoyer to describe the Colony as 
having now or of late the title with which he was familiar, 
rather than by the new name to which he had not become 
accustomed, contributed to sustain the error. It does not 
require any great stretch of the imagination to bring before 
our eyes the scene of the discussions in which Increase 
Mather, Thomas Brattle, Leverett, Wads worth and Henry 
Flynt participated, in seeking for an explanation of the 
phrase. The doubt whether it meant anything and the 

".] l'roceeiih'. 

;*mdenmce of the feeling that it was wi^r after jfl 

rig able to assert positively bow and when 

^covered, h ir»y l*> stated a* probable that 

- . 

' wa* completed cammed the 

certified copy of the will wbien bad been transmitted from 

England, ami with the matter fresh m Ma mind from 

assignm en t* by the Corporation of the Penoyer annuity in 

~il, solved the qnestion of the origin of die Colon 

The cot neidenee of the disappearance from the 

records of allusion to the Colony of Xox, with hi* work m 

overhauling the College paper*, point* almost ctmefnsirely 

the discoverer of the err i 

The fact that there was a correct copy of the will, or at 

least of that portion of it relating to the College, is made 

a reference in Dr. Andre D /nation 

tn attested copy of Mr. Penoyer* wi 

paper* I . he copy of the will extended apon the 

pages of the Donation Book pnrports to bare been 

from this attested copy. The phrase in question i 

rectly transcribed and rea<ls "now or late." S i n ce the 

compilation id that hook the papers of the College hare 

been assorted and bound in volumes. The attested copy 

.:':.: ;':.../..- • -, :.-..i ..':■-:: :. * ...... .•.::. r. \: ..- 

x in the Donation Book tennme* evidence that the 
in the Treasurer'* omee or in the 

• ' . . my of Xox," was gained by a marginal entry 
or of late called Xew Haven Colony," abreast of the 
"Colony of Xox or of late called Xew Ilaven Colony/ in 
one of the College book*. Similar es 
have been made agiinst several of these entries which 
tain allusion* to the Colony o: 

270 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

entries would be in themselves a -sufficient guard against 
the resurrection of the error, did they include all allusions 
in the records to the Colony of Nox, or were they in them- 
selves so entered as necessarily to attract the attention of 
the reader. As a matter of fact, however, there are several 
allusions to the Colony of Nox, against which no marginal 
notations have been made, and it is also true that no 
marginal notation would necessarily attract the attention of 
a searcher of the records. Throughout this period, the 
margins of the College books are filled with notations. 
They constitute a sort of topical index, the use of which a 
person making a thorough analysis of the records would 
naturally reject. For that reason it is perhaps as well that 
the history of the rise and fall of the Colony of Nox should 
be put on record. 

Prof. Franklin B. Dexter read some letters of peculiar 
interest, and Mr. Reuben Colton presented an abstract of 
a diary kept by Mr. Edward H. Thompson during an 
exploring expedition in Yucatan. The Society, with thinks 
to Prof. Dexter and Mr. Colton, requested that the letters 
and the diary be furnished for the use of the Committee 
of Publication. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 


llccordiwj Secretary. 

1887.] Report of the Council 271 


The report of Mr. Paine, our Treasurer for twenty-four 
years, giving, as usual, a detailed statement of the financial 
operations of the Society, and the present condition of the 
various funds, shows that from the total income a dividend 
of three per cent, has been carried to each fund. The 
Librarian, who now completes a term of twenty-one years 
of faithful service, of which fifteen years were passed as an 
assistant to Dr. Haven, tells the interesting story of what 
has been done in his department during the past six months. 
The reports of these two officers are presented as forming a l 
part of the report of the Council. 

We have to record, at this time, the death of the only 
member of the Society who, to our knowledge, has passed 
away since the date of our last meeting, — Pliny Earle Chase, 
LL.D.j Professor at Ilaverford College, Pennsylvania, who 
was elected into this Society in October, 1863. A memoir 
of Prof. Chase has been prepared by our associate in the 
Council, Samuel S. Green, A.M. 

A glance at the development of some of the Great Charita- 
ble Trusts now in existence, especially at those of our mother 
country, necessarily carries in its train something more than 
a mere statement of figures, or the trial-balance of a book- 
keeper. The most matter-of-fact penny-a-liner who should 
be sent to " interview " that striking character and practical 
philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore, could not bring away 
from the atmosphere of his imposing presence merely the 
bare statistics of the cash in his pocket-book and the array of 

272 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

his investments in land, stocks and the public funds. So he 
who uses such material as may be available for ascertaining 
the present condition of the great charitable, or semi-charita- 
ble institutions of Great Britain, will, — especially if he has 
ever made a personal visit to any of them, — experience that 
charm and inspiration of which Prof. Lowell recently spoke 
so eloquently, 1 and which, he says, he " never felt so 
acutely as in those gray seclusions of the college quadran- 
gles and cloisters at Oxford and Cambridge, conscious with 
venerable associations, and whose very stones seem happier 
for being there." 

The. charities of England have been built up in great 
measure from grants of land made originally by the pious 
and charitable. Indeed, so far back as the Norman Con- 
quest, the church was in possession of lands, so given it for 
the most part, amounting to nearly three-tenths of the whole 
property of the country. At that time, of course, the 
great mass of personal property now existing in the form of 
consols, stocks, bonds and the like, was unknown. 1 This 
land, held in great measure under feudal tenure or the sur- 
viving customs and relics of that tenure, has been a constant 
cause of legislation down to the present day ; and the history 
of its ownership is both curious and interesting to the 
American, who buys and sells his city lot or his pleasant 
farm as free from incumbrance, for the most part, as he 
does his horse and cow, or his securities at the Stock 
Exchange. True it is, however, that even here a "Con- 
cord philosopher" might iind that we are not such absolute 
owners of our land as we may seem ; that the bottom ovvn- 
ership — ^dominium directum''' — of the broad acres which 
we may have acquired is really in the great body politic of 
which we are members, leaving only the M dominium utile" 
to ourselves; that although we are said to own the 4t fee," 
some of the original meaning of that word still attaches to 

1 Oration delivered at the 250th anniversary of Harvard College, Nov. 8, 1880. 

1887.] Report of the Council. 273 

it, so that wo are really but little more than '* adscripti 
glebce," — '« etfruges conmmere nati." l 

It sometimes happened, under the Roman law, that the 
owner of property wished to eonvey the whole or part of 
his estate to a person whose suceession would not be recog- 
nized by the courts. So there grew up a practice of be- 
queathing it to some trusted friend who should afterwards, 
in honor, re-convey it to the intended beneficiary. a At 
first, says Justinian, there was no binding legal force to 
these trusts, because no one could be compelled against 
his will to do what he was merely asked to do. But the 
custom became so prevalent and well recognized that 

l The idea of exclusive ownership in land was not the one which prevailed at 
the outset. Adam was placed in the garden of Eden only " to dress it and to 
keep it." And when the Creator gave to men " dominion" " over all the earth" 
it was from the start a tenancy in common. To the one occupying and im- 
proving any tract belonged the temporary use thereof, and on his abandonment, 
in search of " fresh woods and pastures new," it became common once more. 
As occupancy gave possession, however, the right of the occupier to transfer 
the possession came to be recognized; and at the death of the occupant his 
children, being present, naturally received or assumed it, so that, as another 
step forward in the system, it came to be recognized that the children might 
succeed the father without molestation. Under the old Roman law daughters 
shared equally with the sons; but among the Jews and the Greeks the daugh- 
ters were excluded if there were any sons to receive the inheritance. [For 
an instance where there were no sons, see Hook of Numbers: xxvu., 1.] 
The English law also excluded female descendants where there was a male 
heir. After the pr iuciple of succession had become established, the next 
step allowed the father to prefer certain heirs in a will. The practice of mak- 
ing wills is traced back by some to very early times indeed. Eusebius says that 
Noah made a will in writing, under seal, disposing of the whole world ; hut 
Eusebius is in error. The act of Noah in preferring Shem and apparently dis- 
inheriting Canaan, and that of Israel in giving to Joseph a portion above his 
brethren, we must regard rather as tha Jiats of autocratic rulers than as testa- 
ments in the modern acceptation of the term. The only use of the word testa- 
ment in the sense of a last will, which is found in the liible, is in Hebrews : IX., 
10, 17, where it indicates that the practice was well known to the apostle. Dr. 
Uarnes, in his " Notes," though not approaching the subject from its legal side, 
argues, in e.Henso, that even here the word means a covenant, and that the 
translation fails to catch the true meaning of the original. It is to be noticed, 
however, that in the recent "Revised Version," the same idea is conveyed as 
in that of King James. 

*The common form used in the creation of such trusts, after specifying the 
legacy, was : " 1 beg," " I request," or •' I trust to your good faith," &c. Feto, 
rogo, volo, mando,fidei tiue commUto. 

274 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Augustus confirmed the practice, and gave the pnvtor 
power to enforce the execution of the trust. The trusts 
created in this way were called Jidei commissa, and were 
the origin of the " Uses" which have played an important 
part in connection with the subject which we are now 

The leading Great Trusts of the time, and those with 
which alone we are now concerned, are such as are of a 
charitable nature. The Bank of England, with its capital 
and surplus of over $70,000,000, the great railroads and 
other corporations, are trusts for the benefit of their stock- 
holders, to whom alone, and to the law of the land, the 
managers are responsible. The love of God and of one's 
fellow-men has stimulated the wealthy to part with their 
sustenance, — more frequently, rather, to leave it behind 
them, — either for such purposes as would promote the 
worship of God and the spread of the Christian religion, or 
for the relief of mortals suffering from poverty, disease or 
infirmity. The gifts of the first class, those connectediwith 
the church, were originally the larger and more numerous, 
for until within a comparatively few years almost the whole 
object of a liberal education in Great Britain was to fit men 
for the church ; and upon the great universities and the 
numerous endowed schools of England a steady stream of 
benefactions has poured for centuries. 

Among the English people, prior to the Norman con- 
quest, the Roman, or allodial, system of land tenure pre- 
vailed at first, but on the continent many allodial proprietors 
had surrendered their holdings to some baron, to secure his 
protection, receiving them again at his hands "in fee," or 
by feudal tenure. This change of tenure had been specially 
marked in France during the century previous to the Con- 
quest, and William, to punish the English for the resistance 
which they had offered him, seized the greater portion of 
the lands, and held a large part in his own hands, granting 
some portions in capite to his barons, who sublet to their 

1887.] Report of the Council. 21b 

knights. A knight thus holding as tenant, reserved for 
himself a demesne adjoining his castle, sufficient for his 
personal use. The remainder of his lands was divided into 
four parts. On one he established a number of military 
tenants sufficient to perform the military service which he 
in turn owed to his superior ; a second was for his " socage " 
tenants, who ploughed his lands or paid him a stipulated 
amount of produce as rental ; a third was for the " vileins" 
who performed the servile offices on the manor; und the 
fourth was common and waste land, which furnished wood 
and pasturage for all. These feudal tenures, held first at 
the will of the lord, came to be held during the life of the 
vassal, and were gradually recognized as inheritable, sub- 
ject, however, to the customary " reliefs," and to " fines" 
on alienation, or "heriots" at the death of the vassal. 
These feudal tenures, protected by Parliament for many 
years, were finally abolished in 1660, * although the existing 
rents, fines for alienation and heriots were allowed to 
remain, except such as were due to the King. 2 

112 Car. n.: c. 24. 

2 A writer in a recent number of the Contemporary Review,— the Rev. Isaac 
Taylor,— gives an Interesting account of the survivals, which he calls innumer- 
able, which may be detected even now, of the .social and economical conditions 
prevailing at Domesday. Some are "scored deeply on the surface of the soil 
by the Domesday plough, and others survive its customary tenures, in the 
names of fields and farms, the forms and dimensions of enclosures, and the 
directions followed by hedges, roads and rights of way. 

"If we ascend a hill, the Domesday map of the country lies spread before 
the eye. We see the divisions of the oxgangs tilled by the villans; here was 
the Domesday pratum, there was the pastura; this was the inlield, yonder was 
the outfield. We look down upon the village, and see the null, and the hall, 
and the church, and the messuages of the villagers, each with a long narrow 
strip of croft behind it, and the cots of the bordarii, with their acre or half- 
acre tofts, the buildings retaining the same sites and the crofts preserving the 
same boundaries as they had eight hundred years ago— a truly marvellous 
illustration of the immobile conservatism of English village life. Even where 
the land has been long enclosed, and divided into separate holdings, it is instruc- 
tive to ride across the country, and observe how indelibly impressed on the soil 
by the ancieut plough are the marks of those very divisions of land which were 
recorded in the Domesday survey. Frequently the exact boundaries of the 
Domesday carucates and bovates can be traced. The ancient arable, consisting 
as a rule of the best land, because land was plentiful, has commonly gone back 
to valuable pasture, inferior soils, which were formerly unreclaimed, being 

970 American Antiquarian Soefoty, [April* 

Tbfi revfow of the / ton of land Entire 1 ».:» . "u,"i 
pro^ei m I' tiding up to the ;■< m ml -•<)< 1 1 ui tfii* pap* 
iukI a« relating to tl* ion and ligitriation ivhfcfi hav* 

for o many y-" prevailed in connexion iriifa tbu i\ 
Mid ( hiti ftiei of England ' 

|fl »h<; till,.*'. If' Ml " >l<<: 


two J;< ■.»' \,<;< in l/r';.'IM., r< ir.-iii. 

. : ■?, frftlfl )i\/\i*u . , 

Wliil' Mi' 

f1;»t w | bulk*, two l/r'/»'l, J'M in 

-. M *>rin4 >.< 14 t»/ ■ '-■ I ' 

'/i'l <iraJ/J#; -;»ill rvtnnkxi in \\\u:>< ft i n 

>// (fcfc ';t bj • . ,rn H.'> Mn 

... . lUtt >\' u 1 

of lan/1 H 'I'fn. ' '■ . .' . 

." il, iU; ih ■■:'■ 
hu\,, / 

Hi W| W -.' .- - ... -nr-.l 

rnw pWHir. *v#t wmnlHutt' riifi 

Mm nWsogJima*'* fal**t f Whtk the \,t< 
trow* wni'>»» |f» 

»r" POM in MM jfcftetl '// 1ft* HM 

'. . . . . . • -.' .' ' ■ ' . 

A. ..r, /.-.<'.,„ .. •;-,--, J< //, I •',•:", ,, •..• ff',r< ', % / I JK... 

PfWftfcfcmi, rfl#fwe4Mg92 V'/i. Ml . -'"'. uq. 

/taut **vl raMffeal «fc**£fc* Hi tf»e few*l Ifl W* ui V,i.;- vJ \ 

Un*\ Ut#u*\ tri a*, Urn**, &mm& u u* i >*#4 

V* x MDMtfl r*,vhtt% in O* ff mmm 

.n«#fcMT, W 
f— rl.nwtiMi) flH^jrew/^; that '/ / M»4 

mnrUttim *tt *\\ n* p*mtp m*\ *-Snnm# ■ ■■■»> \>**\ 'bows'* »// 

1887.] Report of the Council. 277 

The tying up of vast amounts of land in the dead hand 
of the church and of other bodies (in mortmain), was early 
resisted by the nobles for two reasons : first, the resulting 
aggrandizement of the church, of whose power they were 
jealous ; and second, the loss to the lords of a great part of 
the recurring fines and other privileges to which they were 
entitled on the alienation of fees or at the death of a vassal. 
And this was no new thing. At Rome, even as early as 
the third century, a law was passed to check the overgrown 
wealth of the hierarchy. And in the Magna Charta of 
Henry III. was inserted a prohibition against the convey- 
ance of lands to religious houses and taking them back on 
lease, under the penalty of forfeiture to the lord of the fee. 
But this restriction was evaded by various devices, so 
that in the reign of Edward I. the famous statute " De 
Religiosis v ' n was passed, enacting that no land should be 
aliened in mortmain, under the color of gift or lease, " or 
any other craft or engine," under pain of forfeiture to the 
King 01 other chief lord of the fee. But this did nolj 
fully accomplish the desired object, and additional restric- 
tions were imposed by Parliament in the reigns of Edward 

tees to preserve contingent remainders,' which the great creators of the art of 
con veyancing devised in their construction of that marvellous issue of the human 
brain, the family settlement, had already disappeared from actual use, they 
might still gladden the heart of the lawyer as he encountered them in his 
researches into title. Still the ' grantee to uses,' still that most modern but 
none the less impressive and magniticient addition to the hierarchy of devolu- 
tion, ' the protector of the settlement, 9 still the fascinating cadence of the com- 
mon form, ' together with all woods, waters, wastes,' might be met with and 
enjoyed. Still 'Coke upon Littleton,' that enchanting storehouse of pedantic 
learning, that astonishing apology for the petrified customs of rude Teutonic 
tribes, conveyed in the language and inspired by the notions of the Schoolmen, 
might be read by the student with some pretence of obtaining thence a practical 
result. With Lord Halsbury's bill, however, the last remains of the mighty 
fabric that was begun by those ' bold men' who sought to circumvent and 
outwit the ' Statutes De Dunis? and the l Statute of Uses,' and which, though 
shattered by the legislation of the last fifty years, still retains something of its 
former splendor, will be levelled to the ground. Ileal property, if not nomi- 
nally, at least practically, will on the passing of his bill have ceased to exist as 
something separate and apart."— The Spectator . London ; April 30, 1887. 
i7Edw. I., st. 2. 

278 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

I., 1 Edward III., 3 Richard II., 3 and Henry VIII. 4 By 15 
Richard II., chap. 5, the evasions of the mortmain act by 
the subterfuge of jidei commissa were attacked. By an 
extension of this Roman practice lands and hereditaments 
had been largely conveyed to private persons, "for the 
use" of churches and corporations. But the Act last cited 
ordered that all who held lands or tenements to the use of 
religious people, guilds or fraternities, should either amor- 
tise them by license of the King or lord of the fee, or should 
sell them to some other use. 

When the Protestants came into power in England, and 
had completed the work of driving out the alien friars and 
confiscated their property, 5 they waged war upon super- 
stitious uses; and the statute 23 Henry VIII., c. 10, pro- 
hibited grants of land and tenements for "obits" perpetual, 
the conditional service of a priest forever, or for three-score 
or four-score years. The "use" of a priest (i. e. masses), 
might still be secured for a term not exceeding twenty 
years, — after which time, as Froude intimates, the testator 
would have to take his chance. A statute in the time of 
Edward VI. 6 vested in the crown all lands appointed to 
superstitious uses. 

But the wealth of the charitable and pious had not by 
any means been all lavished upon the church. Colleges, 
hospitals, grammar schools, almshouses and every kind of 
doles 7 had been founded and richly endowed. These 

U3 Edw. I., St. 1, cc. 32, 33; 34 Edw. I., st. 3. 

2 18 Edw. lit., st. 3, c. 3. " Quia emptores." 

8 15 Rich. ir.,c. 5. 

4 23 Henry Vtlt.,e. 10. 

c Henry V., and Archbishop Chichely (founder of All Soul's College at Ox- 
ford), were the pioneers in this work of alienation, which was stimulated by a 
determination to rid the realm of all foreign jurisdiction. The work was not 
thoroughly pushed, however, until the time of Henry VIII., when Cromwell, 
as vicegerent, begun the work of total suppression. Some colleges and chan- 
tries were put down by Edward VI., who, with the spoils, founded certain 
grammar schools which still commemorate him. 

o 1 Edw. VI., c. 14. 

7 The "Doles" of England are of every imaginable kind, and present, of 
themselves, a curious study. One Henry Smith provided for the annual distri- 

1887.] Report of the Council. 279 

numerous trusts were managed, in some cases, for the 
benefit of the cestuis que trustent; but in too many instances 
for the benefit and aggrandizement of the trustees. The 
court of chancery had at an early day assumed jurisdiction 
over these trusts, but only the most flagrant cases of abuse 
would ever be brought before it. Parliament at last, in 
1601, took action, passing the famous Statute "to redress 
the misemployment of lands, goods, and stocks of money 
heretofore given to certain charitable uses." 1 This act 
defined what uses should be considered charitable and there- 
fore under special protection of the law of the land, and 
provided for a commission to enquire into the condition of 
the various trusts in the country, with power to issue orders 
for the faithful performance of duty by the trustees, and the 
proper application of the trust funds. The act exempted 
from the jurisdiction of the commission, the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, their colleges and halls, the colleges 

bution of 23,211 gifts of 4s. lOd. each forever. A lady is buried in St. Barthol- 
omew's churchyard, London, who left a fund to be distributed among ag$d 
women on every Good Friday, with the requirement that the recipients should 
pick up their sixpences from the surface of her grave. A number of bread 
charities are given in a certain parish in Berkshire: the curate reports that as 
a result there, is not a dissenter in the district. At llilderstone is a gift, estab- 
lished in 102") by Sir Thomas Hunt, of 2d. apiece weekly, in bread, to six poor 
people who " after service should come every Sabbath day to the stone where 
Ins father lies, and kneeling should say the Lord's prayer, and pray to God for 
the king and queen." At West Mousley loaves and a barrel of beer are dis- 
tributed annually at daybreak on Nov. 13. The baker's cart is driven across a 
held, the loaves are thrown out and scrambled for by seventy or eighty people. 
Some thirty or forty persons form a line, and, passing by the beer barrel, hand 
the drinking horn from one to another until the barrel is empty. At Melbourne, 
Derbyshire, Henry Greene in 107!) left provision to supply four poor women, 
every 21st of December, with four green waistcoats lined with green galloon 
lace; and in 1091 Thomas Gray made provision to buy annually for poor men 
and women coats and waistcoats of gray cloth. And at Barnes, in Surrey, 
Edward Rose, in 1052, left land in trust, among other purposes, to preserve 
rose trees upon his grave. Of all the great number of doles in England it is 
probable that ninety per cent, or more arc of an injurious tendency, developing 
idleness, dissipation and hypocrisy. Much has been done of late in the way of 
converting these ill-advised charities to the support of education, and it is not 
improbable that, before many years, doles as at present administered, will have 
altoget her disappeared. 
143 Eliisth., c.4. 

280 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of Westminster, Eton and Winchester, and all cathedral 
and collegiate churches. 

The King's power to grant licenses to colleges and 
schools to hold land in mortmain, which had been disputed 
by the lords, was confirmed by the statute of 7 & 8 Win. 
III., c. 37, 1696. 

An important restriction upon the too great development 
of charities was imposed by 9 George II., c. 36, which pro- 
vided that no manors, lands or sums of money should be 
given for charitable uses unless by deed executed before 
two witnesses twelve months before the death of the grantor, 
the deed to be enrolled in the court of chancery, or the 
stocks to be transferred upon the public books Avithin six 
months thereafter, and the gift to take full effect immedi- 
ately upon the grantor's death. As to the reasons for this 
statute Lord Chancellor Hardwick said : — " The particular 
views of the Legislature were two : first, to prevent the 
locking up of land, and real property from being aliened 
. . . . ; second, to prevent persons in their last moments 
from being imposed upon to give away their whole estate 
from their families, .... a very wise one, for by these 
means the popery and clergy got almost half the real prop- 
erty of the kingdom into their hands ; and indeed I wonder 
they did not get the rest : as people thought they thereby 
purchased heaven." 1 

The great work of reform in the matter of charitable 
trusts was reserved for the nineteenth century ; a work to 
which Lord Brougham gave the greater portion of his life, 
— in which he was seconded, in great measure, by the 

iVesey: 1,28. 

"One flash of purgatorial fire is able to melt a miser into charity." Fuller: 
Church History, vi., 1, 205. 

" When the legendary Scotchman asked : ' Should I be placed among the elect 
if I left ten thousand pounds for Free. Kirk Sustcntatioii'r' his minister is said 
to have replied that it was an experiment well worth trying."— Endowed 
Charities: by Courtney Kenny, p. 118. London: 1880. 

A school at Totues, founded in 1554, was further endowed in 1058, by the 
acting trustee of Elizams Ilele, who for his various charities was called " Pious 

1887.] Report Of Uu Council. 881 

Whig party, and which has been well-ni;_'h completed under 
the lead of Mr. Gladstone. A letter from Brougham to 
Sir Samuel Komilly, M.P., written in 18L8, and printed in 
the "Pamphleteer" (Vol. XIII., pp. 1-34), awoke the 
attention of the English people to the abuses existing in the 
charities of the realm. After referring to a hill of enquiry 
which he had introduced at the previous session of Parlia- 
ment, he pointed out some of the abuses which had been 
unearthed by the committee chosen to investigate the sub- 
ject, lie cited an instance of a corporation in Hampshire, 
having the management of estates worth over 02,000 a year 
for the use of the poor, which had let them for £200 or 
£300 on fines, and would give no account of the manner in 
which those lines had been applied. At Mere in Lincolnshire 
was an endowment for a warden and poor brethren, of very 
ancient date, ;i where the warden and his leasees seemed to 
be very well provided for, whatever might be the lot of the 
brethren." The estate consisted of boO acres, five miles 
from Lincoln, and was let for only one-half guinea \HSt 
acre, though it paid neither tithe nor poor-rate ; and £24 a 
year was the whole sum allotted to the brethren. The 
bishop of the diocese was botfi patron and visitor, and had 
given the warderiship to his nephew, the former warden 
resigning and being promoted by the prelate to a living 
within his gift. The son of the same prelate was master of 
Spital Hospital in the same county : besides other landed 
property he was in possession of an estate worth £000 or 
£700 a year, in right of his office, and dispensed some 
£27, 4s. per annum to our or rive pensioners. •• An estate 
worth £700 a year [says Brougham in bis letter] only 
educates seven or eight boys; lands valued at £1,100 or 
£1,200 a year only afford a wretched pittance to sixteen 
paupers: and land worth £150 a year is let for £2, Is. id., 
chiefly to the trustees themselves. There are two estates 
belonging to the poor at Croydon, which ought to bring 
between £1,00<) and £1,500 a year, vet are worth nothing 

282 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

from being badly let on ninety-year leases." The estates 
of the hospital at Croydon, he adds, "are valued by the 
surveyor at £2,673 a year; yet they are let for £860, and 
down to 1812 they fetched no more than £336. A free 
school, too, is specially appointed to be kept for all the 
inhabitants of Croydon ; but none has within the memory 
of man been taught, although the master receives his 
emoluments, teaching another school for his own profit, 
and although the inhabitants have established a seminary to 
give education, at their own expense, to the poor of the 
place, in the very school-room which Archbishop Whit- 
gift devised for their gratuitous education." An order of 
the court of chancery, passed thirty-four years after this 
letter was written, provided for the opening of two free 
schools in connection with this hospital. To show the 
difficulty of remedying abuses by private effort, Lord 
Brougham says further, in the letter here cited: — "We 
there find" (in the committee's report) "the parish officers 
of Yeovil ruined in their attempts to obtain justice fdjr the 
poor ; a respectable solicitor and a clergyman in Hunting- 
don 1 expending large sums of their own money in the same 
pious work, and rewarded by the general contempt and 
even hatred of their fellow-citizens; a worthy inhabitant of 
Croydon exposed to every kind of vexation for similar 
exertions, his coadjutor falsely and maliciously indicted for 
perjury," &c, &c. 

After reading this letter from Brougham, and the many 
instances of similar abuses cited in the chancery reports and 
elsewhere, one sees that the graphic picture of the fate of 
"Hiram's Hospital," with its quasi card-maker bedesmen, 
as sketched by Anthony Trollope in "The Warden," is by 
no means overdrawn. 

An act passed in 58 George III. (c. 91) instituted a 
Commission to examine into charity trusts for educating 
the poor ; but the proper supervision of all the endowed 

1 Cromwell was educated at the school supported by this trust. 

1887.] Report of the Council. 283 

charities was not effected until 1853 (chap. 137, 16 and 17 
Vict.) and amendatory laws passed in 1855, 1860 and 
1869. These acts established a rigid supervision of 
endowed charities, and a system of accounts, empowered 
the Commissioners to sell or exchange lands, to sell lands 
encumbered with rent charges or annuities, or to buy out 
such encumbrance*. The Universities of Oxford, Cam- 
bridge, London and Durham, with the colleges and halls 
therein, the Colleges of Eton and Winchester, and some 
other favored charities were exempt from the Act, and 
Koman Catholic charities were exempt for two years. 

A report of the Charity Commission, made after their 
operations had been reduced to a thorough system, showed 
that the income of the various charities in their charge, for 
a single year (1876) was £1,558,251 from real estate alone ; 
and the total income was £2,198,461 ; while the land owned 
in the same connection amounted to 524,311 acres. It also 
showed that of the 14,859 parishes in England and Wales, 
nearly 12,000 possessed charitable endowments. ) 

When we come to a face-to-face examination of the great 
trusts in themselves, the Universities of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge at once present themselves in the foreground of our 
view. The word university, like several other English 
words derived from the Latin or Greek tongues, has come 
to be used in a specific sense, instead of the broader mean- 
ing which originally attached to it. Its first meaning was 
simply, the whole ; then it was used to denote the whole 
people, the public ; l and next, a collection of men of the 
same profession or pursuit. And to-day, in the same 
sense, there are many amorphous universities, not devoted 
to polite learning, like the shoemakers of Lynn, the fisher- 
men of Gloucester, or the cotton-spinners of Lowell. 

i" Universitatis sunt, non sinyulorum, veliiti qua- in civitatibus sunt 
tkeatra et stadia et similia,et siqua alia sunt communia cioitatum." 

[lies] qu<u, publico! sunt nullius in bonis esse crcduntur; ij>sius enim 
Unicersitatis esse creduntur. Gaius n., 11. 

So the Parliament of England was mentioned as " Unicersitas totius Anyliai." 

284 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

There was for many years a spirited eontest for the palm 
of seniority between the friends of Oxford and Cambridge, 
some going so far as to claim for the former that it was 
founded by Alfred the Great. This pretty theory was, 
in time, exploded ; it is conceded, however, that Oxford is 
the elde'r. Neither university is mentioned in Domesday 
Book, and it has been shown that grammar schools -existed 
at Winchester, Canterbury, Peterborough and elsewhere 
before Oxford attained its preeminence. But a school of 
any kind was a rarity in those days, — nigroque simittima 
eygno, — and the youth who craved for learning and to 
become a "clerk," must leave his home and make a long 
pilgrimage in search of a teacher. Gradually the teachers 
assembled in considerable numbers at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, and thither Hocked the students. The latter found 
lodgings wherever they best could. Sometimes a number 
of students clubbed together and hired a house, or "hall." 
At one time there were said to be three hundred of these 
halls at Oxford, before there was any university. iSome 
students were so poor that even as late as 1572 licenses 
were granted them to beg. In time the monasteries and 
hospitals opened houses for the maintenance of a limited 
number of students. 

In the 13th century, an organization of the great body 
of teachers and students at Oxford was effected as an 
University. William of Durham, in 1249, left by will 
property which served to buy three houses for the use of 
scholars and "exhibitioners" at the university, and to this 
foundation, constituting a collection of members of a larger 
body, was given the Latin name for a collection, i. e., a 
"college," with the distinguishing name, in this case, of 
"University College." No statutes for its government were 
framed, however, until 1292. Meantime, — between 1263 
and 12G8 — John Balliol, father of the Scottish king of that 
name, provided similar exhibitions for poor scholars ; and 
his wife, Devorguilla, carried his pious intentions still 

1887.] Report of the Council. 285 

farther by collecting the recipients of his bounty into one 
building ("Balliol College"), increasing the foundation to 
the support of sixteen exhibitioners, with an annual allow- 
ance of twenty-seven marks to each, and by issuing statutes 
for its government in 1282. These two pioneer colleges 
were naturally crude in their inception. But Merton Col- 
lege, established in 1274, was full-fledged at its birth, and 
endowed by its founder with a body of statutes which con- 
tinued in force until 1856, and are pronounced by Dr. 
Brodrick l to be "a marvellous repertory of minute and 
elaborate provisions governing every detail of college life." 
Walter de Merton aimed to educate youth, not for the 
church alone, but for the other walks of life ; he ordered 
that they should study the liberal arts and philosophy 
before taking up theology, — a radical deviation from the 
custom which had previously been in vogue. 2 As Merton 

1 A History of the University of Oxford : by the Hon. G. C. Brodrick, D.C.L., 
Warden of Merton College. London: Longman, West & Co. New York: 
Anson D. F. Randolph & Co. 1887. S 

- The following are given as examples of the foundations which were made 
from time to time in the early history of the universities :— 

By his will dated June 21, 1709, William Works, late of Cambridge, devised 
(subject to eertaiu annuities and also to a preceding estate for life, all of which 
have since determined;, Ins manors, messuages, lands, tenements, and heredita- 
ments in Landbeach, county of Cambridge, to Dr. Roderick, then provost of 
King's College, Dr. Bentley, master of Trinity, Dr. James, master of Queen's, 
Dr. Covell, master of Christ's, and Sir John Ellis, master of Gonville and 
Caius, and to their heirs and assigns; and he also bequeathed the same gentle- 
men the sum of £3,000 upon the following ultimate trusts: that so long as the 
charity schools then largely set up in Cambridge, chiefly by the care of the 
pious and learned Mr. Whiston, should endure and be kept up in any reputa- 
tion, his said trustees should, in the first place, pay £30 a year to their use; 
and should, in the next place, accumulate out of the annual income a sum of 
£1,500, to be applied in raising galleries in Great St. Mary's Church in Cam- 
bridge, for the use of the bachelors of arts and undergraduates; and, subject 
thereto, should also accumulate out of the same income a further sum of £1,500 
to be applied in making a calcey or causeway from Immanuel College to 
llogmagog alias Gogmagog Hills; and he desired that £40 a year should be 
laid aside for the maintenance and repairs of the said road, and of the said 
galleries in St. Mary's Church; and, so soon as the galleries and causeway 
should be finished, there should be allowed annual pensions of £100 a year each 
to two young bachelors of arts, who should be sent into foreign countries soon 
after they had taken that degree, and should continue there for three years, 
but be obliged to take different roads; that they should each of them be obliged 

286 v American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

College led the way in a new system of conduct and 
government, so New College, — the seventh of the series, 
following Exeter, Oriel and Queen's, — founded by William 
of Wykeham, in 1379, set the example of grandeur and 
regularity in architecture. And its erection marked an 
epoch, in other respects, in the history of Oxford. The 
loose state of discipline which had prevailed in the earlier 
days, had attracted thither, not only the devotees of Minerva 
but also the disciples of Mercury and herds of the lowest 
orders of men. The site bought by Wykeham for his 
college had been "found by a jury to be infected by male- 
factors, murderers and thieves, as well as the scene of 

to write once a month a letter in Latin to the Vice Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity, who should communicate them to the Regent House, and have them fairly 
written, to be lodged in the Publie Library. In those letters they should give 
an aecount of the religion, learning, laws, polities, eustoms, manners and rari- 
ties, natural and artificial, which they should find worth observing in the 
countries through which they passed. That they should be chosen out of two 
different colleges, eaeh of which should present two young gentlemen to the 
congregation, which should choose one out of eaeh of the two colleges, and that 
the rest of the colleges should take it by turns to present in the same manner, 
in the order as they did for the ehoiee of proctor, as often as there should be a 
vacaney. And his will was that their pensions should be continued for three 
years. That the master of every college should present, and at the presentation 
of them should be obliged to take the following oath, which should be read to 
him by the senior proctor in the .Regent House before the University at a 
eongregation : ' Dabis Jidem alma: matri academiw, quod tu probe novet'is 
religionem, mores et doctrinam juveiium quos modo presentiisti, et eos mine 
dig aos estimes, quod foras emittat alma mater. Sic te Deus adjucet "; and the 
testator further desired that the residue and surplus of what he gave to the 
said four doctors and Sir John Ellis should, after all these things were per- 
formed, and all reasonable expenses allowed for the management of all matters 
relating to his will, be applied to the use of the University library. 

Uy a Statute of the University of Cambridge, confirmed by order of the 
Queen in Council, April 10, 18(51, it was enacted us follows:— The annual pen- 
sions charged by Mr. Worts upon his estate of LlflO a year eaeh to two young 
baehelors of arts, to be sent into foreign countries, and to continue therefor 
the space of three years, shall cease to be so applied, and shall constitute; a fund, 
from which the University may make grants from time to time, by grace of the 
Senate, at its discretion, for the promotion or encouragement of investigation 
in foreign countries respecting the religion, learning, law, politics, customs, 
manners, rarities, natural or artificial, of those countries, or for purposes of 
geographical discovery, or of antiquarian or scientific research in foreign 
countries; the conditions as to publishing the result of such investigations to 
be determined in every case when any grant is made. 

Sarah, Duchess Dowager of Somerset, gave various messuages and lands in 

1887.] Report of the Council. 287 

other public nuisances." 1 The cleansing of such a plague 
spot was certainly an important step forward in the history 
of Oxford. The University was now beginning to assert a 
necessary authority in police matters, but jealousy on the 
part of the city magistrates led to frequent .conflicts, some 
of them of a serious and bloody nature. Matters reached a 
climax on St. Scholastica's day in 1354, when a light took 
place in which the townsmen, reinforced by the peasantry 
from the surrounding country, were victorious, — scalping, 
killing and wounding the students and their officers. For 
this the city was put under the ban of the church by the 
Bishop of Lincoln, and so remained for three years, when 
the city made submission, and a compact was signed, bind- 
ing the mayor, bailiffs and sixty of the leading citizens to 
attend mass in St. Mary's church every year on St. Scho- 
lastica's day. This compact was kept for nearly 500 years ; 

the parish of Soer in the county of Buckingham, for the benefit of four 
seholars, to be called Somerset Scholars, and to be chosen within forty days 
after every vacancy from the free school of Manchester, with preference to the 
natives of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Herefordshire; or if none from the said 
school otter themselves the vacancy to he filled with any native of the three 
counties. They are to receive each 5s. a week for seven full years from their 
admission (except during their absence contrary to the statutes, and except 
they be promoted to a fellowship in this or any other college, or be expelled), 
and are to have one chamber found them by the College, with four studies, or 
else four distinct chambers. They are required to wear cloth gowns with open 
sleeves, like the student? of Christ Church, and square caps, but without tassels 
while they are undergiaduates. At their admission they are to receive from 
the College a new gown and cap, and a new gown and cap at the beginning of 
the third year, and again at the beginning of the fifth year; and are to deposit 
no caution, but if they do not pay their battels within a fortnight after they 
are due, their names are to be crossed, and their allowance stopped, till all 
arrears are paid. The Bishop of Lincoln is appointed their visitor, and 
specially requested by the Duchess to visit once in three years. She appoints a 
commemoration on the day of the foundation; and a Latin speech on that day 
to be made by one of the Somerset scholars (who are to take it in succession), 
to commemorate their benefactress. At this time 40s. is to be distributed to 
the principal fellows and scholars present at prayers; of which the principal 
is to have a double share. 

The allowances for caps, gowns, chambers, and studies have not been made 
for some years, but'a reduction of tuition fees amounting to £8 a year for 
three years has been allowed to all the scholars on this foundation, but will be 
discontinued to those receiving augmented stipends. 

iBrodrick: p. 33. 

288 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

for although the citizens took advantage of the abolition of 
masses in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and staid away 
from the church, a royal edict issued to compel their attend- 
ance, a litany being substituted for the mass ; and it was 
not until 1825 that they were released by the University. 
Tt is now less than thirty years since the city was freed 
from another token of dependence which had prevailed for 
more than six centuries: in 1248 King Henry III. issued 
letters patent requiring the mayor and bailiifs on taking 
office, to swear that they would "keep the liberties and 
customs of the University," — a practice which prevailed 
until it was surrendered by the University in 1859. 

We have seen that in most of the Acts upon the subject 
of mortmain, and in those regulating the charities of the 
Kingdom, the two leading Universities were exempt from 
the eifects of the legislation. But in the progress of reform 
in other directions the time could not fail to come when 
these institutions also must be brought within the scope of 
Parliamentary action. | 

The Universities had been governed under statutes passed 
for the most part as early as the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
modified indeed by somewhat liberal interpretations ; and 
the colleges also were under statutes of the pre-reformation 
period, modified, as far as concerned the worship in the 
chapels, bv the laws of the land. The effect of this was, 
that nothing could be introduced into the Senate of the 
Universities, by way of suggested improvement, if any one 
member of the " Caput Senatus " objected ; which practi- 
cally gave the Vicc-Chancellor a veto upon any measure 
proposed by any member of the University; and, again, in 
almost every college, the Master had the same power of ' 
veto in his own domain. No student could be admitted to . 
the lower degrees without a declaration that he was a mem- 
ber of the Church of England, nor to a higher degree with- 
out subscribing to a declaration of faith similar to that which 
clergymen subscribe on being admitted to holy orders in 

1887.] Report of the Council. 289 

that church. The Heads of Houses were allowed to marry ; 
but every Fellow of a College vacated his Fellowship on 
marrying, and most of the Fellowships were limited to a. 
given number of years, if the holders did not enter into 
" priest's orders." And from the great changes in the 
value of money, many difficulties of a financial nature had 

Prince Albert, the Prince-Consort, was for several years 
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, and to him, in 
1849, Lord John Russell, as Prime Minister, addressed a 
letter, informing him that Her Majesty's government had 
resolved to issue a Commission of enquiry. The results of 
this commission were published about 1853, and were 
followed by an Act of Parliament in 1856, appointing a 
Commission with power to authorize new statutes for the 
University and Colleges. [Similar action was taken in 
reference to Oxford in 1854.] The act abolished the power 
of the Caput Senatus, and constituted a new body called 
the Council of the Senate, consisting of the Vice-Chancellor j 
four heads of houses, four professors and eight members of 
the Senate. This Council was to prepare new statutes for 
the University, and each College was permitted to prepare 
new statutes for its own government. These statutes might 
be modified by the Commission, but if, after such modifica- 
tion, they were approved by the Attorney-General and were 
not objected to by Parliament, they became law. The Act 
also dechuod that all degrees, except those in divinity, 
might be taken without any declaration of faith, or any sub- 
scription, and that all scholarships should be tenable in the 
same Avay. New statutes were framed in accordance with 
the Act. Some of the Colleges allowed their Fellows to 
marry ; but all still required their Fellows to avow them- 
selves members of the established church. All restrictions 
as to place of birth were removed, and greater freedom in 
financial matters was granted the Colleges. Resident grad- 
uates were allowed to receive into their houses a certain 

290 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

number of students who were not members of any college, 
and in 1869 a Board was formed for the regulation of such 
students. In 1871 an important change was effected by 
Parliament, laying open every lay academical degree and 
otlice, and every lay collegiate office, without requiring any 
subscription to any declaration of belief. But the restric- 
tions binding clerical offices were not altered. Such heads 
of houses, &c, as had been required to be clergymen, must 
be clergymen still. 

The Act of 1856 had undertaken to render available for 
the purposes of the Universities some portion of the greater 
wealth of the Colleges. But the difficulties of carrying any 
definite plan for this purpose into effect, proved so great, 
that this provision lay practically in abeyance. A discus- 
sion of this matter and of the general subject in Parliament, 
led to the appointment, in 1872, of a Royal Commission of 
six persons, with the Duke of Cleveland at the head, to 
enquire into the property and income of the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, and the colleges and halls therein, 
with the prospects of increase or decrease in such property 
and income, and to report the uses to which such property 
and income were applied. A " royal" instead of a " Par- 
liamentary" commission was preferred for what may be 
considered strategic reasons. The great dignitaries of the 
Universities would chivalrously give information to their 
sovereign queen which, like Sir John Falstafi', they could 
not be xiiade to give "upon compulsion." The work of 
the commission was done in the most thorough and search- 
ing manner, and would serve as a model for an official 
enquiry into the status of any corporation in the world. 
The report and returns fill three large quarto volumes, 
which were completed July 31, 1874, and issued from the 
press a few months later. The heads of all the various 
institutions, with one exception, 1 made cheerful response. 

iThe Rev. Dr. Robert Phelps, Muster of Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge, 
declined to make answer to the enquiries of the Commission, but, when pressed, 

1887.] Report of the Council. 291 

The reports are given in the* minutest detail, and are full of 
useful and curious information which cannot even be sum- 
marized here. 

The external income of an American college would 
probably be classed under two heads : rents from real estate 
and income from stocks and bonds. The Royal Commis- 
sion arranged the property of the universities and colleges 
under six heads, viz. : Lands ; House Property ; Tithe- 
llentcharges ; other Rentchargcs, such as fee-farm rents 
and fixed charges ; Stocks, shares and other securities of a 
similar kind ; and Other Properties, such as fines and other 
profits from copyholds of inheritance, minerals, timber, 
&c. The whole of the landed estates comprised 319,718 

referred them to a letter which he hud addressed to the two gentlemen who 
represented the University in Parliament, and which had been printed in pam- 
phlet form, with the title : " College Endowments and the Philosophers." The 
letter was called out by a report in the "Times" newspaper of Nov. 23, 1»72, 
of a meeting of " distinguished savans," which had been held a week previously 
at the Freemasons' Tavern in London. The Times's report shows that thil 
meeting included representatives (though not delegates) of the Universities; 
and other gentlemen who were; encouraged and stimulated by the initiative of 
Mr. Gladstone in appointing the Commission. The company included such 
men as the Kev. Mark Pattison, rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, Sir Benjamin 
Brodie, Mr. C. T. Newte, Keeper of Greek and Roman antiquities in the British 
Museum, Profs. ltolleston, Huxley and Seeley. The company were in full 
harmony with the spirit of a resolution which had been adopted at a previous 
meeting, declaring that the chief end to be kept in view in any re-distribution 
of the revenues of Oxford or Cambridge, was the adequate maintenance of 
mature study and scientific research, as well for their own sakes as with the 
view of bringing the highest education within the reach of all who were desir- 
ous to profit by it. It was urged that the existing system of education tended 
to make machine }, and failed to encourage that original research which was 
the great thing to be desired ; and that the Universities ought not only to diffuse 
knowledge and information, but should absolutely promote knowledge and 
investigation. Dr. Phelps took the ground, in his pamphlet, that scientific edu- 
cation was for the few, and for specialists, and not for the many, for whom 
the existing system of education and association constituted the best train- 
ing to develop " that frank and manly character and that sound common 
sense" which have distinguished the Englishman "above the men of all other 
countries in the world." lie gave a full statement of the property and income 
of the College and the application of its revenues, and recorded his solemn pro- 
test "against the national dishonesty of diverting endowments such as those of 
the Colleges from the objects and from the channels of application designed for 
them by their founders." 

292 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

acres, of which 7,683 acres belonged to the University of 
Oxford, and 184,764 to its colleges and halls; to the 
University of Cambridge 2,445 acres, and 124,826 to its 
colleges and halls. Some of these lands were let on bene- 
ticial leases, some on copyhold and leasehold for lives ; and 
the remainder and greater part at rack-rent, which is now in 
England about the same thin"' as the common form of rent 
in this country. The system of beneficial leases, which has 
been very common for centuries in England, is almost 
unknown here. Under this system only a very small part 
of the rent value is paid as yearly rent, the remainder being 
paid as a tine on renewal of the lease. The colleges were 
restrained by their own statutes, or by law, from granting 
longer leases than three lives, or 21 years, in the case of 
land, and for forty years in the case of house property ; 
but a practice arose of adding another life at the end of 
seven years in the first case, and adding 14 years at the 
expiration of each term of 14 years in the second case, the 
lessee paying a handsome fine or premium for the privilege 
thus granted. But under permissive and semi-mandatory 
Acts of Parliament the colleges have of late years been 
converting most of their leases into rack-rents, and so 
coining into fuller possession of their estates than they 
previously enjoyed. 

The returns showed that of the great amount of prop- 
erty held in trust, there was a part, but only a very small 
part, of which the beneficial interest was wholly external 
to the corporation holding the trust. 

The total income of the universities and colleges in the 
year 1871 was £754,405, 56*. lid. ; of which sum £665,- 
601, 10s. 2id. was for corporate use and the remainder 
subject to conditions of trust, mostly in connection with the 
corporations. Of this total nearly 82 per cent, was from 
external revenue, and the remainder from room rents, 
students' fees, and profits of the " buttery" and kitchen 

1887.] Report of the Council. 293 

The external income from corporate property, for 1871, 
was derived from the following sources : — 



Colleyes dc. 

Colleges dc. 





£ s. d. 

£ s, d. 

£ a. d. 

£ a. d. 


12,083 4 

3,148 10 8 

170,000 11 7£ 



1,102 H 2 

150 10 

2G,833 3 

25,003 8 2 


400 10 7 

1,784 14 5 

34,152 15 8 

54,286 1 1 

Other rents, 

872 G 

333 18 6 

4,002 14 10 

3,043 2 2 

Stocks, &c., 



24,242 7 10£ 

16,508 7 5 

Other prope 


1,404 10 2 

844 10 2 

13,574 14 3 

20,305 8 &h 

Endowment of Master, 

6,280 6 

l,7i' t 10 


27,104 G 2 

20,043 3 13,017 8 307,300 17 2 255,531 17 10£ 

The heads of the nineteen colleges at Oxford were paid, 
in 1871, £30,543, 12s. 4c/. ; those of the seventeen col- 
leges at Cambridge, £20,415, 6.s\ lid. These amounts 
were for the most part paid out of the proper corporate 
funds of the colleges, but in some cases there are special 
additions of ecclesiastical preferments, and there are some 
specific benefactions from trust funds. In the same year, 
was paid at Oxford, £101,171, 4s. bd. to the Fellows,' 
£2G,225, 12s. to Scholars and "Exhibitioners," and 
£6,094, 10s. lOd. to Professors. At Cambridge, £102,- 
976', lis. 2d. to Fellows, £24,308, 13s. to Scholars and 
Exhibitioners, and £1,011, lis. Sd. to Professors. The 
percentage paid for the management of estates at Oxford 
was about 2.9, at Cambridge about 2.7. 

At Oxford the licensed victuallers within the precincts 
of the University pay a tax to the University authorities of 
about £200 annually for the privilege of selling wine. The 
Clarendon Press paid a profit in 1871 of £1,073. The 
University Press at Cambridge shows an annual profit of 
some £1,300, but part of this is rather an income from 
trust funds than from the business itself. 

The gross receipts, from both external and internal 
income, of the University of Oxford, for the year 1885, 
were £62,106; payments, £60,499; its twenty colleges 
have a gross income of £436,662. At Cambridge the 

294 American Antiquarian Society. -[April, 

gross receipts of the University were £34,998 ; payments, 
£38,720; and the gross income of its seventeen colleges, 
£309,103. The undergraduates at Oxford, in 1885, num- 
bered 3,090; at Cambridge, 2,894. 

The learned and able commission of 1872, as may be 
seen, executed their work in the most thorough manner. 
But when they had made their report their functions ceased. 
Parliament, however, was now keenly alive to the import- 
ance of further reforms. The views of the "philosophers" 
who had held their meetings at the Freemasons' Tavern, 
were coming to be accepted even by the conservative party, 
w r hich came into power in 1874, and the idea of diverting a 
part of the college revenues to the universities for the pro- 
motion of scientific learning and research made rapid head- 
way. The Marquis of Salisbury, as Chancellor of Oxford 
and a leading member of the Cabinet, introduced a bill in 
Parliament, which was passed in 1877, instituting an execu- 
tive commission which, in cooperation with the colleges 
themselves, should frame new sets of statutes. ?Both 
universities and their colleges are now working under these 
new statutes, adopted and approved by the Queen some 
five years ago. The tenure of fellowships is limited, and 
all reference to the marriage of Fellows has disappeared. 
No preference of any kind is given to clergymen ; but the 
service of the English church is still maintained in the 
college chapels. The colleges are compelled to pay a large 
and increasing amount to the universities, to enable the 
latter to maintain a larger staff of university professors and 
teachers, and to provide new buildings, laboratories and 
lecture rooms. The teaching of the university is committed 
to one loard, and the charge of the finances to another. 1 

iThe Rev. Dr. C. A. Swaitiaott, Master of Christ College, Cambridge, in a 
most eourteous eommunicatiou to the writer, says that as a result of the reeent 
re-organization of the university, "an immense impetus has been given to 
work; and by a system of loeal examinations, eondueted by a University 
Board, and by loeal leetures delivered in many of the large eentres of popula- 
tion and business in England, also by University men, the influence of Cam- 
bridge was never so great as now." 

1887.] Report of the Council 295 

When we turn from the Universities to the Schools in 
which the youth receive their preliminary training, we find 
that here, too, pious and wealthy men and women have 
been lavish of their wealth. We find a number of acade- 
mies around which still lingers the odor of the middle ages, 
and which, in their foundation, their system and their pre- 
vailing customs, are without a parallel elsewhere. They 
occupy, in popular estimation, a higher plane than do the 
training-schools of this country ; they seem to be coordi- 
nate with the universities rather than subordinate ; the 
youth pass from the school to the college as naturally as 
from one "form" to another in the school, continuing the 
semi-monastic life with which they have become familiar, 
rather than entering upon a way of living that is altogether 
new. That these schools are aristocratic in their character, 
is claimed by their admirers as their highest virtue. Says 
their chief eulogist 1 : — 

"In many respects they are undoubtedly defective. 

Another gentleman, writing' from Cambridge, in a letter not intended for 
publieation, says: — "The Commissioners of 1877 only finished their labors in 
1882, and the result lias yet to be seen. I think most people regard that Com- 
mission as premature. ***** The revenues of the eolleges, being 
dependent on the rents of land, have sorely diminished in the last four years. 
The Commission eounted on their normal inerease,and has left us with a grand 
scheme which we have no money to exeeute." 

Dr. lirodriek, speaking for Oxford, in the volume before cited, says:—" It is 
loo soon to pronounce judgment on the effect of these reforms, some of which 
have not yet come into full operation." And, speaking of some existing 
" anomalies whieh have been left to adjust themselves by successive eommis- 
sions and successive groups of university legislators," he adds:— " They have 
not proved inconsistent with a vigorous internal life; but while they exist and 
continue to be multiplied, the University cannot be said to have attained a state 
of stable equilibrium, nor can a poetieal unity be imparted to an historical 
narrative of recent university reforms." He is no pessimist, however, for he 
says, further:— " In ceasing to be the intellectual stronghold of the mediaeval 
church, or the instrument of Tudor statecraft, or the chosen training-school 
of the Anglican clergy, it may have lost something of its ancient supremaey, 
but it has asserted its national character; and it has perhaps never exercised a 
more widespread control over the national mind than it possesses in these 
latter years of ihe nineteenth century." 

i Howard Staunton: "The Great Sehools of England," London, 18<>9; from 
which work much of the information in this paper regarding the endowed 
schools has been obtained. 

296 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

They neither furnish the best moral training, nor the best 
mental discipline, nor the most salutary and substantial 
mental enrichment ; they do not form the most accomplished 
scholars, or the most heroic, exalted and disinterested 
men ; but they are the theatres of athletic manners, and 
the training-places of a gallant, generous spirit for the 
English gentleman. * * * The aspiration of the Eng- 
lish aristocracy is to be, not the best educated, but for 
practical purposes the most cultivated. This class, how- 
ever, does not exist for its own sake ; * * * it exists 
that it may be the national ornament and bulwark ; it 
exists that it may crown that social hierarchy which should 
symbolize the hierarchy of nature." 

The theory that the leaders of society should not be the 
best educated men in the community, is not yet accepted 
in America, where the highest education is often the 
chiefest crown of the most lofty social position. 

Of the leading schools of England there are ten which 
stand out with such prominence, from their history, their 
size and from the great body of famous men who have been 
taught within their walls, that they have come to be 
grouped and to be named together in the mouths of men. 
They are: Eton, Winchester, Westminster, St. Paul's, 
Merchant Taylors', Charterhouse, Harrow, Rugby, Shrews- 
bury and Christ's-Hospital. 

Many of the youth who attend these schools begin and 
finish their education there, and ever retain the warmest 
attachments for the old institutions. Charles Lamb has 
given us in his " Recollections of Christ's Hospital," where 
he was for eight years a pupil, a graphic picture of the 
every -day life of the school in his time. Thackeray, 
who was a " Cistercian" at Charterhouse, reverts fondly 
to the place at intervals in his writings. He places 
Pendennis and Philip at "Grey Friars" (Christ's Hospi- 
tal) ; but it is to Charterhouse that he makes the dazzling 
Lord Steyne send little Rawdon Crawley ; and in the 
seventy-fifth chapter of "The Newcomes" he eloquently 
describes an observance of "Foundation Day," and the 

1887.] Report of the Council. 297 

discovery among the black-coated pensioners, of that fine 
old gentleman, Col. Thomas Xewcome. It is said that 
most of the visitors of the present day, after wandering 
through the "many old halls, old staircases, old passages, 
old chambers decorated with old portrait.-, walking in the 
midst of which we walk, as it were, in the early seventeenth 
century," — that these visitors ask the guide, not to show 
them where this retired soldier or that faded lord was 
quartered, but to point out the rooms of Col. Xewcome ; 
and the guide, true to the instincts of his race, shows, in 
Wash-house court, — the last remnant of the monastery, — 
the windows of the room where on a certain evening, "just 
as the last bell struck, a peculiar sweet smile shone over 
his [the Colonel's] face, and he lifted up his head a little, 
and quickly said i Adsum. f: and fell back." 

Of these ten great schools Winchester is the eldest, 
though not the most widely celebrated. Its founder, 
William of Wykeham, by establishing a lesser college at 
Winchester, the ancient capital of England, and a largef 
one as an adjunct to the University at Oxford, aimed to 
give a goodly number of youth, paupere* -scholarex, the full 
benefit of a classical education. Wykeham himself did not 
enjoy a full education, but became first a surveyor and 
architect, by his merits and success gaining the favor of his 
King (Edward III.), who loaded him with honors, civil 
and ecclesiastical. He afterwards became Archbishop of 
Winchester and Lord Chancellor. The foundation stone 
of his " Seinte Marie College of Wynchestre in Oxford," 
generally known as "New College," was laid in 1380; that 
of the college or school at Winchester in 1387. The 
original foundation was for a warden, two masters, ten 
fellows, three chaplains, three clerks, seventy scholars and 
sixteen choristers. This number of seventy ' scholars was 

1 Cunon Liale Bowes 1. 11 a .-tory of a great-uucle who like himself w | l 
•• Wykehamist" or graduate of Winched.-. Dining every Sunday with his 
uncle while at the school, young Bo\\e> was always treated to a gBM of wine 
and a shilling, while ! ja uncle offered the toa^t to whi. h they both drunk:— 
u To the time score and ten ! 
May God make them happy men ! ■ 

298 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

maintained until about thirty years ago, when it was 
increased to 100 j and there are now a large number of 
11 commoners" who pay for their board and tuition, not 
being "on the foundation." 1 In addition to the original 
foundation by Wykeham, the school was farther enriched 
by Henry V. at the dissolution of the alien priories, and 
has had other gifts from time to time, so that its annual 

!"By the ancient statutes," says Staunton, ''a scholar was allowed Sd. a 
week for commons and was supplied with a piece of cloth sullieient to make a 
long gown and hood, to he woru for the first year only on Sundays and holi- 
days. The scholars were to sleep in the rooms on the ground lloor, beneath 
the chambers occupied by the Fellows. Until the sixteenth century they slept 
on bundles of straw, in chambers without flooring. The luxuries of bedsteads 
and flooring were the provision of Dean Fishmonger, a Wykehamist, whose 
memory is still cherished with gratitude at Winchester. In the early part of 
the seventeenth century a scholar paid on his entrance, among other things, 
for his bedding, viz. : — 

30 lbs. of flocks (for the bed), 15s. Od. 

A coverlid, 10s. Od. 

A pair of blankets, lis. Od. 

3 yards of tick for bolster, 4s. Od. 

Making the bed, bolster, and blankets, Is. 2d. 

lie paid for his surplice, £1, Os., 5d.; for his ' scob,' or box, to hold his'Jbooks, 
3s., Gd. ; to his predecessor for glass windows, Is.; and for learning to write, 
14s. The condition of the scholars has been much ameliorated since those 
times. A scholar, accordiug to the evidence given before the Public School 
Commissioners, is now well boarded, lodged and educated without any expense 
to his parents beyond the payment of 30s. a year to the French Master (with an 
additional two guineas per annum if he learn German), and, if he is not a 
prefect, a further payment of two guineas to his ' Boy Tutor.' The statutes 
of Winchester, like those of Eton, stringently prohibit the Master and Usher 
from 'exacting, asking or claiming' any payment for instruction from their 
scholars, their parents, or their friends. It nevertheless became the practice 
at Winchester to insert a charge of £10 in the bills of each scholar for ' masters' 
gratuities,' with the words ' if allowed ' parenthetically added against the item 
out of respect to the statutory prohibition. This charge was in part found 
necessary to eke out the scanty pittances which the College paid to the two 
statutory Masters, and it w r as seldom objected to until, in the mastership of Dr. 
Goddard, an appeal was made against it to the Visitor. The Visitor decided 
that it was saved by the words in parentheses from being an actual charge, and 
was not therefore illegal. Dr. Goddard, who was Head Master from 1703 to 
1810, received this money during his tenure of ollice, but he felt that, if not 
illegal, the item was morally questionable, and after his retirement he made a 
voluntary gift to the College of £25,000 stock, the interest to pay the dividends 
to the Head and Second Masters for the time being. The former now receives 
from this source annually £450, and the latter £300. From that time no charge 
has been made for the instruction of the scholars except in the case of modern 

1887.] Report of the Council 299 

income from its endowments exceeds £15,000, while it 
holds on special trusts for exhibitioners, &c, the sum of 
£60,000, with land producing a net income of over £200. 

There were originally seventy fellowships at New Col- 
lege, to which scholars graduating from Winchester were 
alone eligible. There are now thirty fellowships and thirty 
scholarships, the latter tenable for five years. There are 
also twenty exhibitions of the value of £50 each, held by 
the tenants during their stay at Winchester, with other 
scholarships and prizes of lesser value and importance. 
The average annual expense to the Wykehamist is £30 for 
a foundation scholar and £115 to a commoner. 

The other great schools of England differ from Winches- 
ter in some matters of detail which it is not necessary to 
follow closely here. Eton College, just opposite to Wind- 
sor on the Thames, was founded by Henry VI. in 1440, and 
christened " Blessed Marie of Etonne beside Wyndesorc." 
It was opened for study three years later, and the same 
monarch established King's College at Cambridge, which j 
should stand in the same relation to Eton that New College 
held toward Winchester. 

St. Paul's School in London, one of the first really "free" 
schools in England, was founded by a former dean of the 
cathedral of St. Paul's, who in the " prologus" to his stat- 
utes for the government of his charitable enterprise, sets 
forth that "John Collett 1 the sonne of Henry Collett, Dean 
of Paules, desiring nothyng more thanne education and 
bringing up of children in good manners and literature, in 
the yero of our Lorde one thousand fyve hundredth and 
twelfe, bylded a schole in the estende of Paule's Church, of 
one hundred and fifty-three, 2 to be taught free in the same, 
and ordeyned there a Maister, and a Surmaister, and a 

iDr. John Colet was the eldest of twenty-two children, eleven sons and 
eleven daughters, and he alone remained to inherit the family estates. He was 
born in London in the year 1100. The mother of this large family survived 
them all.— Staunton. 

2 Referring, perhaps, to John XXI., 11. 

300 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Chappelyn, with a sufficient and perpetual Stipendes ever 
to endure, and sett Patrones and defenders, Govcrnour.. 
and Rules of that Same Schole, the more honest and faith- 
full Fellowshipps of 'The Mercers of London.'" ■ He calls 
it a "Grammar Scole, founded in the Honour of Christe 
Jesu in Pueritia, and of his Blessed Modir Marie." He 
provides for a "Hyghe Maister, * * * a man hoole 
in body, honest and vertuous, and learned in good and 
clcane Laten literature, and also in Greke, yf such may be 
gotten; a Wedded man, a Single man, or a Preste that 
hath no benefice with cure, benefice that may lett [i. e., 
conflict with] the due besinesse in the Schole." He pro- 
vides also for a " Surmaister," and a " Chappelya that 
dayly as he can be disposed, shall singe Masse in the 
Chappell of the Scole and pray for the Children to prosper 
in good life and in good literature, to the Honour of God 
and our Lord Christ Jesu. He shall teache the children 
the Catechyson and Instruction of the Articles of the Faythe 
and the Ten Commandments in Inglishe." As fifcr the 
matter of Instruction he provides that "there shall be 
taught in the Scole Children of all Nations and Contres 
indifferently to the number of One Hundred and Fifty- 
three, according to the number of the Seates in the Scole. 
* * A Childe at the first admission, once for ever, shall 
paye 4d. for wrytinge of his name ; this money of the 
admission shall the poor Scoler have that sweepeth the 
Scole and keepeth the Seates cleane." "In the Scole, in 
no tyme in the yere, they shall use talough candell in no 
wise, but allonly waxe candell, at the costes of theyr 
frendes." "In general Processions, when they may be 
warned, they shall go twayne and twayne together soberly e ; 

i " Over the rents and the entire administration of this school," says Krasmus, 
"he appointed u trustees, not the clergy, not a bishop, not a chapter as it is 
called, not dignitaries, but married citizens of established reputation. To one 
who asked the reason of this he said, that although there is no certain depend- 
ence on anything human, he had found less corruption in this kiud of men 
than in any other." 

1887.] Report of the Council. 301 

and not singe out, but say devoutlye tweyne and tweyne 
seven Psalmes with the Letanye." "Yf any childe after 
he is receyved and admitted into the scole, go to any other 
Scole to learne there after the manner of that Scole, then I 
Avill that suche childe for no man's suit shall be hereafter 
received into our Scole, but go where him lyste, where his 
frendes shall thincke shall be better learninge. And this I 
will be shewed unto his frendes, or other that offer him at 
his first presenting into the Scole." 

44 As touching in this Scole what shall be taught of the 
Maisters, and learned of the Scolers, it passeth my witte to 
devyse and determine in particular, but in general to speak 
and sumewhat to saye my mynde, I would they were 
taught always in good literature bothe Laten and Greke, 
and good autors such as have the verye 'Romayne' 
eloquence joyned with wisdom, specially Christen autors, 
that wrote their wisdome with clean and chaste Laten, 
other in verse or in prose, for my intent by this Scole 
specially to encrease knowledge and worshippinge of Godj 
and Our Lord Christ Jesu, and good Christen life and 
manners in the children." 

Dean Collett provided that any surplus income should be 
kept in " a coffer of irun" ; but it is now better employed, 
either in exhibitions to poor scholars going from the school 
to the universities, or lent to poor young men of the 
Mercer's company, on good security. The property held 
for the support of the school consists of houses, lands, 
rents, consols and fines upon copyhold. The annual income 
exceeds £12,000. Instead of the original stall' there are 
now seven masters, whose salaries range from £900 for the 
high master to £100 for the assistant master of French. 
The high master has also the rents of two houses, a resi- 
dence for himself with rates, taxes and repairs free, and a 
master's gown every year. The three classical masters 
have the same perquisites, except the extra rents. At 
many of the endowed schools there are a large number of 

302 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

pupils called ''commoners," " oppidans" and the like, in 
addition to those who are on the foundation. Many of the 
latter also pay in part for their board and tuition. But at 
St. Paul's every boy is a foundationer, and pays nothing for 
his education. As at many of the other schools, class pro- 
motion at St. Paul's depends upon classical attainments 
alone, and is not affected by proficiency or deficiency in 
other branches of study. Of the "exhibitions" annually 
disposable there are one of £120 and one or more of £50 
tenable at any college in Oxford or Cambridge, one of 
£100 and one of £80 tenable at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; one of £38 tenable for seven years at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, and several smaller ones at 
from £1 to £13 per annum. It is claimed for St. Paul's 
that few free schools have educated more men who figure 
prominently in English history ; and Lord John Russell 
declared that, "But for St. Paul's School Milton's harp 
would have been mute and inglorious, and Marlborough's 
sword might have rested in the scabbard." The brilliant 
young British officer who expiated on the banks of the 
Hudson the crime of his connection with the treachery of 
Arnold, was educated at St. Paul's. 

The school at Rugby recalls to scholars, everywhere, the 
name of Dr. Thomas Arnold, just as Arnold's name brings 
up visions of the school, with the great work which he 
accomplished there in the fourteen years of his master- 
ship. Rugby was founded about the middle of the six- 
teenth century by Lawrence Sheriff of London, as a school 
and almshouse in his native village. For this purpose he 
assigned his property in trust to two of his friends who 
were to cause to be builded "a fay re and convenyent 
schoole house," and near by " foure meete and distincte 
lodgeings for four poore men to bee and abyde in " ; the 
school to be forever called the "Free Schoole of Laurence 
Sheriff of London, grocer," the school-master to have a 
yearly salary of twelve pounds, and the four poor men to 

1887.] Report of the Council 303 

have their lodgings and seven pence each per week. A 
part of the property left for the support of the school con- 
sisted of about eight acres near London, which produced a 
yearly rent of £8 at that time, and upwards of £5,000 at 
present. The court of chancery and Parliament have had 
occasion to act upon the matter of this trust, which is now 
managed by twelve ''Trustees of the Rugby Charity, 
founded by Lawrence Sheriff, Grocer of London." The 
increase in the foundation allows the maintenance of a stall' 
including a head master, thirteen assistant and classical 
masters, four mathematical masters, three masters of mod- 
ern languages, one of natural science, one of writing, two 
of drawing, a librarian, live fellows, twenty exhibitioners, 
a chapel clerk, a verger, and twelve almsmen. The head 
master's stipend of "twelve pounds" has increased to an 
income of over £1,700, with some £800 from the profits of 
boarders, in addition to a handsome residence and a fine 
garden ; and the 7d. per week allotted to the bedesmen has 
become a hundred pence. Of the foundationers, or boys? 
entitled to gratuitous education in part, there are some 
eighty, and of non-foundationers about five times that 

An honest yeoman, one John Lyon of Harrow-upon-the- 
Hill, procured a charter from Queen Elizabeth, three hun- 
dred years ago (1571), for a free grammar school for the 
male youth of the parish, with a proviso that the school- 
master might receive as many "foreigners" (or boys from 
outside the town) as could be accommodated. The "for- 
eigners" have for many years been in the majority, so that 
Harrow is nearly as famous and well patronized as any of 
her sisters nine. 

Of the ten great schools, Eton, Winchester, Harrow and 

Rugby lie within a radius of forty miles from London ; 

Shrewsbury is more distant; and the remaining five, — 

Westminster (founded by Queen Elizabeth), St. Paul's, 


304 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Merchant Taylors', 1 Charter House and Christ's Hospital, — 
were until recently within the limits of the great city. Charter 
House' 2 stood upon the site of a Carthusian monastery, built 
in the fourteenth century, and seized by Henry VIII. in 
1537. In 1611, Thomas Sutton, a wealthy London merchant, 
obtained a license in mortmain from King James, and 
founded the school with a hospital or retreat for old gentle- 
men. Christ's Hospital occupies the site of a famous 
monastery of Grey Friars, and is still frequently called by 

lr riiG foundation of this excellent Grammar School, one of the oldest ami 
best supported nurseries of which London can boast, is due to the wisdom and 
munificence of the ancient " Company of the Marchaunt Taylors," a society 
which has, according to Stow, been a Guild or Fraternity from time immemo- 
rial, by the name of "Taylors and Linen Armourers," and which had their 
fellowship confirmed as far back as the reign of Edward I.; a company which 
displays, moreover, upon its roll ten kings of England, four foreign sovereigns 
and princes, dukes, earls, barons, prelates, and distinguished characters in 
various walks of life innumerable.— Staunton. 

- During the past twenty years marked changes have taken place in the sur- 
roundings of some of the great schools of England. Charterhouse school was 
removed in 1872 from the site in London on which it was founded in Kill, 
to the village of Godalming, some thirty miles south-west from London, in 
" pleasant Surrey." It was especially designed as a boarding-school. White in 
Loudon there were tifty-four boy* on the foundation, about fifty board) n nut »>n 
the foundation, and about thirty day boys,— with the more generous accommo- 
dations furnished by the new site in the country, the number of boys for twelve 
years past has reached the full limit of live hundred. The l< home" for eighty 
old men (pensioners or brothers) continues on the old site in London. They 
still live together in collegiate style, provided with handsome apartments and 
all necessaries except apparel, in lieu of which they receive £25 and a gown 

Merchant Taylors' school, which is entirely a day school, was removed, in 
187a, to the old site of Charterhouse. The Merchant Taylors' Company, desir- 
ing to obtain a more commodious site than their former one, bought that of the 
Charterhouse school, for £90,000, and expended about £50,000 more in buildings 
and plant. Merchant Taylors' is strictly a day school, and supplies the sons of 
the clergy and of professional men with a public school education at the nomi- 
nal cost of twelve guineas a year for the lower, and fifteen guineas for the upper, 
school boys. Since its removal it has doubled its numbers, and now contains 
rather more than live hundred boys from nine to nineteen years of age. It is 
not, technically, an " endowed" .school, but is supported out of the corporate 
funds of the Merchant Taylors' Company, who spend upon it some £")000a year 
above the amount paid by the boys. 

Westminster school continues upon its ancient site, although the same rea- 
sons which carried Charterhouse into the country would apply to Westminster. 
But the Londoners will not let it y;o, and it will doubtless gradually develop 

1887.] Report of the Council. 305 

the latter name. It is also called the "blue coat school," 
from the picturesque garb of the youth attending it. The 
long, blue coat of the scholars reaching to the ankles and 
held by a leather strap at the waist, the yellow stockings, 
and, if in winter, the petticoat of the same color, with the 
head bare at all seasons of the year, frequently attract the 
eye of the passenger in the London streets, presenting a 
charming bit of color in an atmosphere generally so dull. 1 

more and more in the direction of a day school, drawing its patronage from the 
upper classes of London and its neighborhood. 

St. Paul's school was transferred July 2:5, 1884,' to a new Gothic building at 
Hammersmith, built to accommodate one thousand boys — live hundred on the 
classical, and five hundred on the modern side— and costing £120,000, besides 
£40,000 for the site of fourteen acres. 

The school at Shrewsbury, crowded by the growth of the city and hampered 
for want of room, was, after long discussion, removed to a new site in the out- 
skirts, in 1882, exchanging a site of two and one-half acres for one of twenty- 
seven acres. It now lias two hundred and fifty boys, the number of boarders 
having increased from one hundred and twenty at the old site to two hundred 
and four at the present term, and the wisdom of the removal is generally recog- 
nized. The old school-building, which has been judiciously repaired and will 
be carefully preserved, is now used as a museum and public library and read in 

For most of the information contained in this note the writer is indebted to 
the following-named Masters of the schools: Kev. W. Guuion Rutherford, 
M. A., Westminster; Rev. Win. Haig Brown, LL.D., Charterhouse; Kev. Win. 
Baker, D.D., Merchant Taylors'; Kev. IT. Whitehead Moss, Shrewsbury. 

1 The great English schools, like our American colleges, have their own songs 
which are handed down from class to class, and sung at appropriate times. 
That of Winchester had its origin in a mournful incident. Some three centu- 
ries ago, a youth, who was left to pass the long vacation at the school alone, 
bore his solitude for a few weeks, and then, after carving the words " Dulce 
Domum" on the bark of a tree, took to his lonely room and died of a broken 
heart. A Latin hymn, still sung at the school, was written under the inspira- 
tion of this event, beginning:— 

" Concinamus, O sodales! 
Kja! quid silemus? 
Nobile caiiticum, 
Dulce nielos, domuin! 
Domum, domuin, resonemus! 

" Domum, domuin, dulco domum! 
Domuin, domum, dulce domuin 1 
Dulce, dulce, dulce domum! 
Domum, domuin, resonemus!" 


30G American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Besides the famous "Ten" great schools of England 
there are, in that country and Wales, some six hundred 
grammar schools which have received, from time to time, 
greater or less endowments which, modified in many cases 
by the court of chancery or other authority, are still in 
force. Very few of these are absolutely free schools, the 
endowment generally serving only to. lessen, in greater or 
less measure, the cost of instruction. In most of them the 
instructions of the founders require that the master shall be 
one who has taken priest's orders, and many of them reward 
their best scholars with "exhibitions" at one of the great 

The song of Harrow, us will be seen, is of a much more cheerful nature :— 
" Three leagues to north of London towu, 
Harrow up on the Hill, 
There stands a school of high renown, 

Harrow up on the Hill. 
Low at her feet the rolling shire, 
Groves around her in green attire, 
And soaring above her a silent spire, 
Harrow up on the Hill. ] 

" Men of honor in English realms, — 

Harrow up on the Hill,— 
Have roamed as boys beneath her elms, 

Harrow up on the Hill, 
And round the school which loves to claim 
The heirloom of their noble name 
They cast a halo of their fame, 

Harrow up on the Hill. 

" Others may boast of a Founder-King. 
Harrow up on the Hill. 
We have a different birth to sing, 

Harrow up on the Hill. 
Glorious founders have there been, 
IJut never a grander pair were seen 
Thau Yeoman John anjl the Virgin Queen: 

Harrow up on the Hill. 

" And if they ask what made her great, 

Harrow up on the Hill. 
Was it riches, pride, or fate? 

Harrow up on the Hill. 
Say that she rose because she would, 
Because her sons were wise and good, 
And bound in closest brotherhood! 

Harrow up on the Hill." 

1887.] Report of the Council. 307 

In 1449 Archdeacon Sponne founded a college and 
chantry at Towcester, Northampton, for two priests to say 
mass for his soul and the souls of his friends. A hundred 
years later the feoffees of his will bought the chantry, 
college and messuage, and, under the resulting merger, 
established a grammar school for the free instruction of the 
youth of the village. • At Walkeingham, one Robert Wood- 
house, in 1719, founded a free school, but excluded from 
its benefits : (1) those who would keep up the harvest feast 
at Walkeingham; (2) persons opposed to the majority in 
making orders for the good government of the town ; (3) 
such poor persons as beg, or work abroad when there 
should be good work in the town, and are not content with 
common wages. Sir Thomas Boteler in 1526 founded a 
school at Warrington, at which any boy might be taught 

And here is the Eton boating song:— 

Jolly boating weather, 
With a hay-harvest breeze ; 

Blade on the feather, 
Shade off the trees; 

Swing, swing together, 
With our bodies between our knees. 

(Chorus) — Swing, swing together, 

With our bodies between our knees. 

Rugby may be more elever, 
Harrow may make more row, 

But we'll row together 
Steady from stroke to bow, 

And nothing in life shall sever 
The charm that is round us now. 

Others may till our places, 
Drest in the old light blue; 

We'll reeolleet our races, 
We'll to the Hag prove true; 

And youth will be still in our faces 
When we cheer for an Eton crew. 

Twenty years heuee this weather 
Will tempt us from office stools; 

We may be slow on the feather 
And seem to the boys old fools ; 

But we'll still sing together 
And swear by the best of schools. 

308 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

grammar " freely, except a cockpenny 1 and three potation 
pennies in the year." In 1792 Margaret Hodgson founded 
a school for the free tuition of poor boys and girls of 
Aikton and two neighboring parishes, and of "all persons 
of the name of Hodgson, wherever they should come from." 
So children of all families of the name of Pinchbeck, may 
have free instruction at Butterwick school, whose master, 
"if possible," must be named Pinchbeck, as provided by 
the founder, one Anthony Pinchbeck, in 1665. Dr. 
Samuel Johnson endeavored to obtain the place of master 
of the school at Appleby in Leicestershire, declaring that 
"it would make him happy for life, and save him from 
being starved to death in translating for booksellers." At 
Beverley in Yorkshire is a grammar school, founded before 
1500 and enriched by subsequent foundations, among which 
is the bequest of Mrs. M. Farrer who in 1669 left money, 
the interest of which was to be devoted towards the main-. 
tenance at school and college, of "an honest man's son." 
The rector at Church Langton, in 1767, left a {rust to 
provide "schools forever," "organs forever" and " beef 
forever." A school was established at Drigg with a "hut" 
for a master, but the income of the fund is only £1, which 
is not enough to either maintain the school or warm a hut. 

The charity which is inculcated by the teachings of 
Christ has not confined itself to the spread of religion and 
education nor to the relief of poverty. The bodily and 
mental infirmities of men early called forth the sympathy 
of their more fortunate fellows, and the great hospitals of 
London and other parts of England stand as monuments of 

i Cockpenny.—" At Shrovetide the scholars used to muke a present to the mas- 
ter, out of which lie had to procure a cock which he fastened hy a string to a 
post and fixed in a pit for the hoys to pelt with sticks. If a hoy hit the cock it 
hecaine his property ; if no hoy hit it, the master took it for himself. Other 
accounts made the. cockpenny to have been a contribution to the expense of 
providing cocks for a fight."-- Schools Enquiry Commission Jieport : Vol. I, 
p. 113, note. London : 18(kS. 

1887.] Report of the Council. 309 

the piety and charity of their founders. The sturdy, 
healthy Saxons who went forth to the East in the crusades, 
brought back to their native land diseases which had there 
been previously unknown, and about the year 1080 Lafranc, 
archbishop of Canterbury, opened two hospitals, one devoted 
especially to the victims of leprosy, and the other for 
sufferers from other diseases. It is curious to note that the 
word "hospital" was long used by the English to denote a 
retreat for the poor (hospitium) as well as a place for 
medical or surgical treatment. Thus Christ's Hospital, 
founded by Edward VI. in 1553, as a retreat where orphans 
and, in some cases, foundlings 1 might receive an education, 
has ever since been devoted to its original purpose. The 
same monarch established St. Thomas's Hospital for the 
poor by casualty, as the maimed, the sick and the diseased ; 
and Bridewell (at the old palace of that name), for the 
thriftless poor, the victims of idleness or vice. These 
three foundations of Edward, with St. Bartholomew's and 
Bethlehem, have long been classed together as the FivcJ 
Royal Hospitals of the City of London. The last named 
institution was originally a religious house, which, having 
been suppressed by Henry VIII., was, in 1547, converted 
by the city of London into a hospital for the insane, and 
since 1814 has been established in more spacious quarters 
in St. George's Fields. The cockney ized form of Bethle- 
hem, "Bedlam," has long been an accepted and significant 
word in our vocabulary. Bridewell has from the beginning- 
served as a house of correction, or industrial school, and 
this name also has come to have a generic meaning. St. 
Bartholomew's owes its origin to the minstrel Rahere who, 
having fallen ill in Rome when on a pilgrimage, registered 
a vow that if he recovered he would found a hospital for 
the poor in his own country. Accordingly at Smethe-feld, 
now Smithfleld, on land belonging to King Henry I., he 

1 Only " in cases of extreniitye, where loss of lille and pcrishingge would 
presentlye followe, if they be not rcceaved into the said Hospital!." 

310 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

built a hospital and a priory church. The choir of the 
ancient building still stands, exhibiting the grand style of 
the early Norman architecture, and constitutes the oldest 
church in London. A medical school is attached to the 
hospital, and the latter, enjoying an annual income of about 
£40,000, administers aid to some 70,000 patients annually. 

The endowed hospitals of England are within the scope 
of the "Statute of Charitable Uses," which included in 
the realm of charity, "the relief of aged, impotent and 
poor people, and the maintenance of sick and maimed 
soldiers and mariners." 

We come now to an English trust, founded by an 
American citizen, which is still unique among the charities 
of Great Britain. It is twenty-five years since Mr. George 
Peabody evinced the philanthropy of his nature by address- 
ing a letter to the Hon. Charles Francis Adams (then our 
minister at the Court of St. James), Rt. IJon. Lord 
Stanley, Sir J. E. Tennet, Curtis M. Lamson (an Ameri- 
can who had been knighted for services in connection^ with 
the Atlantic telegraph), and Mr. J. S. Morgan, his own 
partner, informing those gentlemen that the sum of 
£150,000 had been placed to their credit on the books of 
the London banking-house of George Peabody & Co., to be 
applied by them for the benefit of the poor of that city. 
To this amount he added £200,000 in his life-time, and at 
his death (in 18G9) left £150,000 by will, thus constituting 
a total fund of a round half-million sterling. The public 
institutions of London were already sufficient for those who 
may be called the chronic poor ; and the trustees of Mr. 
Peabody's charity wisely decided to devote it to ameliorating 
the condition of the deserving portion of the great working- 
class. To that end the income has been devoted, as fast as 
practicable, to the purchase of land in the densely popu- 
lated districts of London, and the building of model blocks 
of dAvellinjr-houscs, in which tenements are leased at a rate 
no greater than the tenants had previously been compelled 

1887.] Report of the Council. 311 

to pay for homes of the most wretched kind ; — a rate, how- 
ever, which, while meeting the costs of maintenance, also 
adds a trifle to the principal of the fund itself. During the 
year 1886 the trustees opened live new blocks of buildings, 
containing 202 rooms, increasing the total number of 
inhabitable rooms to 11,150, and furnishing comfortable 
homes to 20,228 persons, at an average rent of fifty cents a 
week for each room occupied, with the free use of a court- 
yard and of the bath-rooms and laundries contained in 
every block. The net gain, from rents and interest, in 
1886, was £29,656, and the net gain from the start has 
been £410,668, or more than eighty-two per cent, of the 
principal. It was predicted by Sir Curtis Lamson, at the 
outset, that the fund would accumulate in two hundred 
years to a sum sufficient to provide for three-fourths of all 
the industrious poor of London. 

Until the beginning of the fifteenth century there were 
no colleges in Scotland, and the youth of that country were 
compelled to cross the Tweed to gain the higher education, i 
The Scotch founders of Balliol College, Oxford, provided 
for the free instruction of a certain number of Scottish 
students, about the year 1263, and in 1326 the Bishop of 
Moray founded the Scottish College in the University of 
Paris. In 1411, however, the University of St. Andrews 
was established. Others followed, and the Scotch universi- 
ties are now of a high order. The students, as a rule, do 
not live in college buildings, or halls, but find lodgings and 
board for themselves in the manner first in vogue at Oxford 
and Cambridge. A compulsory, free education for all was 
a leading tenet of the Presbyterian church, at the start. 
"No fader, of what estait and condition that ever he be, 
use his children at his own fantasie, especially in their 
youtheade, but all must be compelled to bring up their 
children in learnyng and virtue." In 1567 Parliament 
compelled patrons who had " provestries, prebendaries, 
altarages or chaplaincies at their gift to present bursars 

312 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

[exhibitioners] to studie in anie college or universitie of 
this realm." 1 The efforts of John Knox to apply the 
whole revenue of the disestablished Roman Catholic church 
to education and to the new church were bathed by the 
nobles, who determined that "the kirkmen shall intromett 
with the two parts of their benefices, and the third part 
lifted up to the ministers' and Queenc's use"; — of which 
action Knox said that "two parts were freely given to the 
Dcvill," and the third part was "divided between God and 
the Devill." 

One public charity in the city of Edinburgh attracts our 
attention, because it has been managed with a truly Scottish 
thrift, and with an honesty that may be cosmopolitan but is 
not universal. The memory of its founder, George Hcriot, 
has been embalmed by Sir Walter Scott in "The Fortunes 
of Nigel." Heriot, says Sir Walter, "was a wealthy 
citizen of Edinburgh, and the King's goldsmith, who fol- 
lowed James 2 to the English capital, and was so successful 
in his profession as to die, in 1624, extremely wealthy for 
that period. He had no children ; and, after making a full 
provision for such relatives as might have claims upon him, 
he left the residue of his fortune to establish a hospital, in 
which the [poor, fatherless] sons of Edinburgh freemen 
are gratuitously brought up and educated for the station to 
which their talents may recommend them, and are finally 
enabled to enter life under respectable auspices. * * * 
To the honor of those who have the management (the 
Magistrates and Clergy of Edinburgh), the funds of the 

1 Sir Lyon Playfair, in his uddress at the 2f>0tli anniversary of Harvard Col- 
lege, November 8, 1S8G, drew the following comparison between the English 
and Scotch universities:— " Oxford and Cambridge could carry on education 
for its own sake, but the Scotch universities based their instruction on the 
learned professions which have been liberalized by academic teaching and 
academic influences • The English universities are attended by rich students; 
the Scotch universities by poor students. The difference as to the result was 
that English universities aimed at teaching their graduates to spend a thousand 
pounds a year with dignity and intelligence, while the Scotch universities 
taught men to make a thousand pounds a year with dignity and intelligence." 

2 James VI. of Scotland; James I. of England. »' 

1887.] Report of the Council. 313 

Hospital have increased so much under their care, that it 
now [1831] supports and educates 130 youths annually, 
many of whom have done honor to their country, in differ- 
ent situations." Another account of Heriot says that he 
originally added the business of a money-lender to that of a 
goldsmith, and that he was largely indebted for his fortune 
to the extravagance of the queen, and to the imitation of 
that extravagance by the nobility. 

The original fund left by Heriot was £23,625. It has 
now increased nearly thirty fold, viz., to £667,134. The 
income in 1886 was, from grain feu duties £1,887, from 
money feu duties £19,475, from rents of houses and lands 
£2,268, from other sources £4,118; a total of £27,748, 
or more than the original principal. The number of boys 
now maintained on the original foundation at the hospital 
is 180, of whom 120 are resident. A large number of 
schools in different parts of Edinburgh are maintained from 
the rapidly expanding fund. The hospital itself is in the 
"old town," but a very large portion of the "new town)" 
stands upon land which is held by the managers of the 
Heriot trust. 

In striking contrast with past endowments of the English 
and Scotch universities, is the recently published provision 
in the will of the late Lord Giflbrd of Scotland. After 
giving his body "to the earth as it was before, in order 
that the enduring blocks and materials thereof may be 
employed in new combinations," and his soul "to God, in 
whom and with whom it always was, to be in Him and 
with Him forever in closer and more conscious union," he 
says : — 

"I having been for many years deeply and firmly con- 
vinced that the true knowledge of God, that is of the being, 
nature, and attributes of the infinite, of the all, of the first 
and the only cause, that is, the one and only substance and 
being, and the true and felt knowledge (not mere nominal 
knowledge) of the relations of man and of the universe to 
him, and of the true foundations of all ethics and morals — 

314 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

being, I say, convinced that this knowledge, when really 
felt and acted on, is the means of man's highest well being 
and the security of his upward progress, I have resolved 
* * * to institute and found, in connection, if possible, 
with the Scottish Universities, lectureships or classes for 
the promotion of the study of said objects, and for the 
teaching and diffusion of sound views regarding them, 
among the whole population of Scotland." 

He therefore leaves, to the University of Edinburgh 
£25,000; to the Universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen 
£20,000 each; and to the University of St. Andrews 
£15,000, to found lectureships or "popular chairs" "for 
promoting, advancing, teaching and diffusing the study of 
natural theology, in the widest sense of that term ; in other 
words, the knowledge of God, the infinite, the all, the first 
and only cause, the one and the sole substance, the sole 
being, the sole reality and the sole existence, the knowl- 
edge of his nature and attributes, the knowledge of the 
relations which men and the whole universe bear to him, 
the knowledge of the nature and foundation of ethics or 
morals, and of all obligations and duties thence arising. 
The Senatus Academicus in each of the four universities, or 
the bodies substituted to them respectively, shall be the 
patrons of the several lectureships, and the administrators 
of the said respective endowments, and of the affairs of 
each lectureship in each city. I call them for shortness 
simply the 'patrons.' Now, I leave all the details and 
arrangements of each lectureship in the hands and in the 
discretion of the 'patrons' respectively, who shall have full 
power from time to time to adjust and regulate the same in 
conformity as closely as possible to the following brief 
principles and directions, which shall be binding on each 
and all of the 'patrons' as far as practicable and possible. 
I only indicate leading principles." l 

iThe document goes on to direct the manner of investing the fund, of 
appointing the lecturers and of conducting the lectures, and continues :— 

" The lecturers appointed shall he suhjected to no test of any kind, and shall 
not he required to take any oath, or to emit or suhscrihe any declaration of 

1887.] Report of the Council. ol5 

There are many great charitable trusts in our own 
country, which from their magnitude and their individu- 
ality, present an equally curious study with those of Great 
Britain. But a proper review of these domestic trusts 
would greatly exceed the necessary limits of this paper. 

For the Council, 


belief, or to make any promise of any kind ; they may be of any denomination 
whatever, or of no denomination at all (and many earnest and high-minded 
men prefer to belong to no eeelesiastieal denomination) ; they may be of any 
religion or way of thinking, or, as is sometimes said, they may be of uo relig- 
ion, or they may be so-ealled seepties, or agnostics, or free-thinkers, provided 
only that the ' patrons' will use diligence to secure that they be able, reverent 
men, true thinkers, sincere lovers of and earnest inquirers after truth. I wish 
the lecturers to treat their subject as a strict natural science, the greatest of all 
possible sciences— indeed, in one sense, the only science— that of Infinite Being 
— without reference to or reliance upon any supposed special exceptional or so- 
called miraculous revelation. I wish it considered just as astronomy or chem- 
istry is. I have intentionally indicated, in describing the subject of the lectures, 
the general aspect which personally I would expect the lectures to bear, but* 
the lecturers shall be under no restraint whatever in their treatment of their' 
theme; for example, they may freely discuss (and it may be well to do so) all 
questions about man's conceptions of God or the inlinite, their origin, nature, 
and truth, whether he can have any such conceptions, whether God is under 
any or what limitations, and so on, as I am persuaded that nothing but good 
can result from free discussion. The lectures shall be public and popular, that 
is, open not only to students of the universities, but to the whole community, 
without matriculation, as I think that the subject should be studied and known 
by all, whether receiving university instruction or not. 1 think such knowl- 
edge, if real, lies at the root of all well-being. And my desire and hope is that 
these lectureships and lectures may promote and advance among all classes of 
the community the true knowledge of him who is, and there is none and nothing 
beside him, in whom we live and move and have our being, and in whom all 
things consist, and of man's real relationship to him whom truly to know is life 
See The Weekly Scotsman, March 12, 1887; Boston Font, April 2, 1887. 

316 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


By Samuel S. Green. 

Pliny Eakle Chase, the eldest son of Anthony and Lydiu 
(Earle) Chase, was born in Worcester, Mass., August 18, 
1820. His father was a vigorous thinker, a man of clear 
and comprehensive mind, who was intluential in the estab- 
lishment and management of several important educational 
and financial institutions. Among the positions which he 
was called upon to occupy, was that of Treasurer of the 
County of Worcester, an office held by him for thirty-four 
years, and, after his resignation, by his youngest son 1 for 
the succeeding eleven years. Between the years 182|$ and 
1835 he was a partner of his brother-in-law, the late Hon. 
John Milton Earle, in the ownership of the Massachusetts 
Spy, now the oldest existing newspaper in Massachusetts. 
That paper, it will be remembered, was established and for 
many years published by Isaiah Thomas, the founder of 
the American Antiquarian Society. 2 

Pliny Earle Chase was named for his mother's father, 
Pliny Earle of Leicester, Mass., a gentleman who had the 
honor of introducing into this country the manufacture of 
machine card-clothing. It is interesting to note that this 
industry was established here as a result of efforts made by 
Mr. Earle in meeting exigencies that arose in the experience 
of Samuel Slater at Pawtucket (then a part of Massachu- 
setts, now in Rhode Island), originating, in 1790, the 
manufacture in the United States of cotton cloth by 

1 Charles Augustus Chase. 

' l For an account of the life of Anthony Chase, see Comlcy's History of 
Massachusetts. Boston : Coinley Brothers, 1879. 

1887.]. Pliny Earle Chase. 317 

mechanical power. 1 Among the other children of Pliny 
Earle were the late John Milton Earle of Worcester, the 
late Thomas Earle of Philadelphia and Dr. Pliny Earle of 
Northampton. During a series of years beginning with 
1823 and ending a few years before his death, which 
occurred in 1874, John Milton Earle was the editor and 
principal or sole proprietor of the Massachusetts Spy, as 
he was also of the Worcester Daily Spy after its establish- 
ment in 1845. 2 Thomas Earle was a prominent lawyer 
and the candidate of the Liberty Party in 1840 for Vice- 
President of the United States. 3 Dr. Pliny Earle, after 
having been superintendent of two other hospitals for the 
insane, namely, the Asylum at Frankford near Philadelphia, 
and the Bloomingdale Asylum of New York Cit}', served 
for twenty-one years as Superintendent of one of the State 
Lunatic Hospitals of Massachusetts, — in Northampton, — 
withdrawing from the last named position in 1885. 

Thomas Chase, late President of Haverford College, is a 
younger brother of the late Pliny E. Chase. Mrs. Lydirt 
E. Chase, the mother of the subject of this brief memoir, 
was a woman of remarkable strength of mind and independ- 
ence of character. 

Pliny Chase attended the common schools in Worcester 
and Friends' Boarding School in Providence. His school- 
mate, Mr. Edward Winslow Lincoln, of the former place, 
writing of his presence in the Boys' Latin School of that 

i Pliny Earle made for Mr. Slater the first cards for carding either cotton or 
wool by machinery, that were made in America. Tin: holes in the leather for 
100,000 of the teeth were pricked by baud by Mr. Earle. with two needles in 
the end of a stick. In 180.") Pliny Earle and Brothers began building carding 
machines for cottou and wool. In 1829 great improvements in the machinery 
for making card clothing were made by Pliny Earle's son, William Buffum 
Earle, whose machines have always maintained a high reputation. See, 
further, History of the American Card-Clothing Industry by H. G. Kittredge 
and A. C. Gould. Published by the T. K. Earle Manufacturing Company, 
Worcester, Mass., 1S8G. 

-Lincoln's History of Worcester, continued by Charles Hersey, pp. 277 and 

a Johnson's New Universal Cyclopaedia, article Earle (Thomas). 

318 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

town, states that from the first moment he entered the 
sehool he was "the object of an affection that few succeeded 
in winning." 1 He entered Harvard College without a con- 
dition in 1835, and graduated with high rank in 1839. 
Mr. Lincoln, and our associate, Rev. Dr. Hale,'- who were 
both classmates of Chase, speak of him as distinguished 
while in college for general scholarship, and particularly 
for a remarkable prolieiency in mathematics. Dr. Hale 
writes, "he was a quiet, unobtrusive young man, but a 
favorite in the class from his uniform courtesy and a 
measure of humor which never left i^m during his life." 

In 1844 Mr. Chase took the degree of Master of Arts at 
Cambridge. Nearly the whole of his life he was engaged 
in the occupation of teaching. Immediately after gradua- 
tion from college he had the charge of schools in Leicester 
and Worcester, Mass. ; then went to Providence, R. L, to 
teach, and afterwards, for the same purpose, to Philadel- 
phia. Most of the years 1844 and 1845 he spent in New 
England, and during a portion of that time he assisted in 
cataloguing the library of this society. Returning to Phila- 
delphia in the autumn of 1845, he resumed the work of 
teaching, but was obliged to relinquish it in 1848 and 
engage in other pursuits for several years, on account of 
severe hemorrhages from the lungs. Soon after 1848 he 
entered into a partnership for carrying on the stove and 
foundry business in Philadelphia, Pa., and Wilmington, 
Del. 3 

In 1861 Mr. Chase resumed the occupation of teaching, 
in Philadelphia. h\ 1870 he visited Europe, and in the 
following year was appointed Professor of Natural Science 

i Letters printed in the Worcester Daily Spy of February 9, 1887. -Id. 

"While engaged in mercantile pursuits he was visited by Mr. Lincoln. The 
latter writes that lie M found him established in one of those rectangles that so 
exasperate the average yankee, engaged in solving a problem and selling a 
Franklin stove, with considerable friction between the two occupations. I'pon 
my asking him," he says, " with uiiatl'ect. d wonder, what induced the scholar 
oi our class to dissipate in hardware, he assuaged my indignation with the softly 
spoken, ' Thee must aee, Edward, the niukiplc of bread and butter !'" 

1887.] Pliny Earle Chase. 319 

in Haverford College, with which institution he was thence- 
forward connected until his death. He also served for 
several months as an acting professor in the University of 
Pennsylvania, in the place of Professor Fraser who had 
died in office. In 1875 a new chair, that of Philosophy 
and Logic, was established in Havcrford College and Pro- 
fessor Chase was transferred to it. The subjects placed 
under his charge in that position were particularly congen- 
ial to a man constituted as he was. In 187(> the degree of 
LL.D. was conferred on him by Havcrford College, on 
account of his attainments and original researches in mental 
and physical philosophy. On the organization of Bryn 
Mawr College in 1884 he was appointed Lecturer on 
Psychology and Logic in that institution. In 188G he 
presided at the Commencement exercises of Haverford Col- 
lege as Acting-President. He died December 17 of the 
same year. Mr. Chase married, June 28, 1843, Elizabeth 
Brown Oliver 1 of Lynn, Mass. They had six children, of 
whom live, two sons and three daughters, as well as Mrs. } 
Chase, are still living. 

The first book published by Mr. Chase, probably, was 
The Elements of Arithmetic, Part First, 1844. This was 
followed by Part Second; in 1848, by the Common School 
Arithmetic; and, in 1850, by a new work on the same 
subject, prepared in conjunction with Horace Mann. In 
1884 he published "Elements of Meteorology for Schools 
and Households. Part L, Practical Instructions. Part 
II., Principles and Scholia." This is perhaps the first 
attempt to put this subject in a simple and popular form. 9 

Mr. Chase delivered many lectures and addresses, and 
made many contributions to periodical literature. His 

iNieceof Gould Brown, tin- author of the valuable " Grammar of English 

-'Paper in the Ilacerfordian for January, 1887, by Professor Allen C. 
Thomas of Haverford College. Much of the matter in the portion of this 
notice which follows has been taken from Professor Thomas's paper, and no 
inconsiderable part of it is expressed in his own 'voids. 

320 American Antiquarian jSociet//. [April, 

most important papers appeared in the transactions and 
proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. In 
the proceedings for November 5, 1880, may be found a 
" List of Papers communicated to the American Philosophi- 
cal Society by Pliny Earle Chase, LL.D." They number 
in all 111), beginning with one on Sanscrit and English roots 
and analogies, September 17, 1858, and ending with a 
paper on relations of chemical affinity to luminous and 
cosmical energies, April 10, 1880. The titles of the con- 
tributions show a wide range of investigation in philology, 
meteorology and physics. After 1863 Professor Chase 
confined his attention chiefly to the last two subjects, and 
especially to the confirmation of the general postulate that 
"all physical phenomena are due to an Omnipresent Power 
acting in ways which may be represented by harmonic or 
cyclical undulations in an elastic medium." Sixteen papers 
appeared in the proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society after 1880. Professor Chase was also a contributor 
to the American Journal of Arts and Sciences (Sillimin's) , 
to The London, Dublin and Edinburgh Philosophical Maga- 
zine, to the Comptes llendus of Paris and to the Journal of 
the Franklin Institute. For the last-named periodical he 
had for a number of years prepared the scientific notes or 
gleanings from other scientific publications, chiefly foreign. 
In 1864 the Magellanic medal of the American Philsophical 
Society was awarded to him for his paper on the "Numeri- 
cal relations of Gravity and Magnetism." 

"Professor Chase," writes Allen C. Thomas, a fellow 
professor at Haverford College, "belonged to that c]ass of 
philosophers who are ahead of their times, men who see, 
though it may be imperfectly and dimly, very deeply into 
the relation of things, and whose speculations, like those of 
the Marquis of Worcester, though misunderstood and per- 
haps even unintelligible to contemporaries, contain truths 
grasped and accepted by future generations." 

Professor Chase was for several years one of the Secreta- 

1887.] Pliny Earle Chase. 321 

ries of the American Philosophical Society, and latterly ono 
of its Vice-Presidents. He was a member of many scien- 
tific and literary societies in the United States and foreign 
countries. He became a member of the American Antiqua- 
rian Society in October, 1803. He was an enthusiastic 
botanist. "Though language," writes Professor Thomas, 
" was in later years quite a side issue, he was an unusually 
able linguist and could speak with comparative ease six or 
seven languages, while with the aid of a dictionary he could 
read 120, including dialects. He was one of the two or 
three men in the country who could read Eliot's Indian 
Bible." "Rarely," writes the same gentleman, "does it 
fall to the lot of any one to meet a purer life, a kindlier 
heart, a greater simplicity, a more perfect humility. Never 
putting himself forward, he was always ready to listen to 
others, and always treated them with kindness and con- 
sideration His own extensive attainments were kept in 
the background, so much so, indeed, that many of his 
friends were not by any means aware of the extent and 
variety of his knowledge." 

Mr. Chase was born and brought up among members of 
the Society of Friends, and always had the strongest 
attachment to its principles. In later years, although never 
officially recorded as a minister of the society, he frequently 
spoke in the ministry, and it is stated that his discourses 
will long be remembered by his hearers. Professor J. P. 
Lesley of Philadelphia, in an informal letter to the writer 
of this notice, pays the following tribute to his friend. 
The "mathematical abilities" of Pliny Chase "were of the 
highest order ; and his long series of memoirs on what he 
called the Harmonics of the Solar system, were so remarka- 
ble that they were reprinted by the physicists of London. 
But there were as few who comprehended them as who 
could read Pierce's mathematics. Pliny was one of the 
best of men, of the sweetest temper possible, an excellent 
teacher, adored by his pupils, and is lamented by all of us ! " 

322 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


The Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society 
herewith submits his semi-annual report of receipts and 
disbursements for the six months ending April 1, 1887. 

Under the direction of the Finance Committee the Treas- 
urer has carried to each fund, from the income of the 
investments, three per cent, on the amount of each fund as 
it stood October 1, 1886". 

A detailed statement of the investments is given as a 
part of this report, showing the par and market value of 
the various stocks and bonds. 

The total of the investments and cash on hand AiJ^il 1, 
1887, was $103,011.18, divided among the several funds 
as follows : 

The Librarian's and General Fund $ .39,950. (it) 

The Collection and Research Fund , 17,885.07 

The Bookbinding Fund, - 0,551. 85 

The Publishing Fund, 19,905.22 

The Isaae Davis Book Fund, 1,532.83 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund, 2,470.50 

The Kenj. F. Thomas Local History Fund, 1,139.79 

The Salisbury Building Fund, 4,900.27 

The Aldeu Fund, 1,087.40 

The Tenuey Fund, 5,000.00 

The Haven Fund, 1,165.95 

The George Chandler Fund< 514.42 

Premium Account,.... 731.12 

Income Account, 104.51 


The income of the Tenney Fund for the past six months 
has been transferred to the Librarian's and General Fund. . 

The cash on hand, included in the following statement, 
is $481.33. 

1887.] Report of the Treasurer. 323 

The detailed statement of the receipts and disbursements 
for the past six months, ending April 1, 1887, is as follows : 


188G. Oct. 1. Balance of cash as per last report, $15,753.78 

1887. April 1. Received for interest to date, 2,051.48 

" " " Received for life assessments, 100.00 

" " " Received for annual assessments, 05.00 

" " " Received from sale of publications, 00.00 

" " " Received from sale of books and pamphlets, 200.10 

" " " Drawn from savings banks, 308.7:5 


By salaries to April 1, 1887, $1,559.98 

By expense of repairs, 43.55 

For publishing "Proceedings," 213.78 

Bonds purchased, 3,000.00 

Premium on bonds, 120.00 

Insurance, 240.00 

Books purchased, 232.05 

Loans on real estate security, 12,200.00 

Loan on railroad bond security, 1,000.00 

Incidental expenses, 107.80 

$18,777.70 l 

Balance in cash April 1, 1887, 481.33 


Condition of the shvkkal Funds. 

The Librarian's and General Fund. 

Balance of Fund, Oct. 1, 1886, $39,795.48 

Income to April 1,1887, 1,193.S0 

Life assessments, 100.00 

Transferred from Tenney Fund, 150.00 


Paid for salaries, $943.32 

Paid for insurance, 240.00 

Incidental expenses, 99.33 


1887, April 1. Amount of Fund, $39,950.09 

The Collection and Uesearch Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1, 1880, $17,704.15 

Income to April 1,1887, 791.22 

Expenditure from the Fund for salaries and incidentals,. . . 010.30 

1887, April 1. Amount of Fund, $17,885.07 

324 • American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The Bookbinding Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1, 1880, $0,441.92 

Income to April 1, 1887, 193.20 

Paid to Assistant-Librarian, 83.33 

1887, April 1. Amount of Fund, $0,551.85 

The Publishing Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1, 1880, $19,474.70 

Income to April 1, 1887 5S4.24 

Publications sold,. ...» 00.00 

Paid for printing Proceedings, 213.78 

Balance April 1, 1887, $19,905.22 

The Isaac Daois Book Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1,1880, $1,020.74 

Income to April 1, 1887, 48.80 

Paid for books, 143.21 

Balance April 1, 1887, $1,532.33 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund. l 

Balance Oct. 1, 1880, $2,398.54 

Income to April 1, 1887, 71.90 

Balauce April 1, 1887, $2,470.50 

The Bcnj. F. Thomas Local History Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1, 1880, $1,155.87 

Income to April 1, 1887, 34. 08 

Paid for books, , 50.70 

Balance April 1, 1887, $1,139.79 

The Salisbury Building Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1, 188G, $4,803.90 

Income to April 1, 1887, 145.92 

Paid for repairs, 43.55 

Balance April 1,1887, $4,900.27 

The Alden Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1, 1880, $1,055.79 

Income to April 1,1887, 31.07 

Balance April 1, 1887, $1,087.4G 

1887.] Report of the Treasurer. 325 

The Tenney Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1, 18»G, £5,000.00 

Income to April 1, 1887, 100.00 

Transferred to Librarian's and General Fund, 150.00 

Balance April 1, 1S»7, $5,000.00 

The I lav en Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1, 188G, $1,152.55 

Ineoine to April 1, 1887, '. . ^4.55 

Paid for hooks, 21.18 

Balance April 1, 1887, $1,1G5.95 

The George Chandler Fund. 

Balance Oct. 1, 1896, $508.17 

Income to April 1, 18»7, 15.25 

Paid for hooks, «».00 

Balance April 1,1887, $514.42 

Total of the twelve funds, $102,175.55 

Balance to the credit of Premium Account, 731.12 

Balance to the credit of Income Account, 104.51 

April 1, 1887, total, $103,011.18 

Statement of the Investments. 

No. Of ' <Tnr<u< rar Market 

Shares. WOGKS. Value. Value. 

G Central National Bank. Worcester, ? G0O.0O £ BaajQJ 

22 City National Bank. Worcester, 2,i'(>0.u0 2JBB&00 

10 Citizens National Bank, Worcester 1 .000.00 1,340.00 

4 Boston National Bank, 400.00 0O0.O0 

G Fitdihurg National Bank, 000.00 OOO.oo 

2 Massachusetts National Bank, Boston, 500.00 506.28 

32 National Bank of Commerce, Boston 3,20o.o0 4,01<;.oO 

G National Bank of North America, Beaten, 000.00 G^JG.OO 

5 North National Bank, Boston 500.00 <;75.0O 

24 Qmawgawond National Bank, Worcester, 2,400.00 2.7G0.00 

4G Bhawmnt National Bank, Boston, MSOjM 5.750.00 

33 Webster National Bank, Boston, 3,300.00 3,4:12.00 

31 Wom-.stcr National Bank, 3,100.00 4,247.00 

Total of Bank Stock, $23,000.00 $2^,5 13.-5 

320 Ame r i c an Antiquarian Society. [April, 

30 Northern (N. 11.) R. R. Co., $3,000.00 $3,900.00 

i Worcester (>a^ Light Co., oOO.OO B60JI 

Boston k Albany R. R. Bond-, 7.-., £7,000.00 +\$&M 

Central Pacific R. R. Bonds, tfmM WJSkM 

Eastern R. R. Bonds, l,00o.00 1£B9jM 

KaWH City. Fort Scott k Gulf R. R., 4..J00.00 5,0.72.00 

Chicago, Santa Fe k California R. R., 3,0Ou.CK> .'J.l- 

City of Chicago Bond. 1,000. oO 1.040.00 

Worcester & Nashua R. R., 5,000.00 5jr.i5.0o 

Nutes secured by mortgage of real e-iate, 44,400.00 44. 1 

Note secured by R. It. Boud, 1 ,0o".00 1 ,000.00 

Depo-ited in Worcester savings banks. 3.'i2*.'.^o '■: . 

Cash, • 451.33 

$103,011.18 |11S 
Worce.-iek. Mass., April 15, WSl. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Ti easurer. 

The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian Society, hereby 
certify that we have examined the report of the Treasurer, made up to April 
1. lSVT, and find the same to be correct and properly vouched; that the securi- 
ties held by him are as stated, and that the balance of cash, stated to be on 
hand, is satisfactorily accounted for. 

Worcester, April 20, lv" 

1887.] Report of the Librarian. 327 


Until the etymology of the word librarian is changed, 
you will naturally expect to find in a report from such an 
officer something relating to books. A review of the 
library work may be tedious, the statistics and acknowl- 
edgments dry and uninteresting ; yet, placed between 
learned historical or archieological papers, such a report 
may, after all, have a very real mission which it should be 
allowed to fulfil. Your librarian is supposed to be person- 
ally interested not only in the interior and exterior of books, 
but also in trying to make the greatest possible number of 
people love and care for them. It is expected that he will, 
use such time and such talents as he possesses in making' 
useful to scholars, old and young, the treasures committed 
to his charge. Some of these students he will be able to 
carefully lead into new channels of thought and labor, while 
others whom he cannot closely follow in their special fields 
he may cheer on in their good work. Many of the children 
who visit Antiquarian Hall, either alone or accompanied by 
their teachers, find there many object lessons of value. 
They are interested not only in the mosaic head of Colum- 
bus, made by the Venetian artist, out of the many-colored 
bits of porcelain, but in the shells brought from near the 
port of Palos, whence the great navigator sailed on his 
wonderful voyage of discovery ; the statues, portraits, busts, 
medallions and silhouettes of celebrities, the remains and 
photographs of the ruined cities of Yucatan, the photo- 
graphic groups of the Washington Treaty Commissioners — 
those early friends of the cause of arbitration, — the Mather 
high chair of 1635, the Hancock clock, the Bay Psalm 

328 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Book, the Eliot and Cranmer Bibles and the black-letter 
volume of 1470 ; for all help to make the past a reality. It 
has been for some years the pleasant and profitable custom 
of the Principal of the Thomas-street Grammar school — 
situated on land given by our founder — after their annual 
lesson upon Isaiah Thomas's life and services, to bring the 
pupils of the two upper grades to the library for further 
light as to their benefactor and ours. It is a pleasure to 
certify to their intelligent interest as well as to their good 

The treasurer's report again reminds us of the Tenney 
fund of five thousand dollars, which was bequeathed to the 
Society by a loving father solely on account of kindness 
shown his school-boy son at Antiquarian Hall. While we 
would not encourage the "Curiosity Shop" view of our 
Society's collections, we should always be glad in every 
possible way to aid even the youngest of students. 

The advice of Louis and Alexander Agassiz to Natural 
History Societies, to carefully work their own fields', will 
apply with equal force to all learned societies. It seems 
clearly their first, though perhaps as clearly not their whole 
duty. The application of this principle to our Society 
would suggest as its special field, the new world ; and the 
same may be said of the American Historical Association. 
The vigorous Archaeological Institute of America has sup- 
plied valuable material from both sides of the Atlantic, and 
appears to have entered upon a career of great usefulness. 
Its official organ promises the results of researches, orien- 
tal, classical, early Christian, mediaeval and American. In 
narrower fields, like some of the older States, both the 
Historical Societies and State Libraries have grown up 
alongside, each doin£ its own work the better on account 
of the existence of the other. Occasionally, however, the 
State Historical Society has been under the patronage of 
the State, being quartered in the State House and taking 
the place of the State Library, or it might almost be said 

1887.] Report of the Librarian. 329 

being that under another name. Some States have the 
State library but not the Historical Society, while a few are 
provided with neither. As a society having members in 
many of the States, and liable at no distant day to be rep- 
resented in all of them, it seems our part and duty to use 
our influence for the establishment of one or both where 
the field is not already occupied. It is quite encouraging 
to note, in passing, the energy of the newer Western Socie- 
ties, and to watch the signs of returning life in a few socie- 
ties in the Southern States. Where private enterprise is 
not sufficient to establish or revive these educational helps, 
let the State be induced to act in the matter, supplying first 
a live librarian, then quarters, then money. State libraries 
have been visited in days gone by, from which the in-com- 
ing party had removed both the librarian and at the same 
time all probability of healthful library growth. It has 
been our great privilege to help various State libraries, but 
perhaps none so much as that of the State of Massachusetts 
from Avhich we received our act of incorporation. From' 
holding low rank it has, within a comparatively few years, 
takei a high position among the libraries of the land. The 
methods of its acting-librarian, Mr. C. B. Tillinghast, may 
safely be followed by any States, old or young. The open- 
ing paragraph of a circular issued " In the service of the 
Commonwealth," gives the key-note to his administration as 
follows : " It is desirable that the State library, as it is the 
property of the State and open free to all its citizens, should 
contain all publications illustrative in any way of the local, 
educational, social and industrial history of the towns and 
cities of the State, of all the institutions of its people, and the 
contributions of its citizens to social, political and religious 
history." His persistence in searching out the printed 
reports of every city and town in the State should be fol- 
lowed at once by every State library or State historical 
society, as such material is almost universally destroyed. 
The name of the Custodian of the State library has been 

330 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

mentioned — thougli entirely without his knowledge — that 

he may be enquired of by those wishing further light in 

the direction of ways and means. One of its trustees l has 

been for thirty years a member of our Council. 

That the national character of our Society is hot yet 
sufficiently well-known even in New England is evident 
from the following appeal of an eminent scholar for our file 
of the Vermont Gazette from 1783 to 1798. He writes, 
" These papers, I am quite sure, cannot be vory valuable 
to your collection — perhaps are not referred to for years 
— but in the town where they were published would be 
most highly prized and would be extremely useful for 
historical purposes." 

In order that it may be seen at a glance how far we have 
"possessed the land," a table of members arranged by 
States, has been prepared and is herewith presented. Our 
By-Laws limit the number of members in the United States 
to one hundred and forty, and as there are but three vacancies 
the present membership numbers one hundred and thirty- 
seven. Following is the list: Maine 1, New Hampshire 3, 
Vermont 1, Massachusetts 72 (i. e. Boston 16, Cambridge 
11, Worcester 27 and other towns 18), Rhode Island 4, 
Connecticut 9, New York 14, New Jersey 0, Pennsylvania 
6, Delaware 0, Maryland 2, District of Columbia 5, Virginia 
1, North Carolina 0, South Carolina 0, Georgia 2, Florida 

0, Alabama 0, Mississippi 0, Louisiana 1, Texas 0, Arkan- 
sas 0, Missouri 1, Kentucky 0, Tennessee 0, Illinois 2, 
Indiana 0, Ohio 4, Michigan 1, Wisconsin 3, Minnesota 1, 
Nebraska 0, California 3, West Virginia 0, Oregon 0, Iowa 

1, Kansas 0, Colorado 0, Nevada 0, Arizona Territory 0, 
Utah Territory 0, Wyoming Territory 0, Dakota Territory 
*0, Idaho Territory 0, New Mexico Territory 0, Montana 
Territory 0, Washington Territory 0, Alaska Territory 0. 
The foreign list numbers twenty-eight, as follows : Canada 

2, Great Britain 4, South America 1, Argentine Republic 

i ltev. Edward E. Hale, D.D. 

1887.] Report of the Librarian. 331 

1, German Empire 4, Greece 1, France 2, Spain 2, Mexico 
10, Italy 1. While an active New England membership 
seems more important than ever, we cannot forget that their 
faithfulness should in no wise absolve the far-away mem- 
bers from responsibility in helping to sustain the good name 
of our Society. It was a favorite saying of Dr. Haven that 
faithful service in the Society conduced to long life, and 
that in his opinion its certificate of membership alone was 
of more value than a first-class life-insurance policy ! 

As usual not a little time has been required for the care 
and distribution of our duplicates. New fields have been 
opened to us which we have not hesitated to enter. Our 
United States Government exchange continues, and Mr. 
Ames says in a recent communication : " You take the lead 
in the number of volumes supplied." Large numbers of 
duplicate Massachusetts Railroad Commissioners' reports 
have been taken by their clerk for re-distribution, and 
returns have been made to other State departments in the 
same way for service rendered. Early and late reports oB 
the Massachusetts School for the Feeble-Mi nded have been 
thankfully received by Superintendent Asbury, and we 
have called home our own proceedings by sending back 
frcm our duplicate room some of those belonging to corres- 
ponding societies. We have helped Williamson's Bibliog- 
raphy of Maine by exchanging Maine duplicates with the 
Historical Society of that State. The Cincinnati Centennial 
Commissioners, in anticipation of the city's celebration in 
1888, have drawn heavily upon our duplicate centennial 
reports, and another market for directories has been found 
among the Boards of Overseers of the Poor in New Eng- 
land. Our largest exchange of duplicate newspapers has 
been with the Kansas Historical Society which has furnished 
us with a set of Kansas State Documents. It is needless 
to 'say that much of the early printed history of Kansas 
can be found only in the Eastern press. Our collection of 
duplicate perfect and imperfect Mather tracts was consider- 

332 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

ably increased by purchases at the last Brinley sale, and by 
putting the parts together — after carefully collating our 
own set — some surprising results were obtained. About 
two hundred dollars have already been realized from their 
sale. It has been said that good books are among our best 
friends ; but a glance at our shelves will show that they 
are not always as well dressed or at least in such desirable 
colors as we would be glad to see them. Our associate, 
the Harvard Class Poet of 1859, may from love of his alma 
mater put the first edition of his Church Idea into Magenta 
and the second into Crimson, but he will hardly recognize 
them as his college colors in the dingy white of to-day. It 
may seem a small matter, but it is firmly believed, at least 
by your librarian, that the influence of a learned body like 
our own, as well as of the library fraternity, may to a 
certain degree induce publishers to put fast colors as well 
as strong and tasteful bindings upon our dear friends, the 
books. And here let me record the death on the third day 
of November, 1886, of Mr. Joseph S. Wesby, for hiany 
years the Society's faithful binder. Less should not, and 
more need not be said of him and of his good service. 

Among library internal improvements may be mentioned 
the transfer of the individual biographies from the upper 
half of the Alcove of Biography in the Annex to the same 
section of the northwest alcove in the main hall. The 
lower half of the latter alcove can receive the collected 
. biographies when it shall become necessary to place the 
rest of our United States documents below. The increase 
of this department is again due not so much to gifts or 
purchases as to exchanges, and includes English as well as 
American biography. This fact should remind members 
and friends that they need not withhold books and pamphlets 
because they think we already have them, but rather that 
- duplicate material is always useful in the up-building of our 

The great convenience of the tables originally attached 

1887.] Report of the Librarian. 333 

to the railings in the upper portion of some of the alcoves 
has induced the Library Committee to place them in the 
others at the charge of the Salisbury Building Fund. 
They do not appear to obstruct the light, have been made 
perfectly secure, and are in constant use. 

The accessions for six months, to the 15th instant, have 
been as follows : By gift, nine hundred and fifty-one books, 
forty-six hundred and nine pamphlets, one hundred and 
eighteen volumes of newspapers, one hundred and thirteen 
maps, seven engravings, four photographs and four manu- 
scripts. By exchange, three hundred and thirty-four books 
and three hundred and live pamphlets. Making a total of 
twelve hundred and* eighty-five books, forty-eight hundred 
and fourteen pamphlets, one hundred and eighteen volumes 
of newspapers, one hundred and thirteen maps, seven 
engravings, four photographs and three charts. To these 
should be added various articles for the cabinet. The two 
hundred and twenty-live donors represent fifty-one mem- 
bers, eighty-nine persons not members and eighty-five socie- 
ties and institutions. The full list of donors and donations 
will be found appended to this report, but a few special 
acknowledgments are here snven. President Hoar has 
added to his usual gift of public documents selections of an 
historical character from his own library, manuscript mate- 
rial relating to the Fitz-John Porter case, and a list of 
his own publications to November, 1886. Vice-President 
Salisbury's contribution, which is large, includes a cabinet 
photograph of himself; and Hon. Edward L. Davis's the 
framed engraving of Senator Sumner — our Secretary for 
Foreign Correspondence from the year 1867 until his death 
in 1874 — and his life-long friend the Poet Longfellow. 
Rev. Dr. William 11. Huntington has presented another 
large instalment of the pamphlet literature of the Episcopal 
church. Hon. John D. Washburn, Hon. Henry S. Nourse 
and Mr. Reuben Colton have answered the request for 
members' photographs. We have received additional gene- 

>/','* -: * ,. A-;,Ur { ,.rjri : :-,v. ,^ 'A;r... 

alogical material from Dr. George Chandler, whose Fund 
is, and whose "Chandler Family"— the remainder of the 
edition of which he presented to the Society— should he a 
constant source of rerenne to as. J. Evarts Greene, B 
has placed in our cabinet a complete reproduction in 
tare of a Japanese General of the old regie 
and with his implements of warfare. Mr. Andrew McFar- 
land Davis sends us, with other results of his literary 
labors, fats "Canada and Lofasiana," it being the first chap- 

rf the fifth volume of the Narrative and Critical Historj 
of America, edi Tr. Justin Winsor, and to which are 

appended Mr. Winsor** notes. While oar mtmU'uhip 
contributes much to this great work it may be well to add 
*.:. ::--: -.>.irv. , ....:::;.. .-. :^y- :..-... ,..-. : ; 
portraits and plans not elsewhere preserved. lion. 
A Green contributes of his Groton Historical Series 
bets sixteen to twenty inclusive, thus completing the 
volume. Oar record shows that beginning wi 
— for certain of oar founder's ilmtnim — wit:. 
of Groton, in 1865, ms gifts hare bees large nod 
nous. The witnesses to his efforts toward the 
of the ephemeral literature of America may be found in the 
leading Li torical libraries of the country. General Francis 

Talker's History of the Second Army Corps in the 
Army of the Potomac suggests the special gratifade we 
always feel for an author's copy duly verified. The words 
of a recent writer in the American Booksefcr mot -Bind- 
ing a book without a ihnroagh index is like laa hling a 

the General has not only furnished one bat three 
or staircases— to his well filled store-house. Mr. 
.rrisoo, while fifing other material; has 

i:.i:V. :: : .: ,:....: .;.;-- :- :-: l.= :: '--■ 

nod the Reverend John G region i s mplici as with a 

set of the Star and Crescent, formerly the omeial organ of. 

the Alpha Delta Phi Society. Mrs. P. L. GmneWs gifts 

1887.] Report of the Libraria n. 335 

to us arc specially noteworthy. At this time she sends 
not only works in the departments of art and history, but a 
copy of "Travels Through North America, during the 
years 1825 and 1826," by his Highness Bernhard Duke of 
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. In the latter is the following 
reference to our Society of sixty years ago : "We arrived 
at Worcester about 7 o'clock, and alighted at an excellent 
tavern. * * * On the following morning the Governor 
(Levi Lincoln, Councillor of this Society from 1817 until 
his death in 1868) conducted us to a recently established 
museum which is designed chiefly for the collection of 
American antiquities. It is yet in its infancy and contains 
but few interesting specimens ; the library also is of small 
extont ; notwithstanding we must render full justice to the 
inhabitants for their laudable zeal in the cause of national 
science." The accumulated income of the Isaac Davis 
Book Fund was expended last December, at the sale of 
part second of the famous collection made by M. Eugene 
Bo ban, which included many of the manuscripts and books | 
formerly owned by M. Brasseur de Bourbourg. Of the 
forty-seven volumes thus secured many are of great rarity 
and value. 

A brief reference at least should be made to the sale of 
the Fourth Part of the American Library of the late Mr. 
George Brinley. It occurred at New York, November 15- 
18, 1886, and was attended by your librarian, who expended 
of our balance of $1,022.45 the sum of $618.79, leaving to 
our credit for the final 'sale $403.66. We received three 
hundred and fifty-three books and eight hundred and thirty- 
four pamphlets which may be classed as follows : — 

Almanacs, dating from 1706 697 volumes. 

Early New England imprints and therefore 

largely theological 158 volumes. 

Early New England school books, many of 

them printed by our founder. . ., 123 volumes. 

Mather tracts, containing not only works of 

seven different members of the family, but 

some of the rarest 45 volumes. 


3^»i American A Uiquarian Society. [April, 

Chap books 48 volumes. 

Dramatic 27 volumes. 

Poetry 25 volumes. 

Catechisms, Primers. Platforms and kindred 

works 88 volumes. 

Psalmody 22 volumes. 

Marmonism 1 2 volumes. 

Biography 11 rolun 

Masonic 9 volu: 

Liturgies 5 volumes. 

Slavery 3 volum a 

A list of the Mather tract- secured — winch were not 
previously in the library — has been prepared and will be 
added to Mr. Pained pamphlet list of Mather Publicati. 
A tew choice books — including the beautiful reprint of 
Carton's ••Game of Chesse," first printed in 1475, and 
Reinsert rare folio edition of 172* of Bowel's '"History of 
the Christian People called Quakers" — irere purehased at 
the Brinlev sale for the Haven Alcove. 

In your Librarian's deport of April, 1884, he referred, 
by way of illustration, to the libraries of specialties Which 
largely make up the great whole in the Cornell University 
library. He now wishes to place on record to the honor of 
our associate, Hon. Andrew D. White, a copy of the follow- 
ing associated press despatch : "The Board of * Trustees 
Cornell University has received a communication from 
Ex- President White announcing that he will give to the 
University his line historical library. The collection 
includes thirty thousand volumes, ten thousand pamphlets 
and many manuscripts, and cost over one hundred thousand 
dollars. The trustees voted to reorganize the department 
of history and political economy and call it the President 
White school of history and political science, and make Ex- 
President White its dean and lecturer with two new pro- 
fessors. They will also put the new law school on an 
enlarged basis in view of Mr. White's gift."' It is said that 
the college authorities, in view of the precious gift, will 
erect a large tire-proof building for its accommodation. 
Its librarian, Mr. George Lincoln Burr, has already begun 

1887.] Report of the Librarian. 337 

an examination of our library in certain lines, and a special 
sale or exchange of our duplicates is likely to result from it. 
Our President's gift of manuscript material relating to the 
War of the Rebellion, leads me at the risk of being charged 
with duplication, to call attention to a resolution intro- 
duced by Rev. Dr. Hill, at the annual meeting of the 
Society twenty-one years ago, and seconded by Judge 
Barton. In their day and generation it did not answer its 
purpose, but it may speak in louder tones to-day. Follow- 
ing is the resolution : M Whereas a large amount of valuable 
material for history remains in the hands of families and 
friends of deceased and living soldiers, and is in danger of 
being irrevocably lost; therefore, Resolved, That the Libra- 
rian be directed to solicit the presentation of the originals 
or copies of such letters, journals and other written docu- 
ments, from the army engaged in the late Civil War, and 
from the hospitals, as friends may be willing to furnish : 
and that application be made for these precious documents 
as early and as widely as possible." The Society's corre- j 
spondence during this period, which I have lately examined, 
contains some interesting war letters, but the number is 
quite limited. 

In accepting an invitation to meet the new Columbia 
College Library School, it seemed to me best to speak to 
them of our Society and its work. I have in a previous 
report called your attention to this novel school as originally 
proposed. It was opened January 4th, 1^87, and has 
already proved that it has a raison d'etre. The held to 
which its graduates will be welcomed is a broad and useful 
one. To them as to those who have been longer in the 
way, John Bright's words of encouragement, though they 
may be too highly colored, should act as a stimulant. He 
says: <k Few trades or professions have made greater pro- 
gress of late years than the librarian's. They only began 
to be conscious that they were a distinct craft until the 
other day, and their conference is jet but a few years old. 
Yet they have done more for the advancement of their art 

338 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

in their short organized existence than many older bodies 
have accomplished in a generation. * * * To facilitate 
the studies of others is the librarian's business; and so far 
have many of them now carried their art that a brief chat 
with the officer in charge will teach the casual reader what 
he used to learn less perfectly by the tedious study of pon- 
derous and perplexing catalogues." 

In completing twenty-one years of service for this 
Society, I am forcibly reminded of the great changes which 
have occurred since the month of April, lM5b, when 1 first 
became associated with our late lamented Librarian, Dr. 
Haven. Of the seventeen Councillors then living but four 
remain, viz. : Messrs. Hale, Sargent, Deane and Paine, 
while Messrs. Salisbury, Jenks, Lincoln, Davis, Shurtleil', 
Folsom, Barton, Merrick, Bigelow, Haven, Washburn, 
Thomas and Hill have died. It may be said in brief that 
during this period your library and your working funds 
have doubled, the library building has been enlarged, the 
hours during which the public are served therein havq been 
extended, the Card Catalogue has been well forwarded, and 
the library correspondence has of course largely increased. 
By the introduction of steam heat the old-time winter 
temperature of eighty degrees in the office, forty in the 
upper and twenty in the lower hall has given place to an 
even and safe temperature of seventy degrees throughout 
the building. 

In entering upon another year's labors I entertain the 
hope that our valuable library will be more and more used 
by both members and the public, and thereby become more 
and more useful. We have thus far made good progress, 
but with an increase of your present generous interest and 
support we may reasonably expect that still greater good 
will be accomplished. 

Respectfully submitted. 



1887.] Donors and Donations. 339 

Donors anfc Donations, 


Anderson, Joseph, S.T.D., Waterbury, Conn.— His History of the Soldiers' 
Monument in Waterbury, Connecticut. 

Baetox, Mr. Edmund M., Worcester.— Five pamphlets; and "St. John's 
Echo," in continuation. 

Barton, William S., Esq., Worcester.— One hook; and live pamphlets. 

Brinion, Daniel G., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa.— Four ol his archaeological 

Brook Mr. Poijert A., Richmond. Va.— Waddell's Annals of Augusta 
County, Virginia; and newspapers containing historical articles hy Mr. 

Campbell, Hon. James V., Detroit, Mich.— The Semi-Centennial of Michigan, 
containing Judge Campbell's Judicial History of the State; and the Michigan , 
Pioneer Collections, Vols. VIII. and IX., in continuation. 

Chandler George, M.D., Worcester— Fifty-five pamphlet*, 

Clarke, Mr. Rob bet, Cincinnati, O. — lloadley'a u Acquisition of Louisiana"; 
and the Seventeenth Reunion of the Army <d the Cumberland. 

Colton, Mr. Reuben, Worcester. — Seventy-four numbers of magazines; and 
a cabinet photograph of himself. 

Davis, Mr. Andrew McF., Cambridge.— -His " Few additional notes concern- 
ing Indian Games"; his •• Canada and Louisiana"; and a manuscript volume 
of sermons of Rev. Aaron Bancroft, D.D. 

Davis, lion. Edward L., Worcester.— A framed engraving of Charles Sumner 
aud Henry W. Longfellow. 

Davis, Hon. Horace, San Francisco, Cal.— Seven California pamphlets. 

Deane, Charles, LL.D., Cambridge.— ilia "Connection of Massachusetts 
with Slavery aud the Slave- Trad' -." 

Dexter, Prof. Franklin P., New Haven, Conn.— The Connecticut Almanac, 
1SS7, containing his ,4 Town Names in Connecticut." 

Draper, Lyman C, LL.D., Madison, Wis. — An account of his life and labors. 

Ldes, Mr. Henry II., Charlestown.— Twenty-three hooks; titty-one pam- 
phlets; two charts; and two liles of newspapers, in continuation. 

Gage, Thomas II., M.D., Worcester. — Eleven volumes of Worcester Direc- 
tories; and thirteen pamphlets. 

Gilman, Daniel C, LL.D., Baltimore, Md.— His eleventh Annual Report M 
President of Johns Hopkins University. 

340 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Green, Mr. Samuel S., Worcester.— His report as Librarian of the Free 

Public Library, Worcester, 1S8G. 
Greene, J. Evarts, Esq., Worcester.— Twenty-seven books; seventy-three 

pamphlets; and a Japanese general of the old regime in costume. 
Green, Hon. Samuel A., Boston.— His Groton Historical Series, XVI. -XX.; 

eight books; one hundred and thirty-two pamphlets; one chart; one map; 

and the Journal of Numismatics, as issued. 

Guild, Reuben A., LL.D., Providence, It. I.— Seven Brown University 

Hall, Rev. Edward II., Cambridge.— Services at the Celebration of the 250th 
Anniversary of the First Church in Cambridge, containing an address by 
Mr. Hall. 

Harden, William, Esq., Savannah, Ga.— Report of Savannah Public Schools, 
1885 and 1887. 

Hitchcock, Prof. Edward, Amherst.— Twenty-three Amherst College pam- 

Hoar, Hon. George F., Worcester. — One hundred and ninety-four books; 
eight hundred and eighty-eight pamphlets; two engravings; one map; 
manuscript material relating to the Fitz-Johu Porter ease; and a manuscript 
list of his own publications. 

IIOYT,Mr. Albert IL, Boston.— Three pamphlets relating to New Hampshire. 

Huntington, Rev. William R., D.D., New York.— Four hundred and eighty- 
four pamphlets; and ninety numbers of magazines. 

Jones, Hon. Charles C, Augusta, Ga.— His " Life and Services o\ Major- 
General Samuel Elbert of Georgia." 

Jones, lion. Horatio Gates, Philadelphia, Pa.— Miuutes of the Philadelphia 
Baptist Association, 1S8G. 

Jones, JosErn,M.D.,Ncw Orleans, La.— His ''Medical and Surgical Memoirs: 
containing investigations of various diseases," volume two. 

Merriman, Rev. Daniel, D.D., Worcester.— One book; and thirty-one pam- 

Nourse, Hon. Henry S., Lancaster.— A cabinet photograph of himself. 

Paine, Rev. George S., Worcester.— Fifty-eight pamphlets; and various 

Paine, Nathaniel, Esq., Worcester.— Twenty-two books; one hundred and 
seventy-one pamphlets; six wall maps; one file of newspapers; a photograph 
of the interior of Salisbury Annex; one copper plate; and miscellaneous 

Peet, Rev. STEPHEN D., Clinton, Wis.— His American Antiquarian and 
Oriental Journal. 

Perry, Right Rev. AVm. Stevens, D.D., Davenport, Iowa.— His Sermon on 
the Centenary of the Consecration of Bishop White; and the Iowa Church- 
man, as issued. 

Poole, William F., LL.D., Chicago, Hi.—" The Dial," in continuation, con- 
taining articles by Dr. Poole. 

Poore, Major Ben: Perley, Newbury.— His "Reminiscences of Sixty 
Years in the National Metropolis," vol. I.; eleven bound volumes and fifty- 
one numbers of the Knickerbocker Magazine; and ten pamphlets. 

1887.] Donors and Donations. 341 

Putnam, Prof. FREDERICK: W. ? Cambridge.— Nuttall's "Preliminary Notes 
of an Analysis of the Mexican Codices and Graven Inscriptions"; and the 
Report of the Fish and Game Commissioners of Massachusetts for 1886. 

Salisbury, Stephen, Worcester.— Thirteen books; one hundred and live 
pamphlets; seven files of newspapers; a collection of playbills; and a cabinet 
photograph of himself. 

Smith, Mr. Charles C, Boston.— His Memoir of John J. Babson; and his 
report as Treasurer of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1887. 

Smucker, Hon. Issac, Newark, O.— One pamphlet. 

Smyth, Rev. EGBERT C, D.D., Andover.— The Andover Heresy, Prof. 
Smyth's argument; and Dr. I) wight's Argument for Prof. Smyth. 

Takt, Henry VV., Esq., Pittslield.— One book; and twenty-eight pamphlets. 

Walker, Gen. Francis A., Boston.— His "History of the Second Army 
Corps in the Army of the Potomac." 

Washburn, Hon. John D., Worcester.— A cabinet photograph of himself. 

Weedkn, Mr. William B., Providence, R. I.— His " Arbitration and its Rela- 
tion to Strikes." 

Williams, Mr. J. Fletcher, St. Paul, Minn.— His Reminiscences of Thirty 
Years' Active Membership in St. Paul Lodge, No. 2, I. O. O. F. 

YVinsor, Mr. Justin, Cambridge;.— His "Note on the Spurious Letters of 
Montcalm," 1751); and Harvard University Bulletin, as issued. 

WlNTHUOP, Hon. ROBERT C, Boston.— Proceedings of the Bcabody Education 
Fund Trustees at their Twenty-fifth Meeting. 


Bailey, Mr. Isaac II., New York.— The Shoe and Leather Reporter, as 

issued; and the Shoe and Leather Annual, 1887. 
Baldwin, Messrs. John D., and Coaibany, Worcester.— Their Daily and 

Weekly Spy, as issued. 
Ball, Hon. Phinehas, Worcester.— His report on Sewerage for the City of 

Baker, Messrs. Walter and Company, Boston.— A short history of the 

Production and Use of Coca and Chocolate. 
Batchelder, Mr. Frank R., Worcester.—" The Academe," as issued. 
Blanciiard, Messrs. Frank 8.* and Company, Worcester.— Their " Yankee 

Almanac and Worcester County Hand-book," 1887. 
Boardman, Mr. Samuel L., Augusta, Me.— The " Home Farm," as issued. 
Booth, E. C, M.D., Director, Morristown,N. J.— Report of the State Asylum 

for the Insane at Morristown, 188C. 
Bradford, Edward II. , M.D., Boston. — The Eighteenth annual Report of 

the Children's Hospital. 
Bkinley, George, Family oe the late.— Three hundred and fifty-three 

books; and eight hundred and thirty-four pamphlets. 
BURGESS, George C, Esq., City Clerk, Portland, Me.— "An account of the 

Centennial Celebration of Portland, 1880." 

342 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Caldwell, Rev. Augustine, Covontryvillc, N. Y.— One pamphlet. 
Canfield, Mrs. Penklope S., Worcester.— Three hooks; nine pamphlets; 

and two manuscripts. 
Chalmers, Mr. Patrick, Wimbledon, G. B.— The " Submission of the Sir 

Rowland Hill Committee." 
Cole, Mr. George W., Brooklyn, N. Y.— His Classified Catalogue of the 

Publie Library of Fitehburg, Mass. 
Conant, Edwin, Esq., Woreester.— Exercises at the Dedication of the 

Elizabeth Anne Conant lkiilding at Sterling, Mass. 
COOK, Mr. HENRY H., Bane.— His Gazette, as issued. 

Culhoss, Mr. William J. J., Worcester.— His " Peerless Review," as issued. 
Daniels, Mr. George F., Oxford.— Annual Report of the Smithsonian 

Institution, 1884, two volumes. 
Dodge, Mr. Benjamin J.. Worcester.— Constitution of the Natives of Maine 

of Woreester County, Mass., with List of Members. 
Doe, Messrs. Charles II., and Company, Worcester.— Their Daily and 

Weekly Gazette, as issued. 

Drew, Allis and Company, Messrs., Worcester.— Map of Worcester, 1874, 

one hundred and four copies; and a map of Manitoba, 
Duren, Mr. Elnathan F., Secretary, Bangor, Me.— General Conference of 

Maine, with History and Index for the last Decade. 
Earle, Pliny, M.D., Northampton.— Eleven pamphlets; eight numbers of 

magazines; and files of the Journal of Mental Science; and of the Alienist 

and Neurologist, in continuation. \ 

Emmons, Mr* Theodore H., Boston.— The Charter and By-Laws of St. 

Paul's Royal Arch Chapter, Boston. 
Fisher, Mr. George E., Worcester.— Doddridge's Pneumatology, Ethics and 

Foote and Horton, Messrs., Salem.— Their Gazette, as issued. 
Fosihck, lion. Frederick, Major, Fitehburg.— Fitehburg City Document, 

Foster, Mrs. Leroy, Worcester.— Birds-eye view of the battle of Gettysburg. 
Funk and VVagnalls, Messrs., New York.—" The Voice," as issued. 
Gale, Lieut. GEORGE II. G., U. S. A.— " Reminiscences of West Point in the 

Olden Time"; and Report of the United States Military Academy, 1880. 
Gammell, William, LL.D., Providence, R. I.— His Life and Services of Hon. 

John Russell Bartlett. 
Gardner, Misses Mary and Charlotte, Washington, D. C— A deed of 

land in Roxbury of 1G82. 
Garrison, Mr. Francis J., Boston.— "A Memorial William Lloyd of Garrison 

from the City of Boston;" and a "Memorial Sketch of Ann Phillips, wife 

o* Wendell Phillips." 
Goss, Mr. Elrridge II., Melrose.— Melrose town reports for 1886. 
Graham, Capt. A. A., Columbus, O.— His " Glance at Ohio's First Century." 
Grkgson, Rev. John, Wilkiusonville.— " The Star and Crescent," published 

by the AJpha Delta Phi Society, five volumes. 

1887.] Donors and Donations. 343 

Hackett, Mr. Frank W., Editor, Washington, D. C— His "Transcript of 
the first thirty-live pages of the earliest Town Book of Portsmouth, N. II." 

Hamilton, Mr. Charles, Worcester.— A collection of church fair news- 

Hoar, Col. Rockwood, Worcester.— File of the Congressional Globe, 2d 
session, J9th Congress. 

Hubbard, Mr. Luther P., Secretary, New York.— Report of the New Eng- 
land Society in the City of New York, 18ST. 

Jenks, Rev. Henry F., Canton.— His Tribute to Mr. Robert Draper. 

Kelloog and Stratton, Messrs., Kitcliburg.— Their u Sentinel," as issued. 

Kinsey, Mr. Joseph, Cincinnati, O.— Shelhamer's "Life and Labor in the 
Spirit World." 

LANG WORTHY, Rev. Isaac P., D.D., Chelsea.— His " Brief Historical Sketch 
of the Suffolk North Conference of Congregational Churches." 

Lincoln, Gen. William S., Worcester.— The "Bowdoin Orient," as issued. 

Manchester, Mr. Leander L., Lowell.— "In Mcmoriam Theodore Edson, 

Marble, Albert P., Ph.D., Worcester.— His "Presumption of Brains." 

Massachusetts Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons.— Their 
Proceedings, Aug. 2G— Oct. 13, 188G. 

Mayberry, Mr. S. P., Cape Elizabeth, Me.— One newspaper. 

McKenzie, Rev. Alexander, D.D., Cambridge.— Two of his historical 

Merrill, Chester W., Esq., Cincinnati, O.— His report as Librarian audi 
Treasurer of the Cincinnati Public Library, 1885-8G. 

Metcalf, Mr. Caleb B., Worcester.— Sixty-five pamphlets. 

Miller, Mr. Henry W., Worcester.— Twenty-two books. 

Moody, Miss Maria E., Worcester. — Two historical pamphlets. 

Morgan, Mr. Charles II. , Superintendent, Worcester.-- Two coita of picture 

Newton, Mr. Walter T., Worcester.— Map of Mt. Auburn cemetery. 

Nickrrson, Mr. Sereno D., Boston.— Judge Gardner's address upon Henry 
Price, Esquire. 

Park, John G., M.D., Superintendent, Worcester.— Report of the Trustees 
of the Worcester Lunatic Hospital, 1886. 

Peabody, Charles A., M.D., Superintendent, Worcester.— His annual 
Report of the City Hospital, 1S87. 

Phillips, Mr. Albert M., Auburn.— " Historical Sketches of the Times and 
Men of Ashfield, Mass., during the Revolutionary War;" and "The Locomo- 
tive," in continuation. 

Pierce, Mr. Charles F., Worcester.— Five books; and thirty pamphlets. 

Preston, Mr. Howard W., Providence, R. I.— His " Documents Illustrative 
of American History, 1G0G-18GX" 

Rice, Ir. Franklin P., Worcester.— Eli Thayer's " Account of the New 
England Emigrant Aid Company"; and the " Narrative of Amos E. Stearns, 
a Prisoner at Andersonville." 

344 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

liiDBR, Mr. Sidney S., Providence, It. I.— His " Book Notes," as issued. 

Rouerts, Dr. J. I)., Superintendent, Goldsboro, N. C. — Ilia. Report of the 
Eastern North Carolina Insane Asylum for the Year 188G. 

Rouinson, Miss Mary, Worcester.— -Three pamphlets. 

ROE, Mr. Alfred S., Worcester.— One hook; eighty-seven pamphlets; "Glea- 
son's Pictorial" for 1852; "Harper's Bazar" for the year 18S6; and a iile of 
" The Old Guard." 

RUSSELL, Mr. William II. K., Worcester.— An amulet necklace, ammunition 
■box and manuscript taken by him from an Ashantee chief during the Ashan- 
tee war of 1872-73. 

Sanford and Davis, Messrs., Worcester. — " The Public Buildings and Busi- 
ness of Worcester in 1S8(>." 

Sargent, Mr. Charles F., Worcester.—" The Helping Hand," as issued. ■ 

Smith, Mr. Henry M., Worcester.— His Worcester Home Journal, as issued; 
and "The Old Guard." 

Staples, Mr. Samuel E., Worcester.— File of the " Dedham Standard," 1886. 

Steiner, Hon. Lewis II., Librarian, Baltimore, Md.— " Letters and Docu- 
ments relating to the Foundation of the Enoch Pratt Free Library of Balti- 
more City;" and his annual Report, 1887. 

Stille, Charles J., LL.D., Philadelphia, Pa.— His Beaumarchais and " the 
lost million," a chapter in the secret history of the American Revolution. 

Storer, Horatio lit, M.D., Boston.— His " Medals, Jetons and Tokens 
illustrative of Obstetrics and Gynecology." 

Taft, George S., Esq., Uxbridge.— Twenty-seven pamphlets. I 

Talhot, Mrs. Thomas, Billerica — A Memorial of Thomas Talbot. 

Thayer, Hon. Eli, Worcester.— His " New England Emigrant Aid Company." 

Thompson, Eren Francis, Esq., Worcester.— Ilia Abridgment of Kent's 
Commentaries on American Law. 

TUCKER, Mr. GEORGE P., Editor, Worcester.— " The W T I," as issued. 

Turner, Mr. John N., Ayer.— His " Public Spirit," as issued. 

Vose, Prof. George L., Brookline.— His "Sketch of the Life and Works of 
George W. Whistler, Civil Engineer." 

Walker, Mr. J08EPH II., Worcester.— His " A Man who got into the Wrong 

Washburn, Rev. Philip M., Worcester.— " All Saints Parish," as issued. 

White, Mr. Samuel, Clinton.— His " Reminiscences of the White Family." 

WiNSLOW, Hon. John, Brooklyn, N. Y.— His "Trial of the Rhode Island 
Judges, an Episode touching Currency and Constitutional Law"; and Pro- 
ceedings of the New England Society in Brooklyn, 1887. 

Winslow, Hon. Samuel, Mayor, Worcester.— His Second Inaugural Address. 


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.— Their Proceedings, 

as issued. 
Academy of Science of St. Louis.— Their publications, us issued. 

1887.] Donors and Donations. 345 

American Baptist Missionary Union.— Their Magazine, as issued. 
American Geographical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
American Oriental Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
American Philosophical Society.— Their Proceedings, as issued. 
American Seamen's Friend Society.— Their Sailor's Magazine, as issued. 
Boston, City of.— The City Documents for 1886, three volumes; the Reports 

of the Record Commissioners, as issued; and the Monthly Statistics of 

Bostonian Society.— ■** The Old Town House of Boston " ; and one pamphlet. 
Boston Public Library. —The Annual Report, 1887; and the Bulletin, as 

Bowdoin College.— The Inauguration Address of 1886; and the Annual 

Catalogue, 1S86-87. 
BUFFALO Library.— Finding List of Books and Pamphlets, Part 2. 
Cambridge (Eng.) Antiquarian Society.— Their Reports and Communica- 
tions, as issued. 
Canadian Institute.— Their Proceedings, as issued. 
Chicago Historical Society.— Their Constitution, By-Laws and List of 

Members, 1885-86. 
Cincinnati Public Library.— Bulletin of Books added in 1886. 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.— Their Transactions, as 

Detroit Public Library.— An Historical Summary with the Annual 

Reports of the Library Commission. 
Dewey, Mr. Melvil, Chief Librarian, New York.— His second and third 

reports as Chief Librarian of Columbia College. 
Essex Institute.— Their Collections and Bulletins, as issued. 
FLETCHER Free Library, Burlington, Vt.— The Thirteenth Annual Report. 
GEORGIA Historical Society.—" Life and Services of Maj.-Gen. Samuel 

Libert of Georgia." 
Good Health Publishing Company.— Their Magazine, as issued. 
Harleian Society.— Their ltules, Reports and List of Members, 1887. 
Harvard University.— The annual Reports of the President and Treasurer, 

Haverford College.— Two of the College Catalogues. 
Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio.— Their Catalogue of the 

Torrence Papers. 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania.— Their Magazine of History and 

Biography, as issued. 
Hoped ale Public Library.— The First Annual Report. 
Huguenot Society of America.— Their Collections, volume one. 
Instttut Canadien.— Eight Canadian publications. 
Iowa Historical Society.— Their Historical Record, as issued. 
Johns Hopkins University.— Their Publications, as issued. 
Leicester Town Library.— Report of 1886. 

346 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Maine Historical Society.— Their Collections, volume IX. 
Massachusetts, Commonwealth of.— Public Documents for the year 1885, 

four volumes; Acts and Resolves of the Province of Massachusetts Hay, 

Vol. V., 17G9-1780; three books; and two pamphlets. 
Massachusetts Historical Society.— Index to the first twenty volumes 

of their Proceedings, 1791-1883. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Massachusetts State Board of Health.— Their "Manual," for 1887; 

and " Returns," as issued. 
Massachusetts State Library.— Massachusetts Election Sermon for 1879. 
Mercantile Library Company of Philadelphia.— Their Sixty-fourth 

Annual Report. 
Minnesota Historical Society.— Their publications, as issued. 
Museo Nacional de Mexico.— The " Anales," as issued. 
New Bedford Public Library.— The Thirty-fifth Annual Report. 
New England Historic Genealogical Society.— Proceedings at their 

annual meeting, 1887; and The Register, as issued. 
New England Society in Brooklyn.— Their Proceedings, 1887. 
Newport Historical Society.— Their First Annual Report. 
New York Evening Post Printing Company.— The Nation, as issued. 
New York Free Circulating Library.— The Seventh Annual Report. 
Ohio, State of.— Eight volumes of Ohio State Documents. 
Omaha Public Library.— The Ninth Annual Report. K 

Oneida Historical Society.— Their Transactions, as issued. 
Peabody REPORTER Company.— Their " Reporter," as issued. 
Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for this Blind. 

—The Sixty-fifth Annual Report. 
Providence Athen.eum.— The Annual Report of 188G. 
Providence Public Library.— The Ninth Annual Report. 
Redwood Library and Athen.eum.— The One Hundred and Fifty-sixth 

Annual Report. 
Rhode Island Historical Society.— GammelPs Life and Services of Hon. 

John Russell Bartlctt. 
Royal Society of Canada.— Their Proceedings and Transactions for 1885. 
Royal University of Norway.— Their Publications, as issued. 
Rutland County Historical Society.— " Epitaphs of Casileton (Vt.) 

Church Yard." 
Seventh Day Advent Missionary Society.— Their "Signs of the Times," 

as issued. 
Smithsonian Institution.— The Annual Report for 1884, Part II. 
Soctete DE GeOGRAPHIE.— Their Publications, as issued. 
Society of Antiquaries of London.— Their Proceedings, as issued; and 

the List of Members to October. 1880, 
State Publishing Company.— "The State," as issued. 
Theological Seminary, Andover.— The Catalogue for 188G-87. 

1887.] Donors and Donations. 347 

Travelers Insurance Company.— Their Record, as issued. 

Tuskegee Normal School.— The Fifth Annual Report. 

United States Bureau ok Education.— The " Circulars of Information," 
as issued. 

United States Department of the Interior.— Fifty-two hooks; and 
sixty-four pamphlets. 

United States Geological Survey.— Their publications, as issued. 

Vereins von Oberealz und Regensburg.— Their publications, as issued. 

Worcester County Law Library Association.— Four books; and forty- 
live pamphlets. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association.— Nineteen files of news- 
papers, in continuation. 

Worcester Fire Society.—" Reminiscences and Biographical Notices of 
Eighteen Members of the Worcester Fire Society ; " and their Articles con- 
taining the Rules and Regulations. 

Worcester Free Institute.— Twenty of the Institute Reports. 

Worcester Free Public Library.— Forty books; three hundred and 
forty-two pamphlets; and seventy tiles of newspapers, in continuation. 

Worcester Overseers of the Foor.— One hundred and forty-nine town 

Worcester National Bank.— Files of "The Banker and Tradesman," 1882- 
81; and New York Evening Post, 188$. 

Worcester Society oe Antiquity.— Their Proceedings for 1880. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society.— Their publications, as 

Yale University.— The Annual Catalogue, 188G-87. 

Young Men's Christian Association oe New York.— Their Thirty-fourth' 
Annual Report. 

Young Men's Christian Association oe Worcester. — " Ceremonies at 
the Laying of the Corner Stone of the Y. M. C. A. Building." 

348 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


By J. Evauts Greene. 

I hesitate to oiler to this Society, so many of whose 
members have contributed to its proceedings and do con- 
tribute at each meeting the fruits of original research, or 
of keen scrutiny, illuminating suggestion or weighty judg- 
ment to the results of others' researches, anything so 
simple, so devoid of originality or other claim upon your 
attention than the interest of its subject, as the contents of 
this paper. It contains but little which has not before 
been published. I have no reason to believe that the 
utmost diligence and pertinacity of research would have 
disclosed much more of historical material. At any rate 
such time as I have been able to give to the search lias not 
enabled me to add anything of importance to the material 
collected by the venerable Mr. C. K. Dillaway, from 
whose history, published at Koxbury in I860, I have 
derived almost all the facts recited in this paper. I have, 
however, taken pains to verify them by reference to the 
original authorities, and especially to the early records of 
the school and documents preserved with them, kindly 
placed at my disposal by Mr. Gorham Rogers, treasurer 
of the trustees, to whom and to Henry W. Putnam, Esq., 
a member of the board of trustees, I am indebted for valua- 
ble assistance. My subject is the Koxbury Latin School, 
as it is now commonly called, or The Grammar School in 
the Easterly Part of the Town of Koxbury, its corporate 

This school is doubtless the third in age of the institu- 
tions of learning in the United States. Its only seniors 

1887.] The Eoxbury Latin School. 34 ( J 

are the Boston Latin School and Harvard College. It 
was founded in 1645, only fifteen years after the settle- 
ment at Boston and thirteen years after the establishment 
of the church in Roxbury. I have examined the leather- 
covered parchment book in which the original agreement, 
by which it was founded, was written and subscribed by Hfty- 
two "Inhabitantes of Koxburie," and in which the scanty 
records of the school from its origin until 1787 were kept. 
It is folded across the middle as a pamphlet is sometimes 
folded for mailing and tied together with a leathern thong. 
Among the signatures to the earliest agreement are those 
of Dudley, Gookins, Eliot, Weld, Gore and many others 
familiar to the student of Massachusetts history. 

But this school, besides taking the third rank in age 
among the existing schools of this country, is still more 
remarkable in another respect, namely, that it is, I believe, 
the only school which, having never received from the 
State or town any endowment, grant or subsidy, or any- 
thing from the proceeds of taxation, except a small annual 
payment for a few years from the town in consideration of 
an enlargement of its course of study, is yet and has been, 
almost from its origin, as free to all the inhabitants of the 
town or in later days of the territory within the original 
town limits, as the public town or city schools. There 
may be other schools of comparatively recent foundation 
of which the same is true, but I do not know of any. 

About two hundred and tifty-two years ago (the exact 
date cannot now be ascertained, but probably in the year 
l(j45 and certainly before April Gib in that year), "the 
first inhabitants of Koxbury to the number of more than 
sixty families, well nigh the whole town in those days, 
agreed together to lay the foundation of a Grammar 
School, for the glory of God, the future good and service 
of the country and of the church of Christ, and for the 
particular good education of the youth of our church and 
town," as John Eliot says in a petition to the General 

350 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Court some years later. For this purpose they entered 
into an agreement and recorded it in a book, subscribing 
it with their names. The original agreement was lost in 
the burning of John Johnson's house, which, as Governor 
Winthrop says, happened on the 6th of April. Mr. John- 
son was the surveyor-general of the ammunition, and in 
his house at the time were "seventeen barrels of the 
country's powder and many arms." The agreement con- 
tained in "the second book," as it is termed in papers 
relating to the school, which is still preserved, is dated 
"the last day of August 1645" and is doubtless as- nearly 
as possible an exact copy of the first. It reads as 
follows : 

"Whereas the Inhabitantes of Roxburie, out of their 
relligeous care of posteritie, have taken into consideration 
how necessarie the education of their children in literature 
will be to fitt them for publick service both in Churche 
and Commonwealthe, in succeeding ages. They therefore 
unanimously have consented and agreed to erect a ) free 
schoole in the said towne of Roxburie, and to allow twenty 
pounds per annum to the schoolemaster to bee raised out 
of the messuages and part of the lands of the several 
donors, (Inhabitantes of the said Towne) in several propor- 
tions as hereafter followeth expressed under their hands. 
And for the well ordering thereof they have chosen and 
elected seven Feoffees, who shall have power to putt in or 
remove the Schoolemaster, to see to the well ordering of 
the schoole and scholars, to receive & pay the said twenty 
pounds pr annum to the Schoolemaster, & to dispose of 
any other gift or giftes which hereafter may or shalbe 
given for the advancement of learning & education of 
children. And if it happen that any one or more of the 
said Ucoffces to dye or by removal out of the Towne or 
excommunication to be displaced, the Said donors here- 
after expressed doe hereby covenant for themselves & for 
their heirs within the space of one month after such death 

1887.] The Roxbury Latin School. 351 

or removal 1 of any one or more 1 * * * fleoU'ecs to elect & 
choose others in their room 1 * * * the number may he 
compleate. And if the said donors or the greater part of 
them doe neglect to make election within the' time pre- 
lim ited, then shall the surviving ilcottees or the greater 
part of them elect new ileoilees in the roomc or roomes of 
such as are dead or removed (as before) to fulfill the 
number of seven, and this their election shalbe of equal 
validity and power as if it had been made by all or the 
greater number of the said donors. In consideration of 
the premises & that due provision may not be wanting for 
the maintenance of the schoolemaster forever, the donors 
hereafter expressed for the severall proportions or annuities 
by them voluntaricly undertaken & underwritten have given 
& granted and by these presentes doe for themselves, their 
heires and assigns respectively hereby give & grant unto 
the present Ileoilees viz, Joseph Weld, John Johnson, John 
Roberts, Joshua Hewes, Isaac Morrell, Thomas Lambe, 
& theire successors chosen as aforesaid the severall] 
rents or Summes hereafter expressed under theire hands, 
issuein<>e & goinge forthe of theire severall * * * lands 


& tenements in Roxburie hereafter expressed. To Have & 
to houlde perceive & enioy the said Annual rents or 
Summes to the onely use of the said ifree schoole in Rox- 
bury, yearly payable at or uppon the last of the first 
month & the last of September by even portions ; the first 
payment to begin the last of September in this present 
yeare. And the said donors for themselves theire heires 
& Assignes doe covenant to & with the Ileoilees & theire 
successors that if the said annual! rent or any part thereof 
be arriere & unpayed the space of twenty dayes next after 
the dayes appointed for payment, that then cVc from thence 
forth it shalbe lawful! for and to the said HeoH'ecs & theire 
successors into the said messuages Lands & premisses of 
the partie or parties makeing default to enter & distreine & 

i The book liii.s been guiiwed by mice unci a word or mure i.s miatang here. 

352 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the said distresses then and there found to leade, drive & 
carry away & the same to prize and sell for the payniente 
of the said rents, returning the overplus unto the Owners or 
proprietors of the said houses & Lands. And further the 
said donors doe for themselves, theire heires & assignee 
covenant & grant to & with the ffeoftees aforesaid that if no 
sufficient distresse or distresses can be had or taken in * * * 
the premisses according to the true intent & ineaninge of 
this present deed, or if it shall happen any rescous or 
pound breach to be made or replevie or repli vines to be 
sued or obtained of or for or by reason of any distresse or 
distresses to be taken by virtue of these presents as is 
aforesaid that then and from thence forth it shall be & may 
be lawful! for the said ffeoftees & theire successors into the 
said messuages lands & premisses to enter & the same & 
every part thereof to have use & enjoy to the use of the 
schoole & the rents issues & profitts thereof to receive & take 
& the same to deteine & keepe to the use & bchoofe of the 
schoole as is aforesaid without any account making (hereof 
unto the said donors, their heires or assignes & to use & 
occupie the said houses lands & premisses to the use afore- 
said untill such time as the said annual! rents or summes 
& every part or pareell thereof, with all arrierages & 
damages for non payment be fully satisfyed & payd unto 
the said ffeoftees theire successors or assignes by the said 
donors theire heires or assignes or any of them. Of which 
said rents or summes the said donors every and singular of 
them have putt the said ffeoftees in full possesion and 
seisin at the delivery hereof. And for the further satisfac- 
tion hereof the said donors become suitors to tho Honored 
Generall Court for the establishment hereof by theire 
Authority and power. Always provided that none of the 
Inhabitants of the said Towne of Roxbury that shall not 
joyne by subscribing their names and Somes in this act 
with the rest of the donors shall have any further benefit t 
thereby than other strangers shall have who are no inhab- 

1887.] The Eoxbury Latin School. 353 

itants. And lastly it is granted by the said donors that the 
iieollees & theire successors shall from time to time he 
accountable unto the court of Assistants and the donors for 
the trust committed to them when at any time they shalbe 
thereunto called and required. In witness whereof the 
donors aforesaid have hereunto subscribed their names and 
somes given yearly the last day of August in the ycare of 
our Lord 1645." 

It should be said here, however, that the idea ot a free 
school in lloxbury to be supported by rents granted out of 
the lands of the inhabitants did not originate with Thomas 
Dudley, Captain Gookins, Thomas Weld, John Eliot and 
othm-s whose names are signed to the agreement above 
mentioned, but, so far as now appears, to Samuel Hugburne, 
of whom I know only what Mr. Dillaway says in his 
history, that his will dated 1642, three years before the 
date of the agreement and the founding of the school, con- 
tains this provision : l 

" When Roxbury shall set up a free schoole in the towne, 
then shall ten shilling per annum, out of the house and 
house lot, be paid unto it forever." 

It is not known, however, that the school received any- 
thing under this will. 

By the burning of the first book the evidence of title to 
the rents granted out of the lands of some of the original 
donors was lost, and though most of them personally sub- 
scribed to the agreement in the second book, the signatures 
of others were only copies and to them were added the 
names of witnesses who could attest the fact of their having 
signed the first agreement. 

None of the records remaining show when the school 
was first opened. The first schoolmaster whose name is 
preserved was Joseph Hanford or Hansford, who was 
engaged in 1649 to teach the school the next year with a 
salary of twenty-two pounds, but an earlier record of the 
date of 1648 seems to me to indicate that "Bro Bridges" 

354 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

was the teacher in that year. Perhaps he was the Edward 
Bridges who signed the agreement granting a rent of two 
shillings out of his lands. The record of 1648, a short 
entry, refers to the rent of a house "made the school of 
Bro. Bridges." 

The school at any rate was "set up" immediately and 
has been maintained without interruption ever since. It 
was not at the first free to all the inhabitants of the town 
as appears by the proviso in the agreement, restricting its 
benefits to those of the inhabitants who "shall joyne in this 

For many years this was the only school kept in Rox- 
bury, the town itself not supporting any, though required 
by law since 1G47 to provide a schoolmaster to teach read- 
ing and writing, and when the town should have one hun- 
dred families or householders to set up a grammar school. 
In I0O8, when John Prudden was engaged as the school- 
master for the year ensuing, the salary had been increased 
to twenty-live pounds, "ye one halfe to be payed on ye 21) 
of September next ensuing the date hereof, and the other 
halfe on the 25 of March next ensuing, i. c. in ye year 
(70) ye said £25 to be payed by William Park and Robert 
Williams, their heirs and administrators at ye upper-mills 
in Roxbury, three quarters in Indian Corne or Peas and ye 
other fourth-part in Barley, all good and merchantable, at 
price current in ye countrey rate, at ye dayes of payment." 

About this time, owing to disputes in the town concern- 
ing the management of the school and some uncertainty of 
title to the annual rents granted for its maintenance and to 
certain lands which had come into occupation of the feoffees, 
it was thought best to petition the General Court for relief 
in these respects, and accordingly the feoffees by John 
Eliot and Thomas Weld presented their petition in 1 (>(Ji) to 
"ratify contirm and authorize the said School and the 
rents due thereunto by voluntary donations," to impower 
the Feoffees to receive and gather the rents, and to con- 

1887.] The Roxbury Latin School. 355 

firm the school's title to its lands. This petition was 
referred by the General Court to Major-General Leverett, 
Edward Tyng, William Stoughton and Thomas Shepard, 
as a committee to examine into the facts and report what 
should bo done. 

The next year this committee reported that the peti- 
tioners' desires should be granted, the school at Roxbury 
should be confirmed "to be a free school for all in that 
town," and that the titles should be settled as desired. 
The General Court in that year (1670) passed an act in 
conformity with the report, ratifying and establishing the 
agreement of 1645, authorizing the trustees to make dis- 
tress upon the respective estates of the donors for any 
sums of money unpaid of the annual rents, confirming the 
title of the feoffees to the lands of Laurent Whittemore, 
about fourteen acres, and to twenty acres of arable land in 
the great lots, "which hath been in occupation of the 
school about twenty years," and also providing that if 
there should be need of the future levying of any furUici* 
sums of money, for maintaining a schoolmaster, the donors 
to this school should be wholly free from any such levy or 
imposition. By this act the Feoftees of the school became 
a corporation with rights and powers and liabilities defined 
by law. 

The next event of special interest in the history of the 
school was the devise by Thomas Bell of all his lands in 
Roxbury to "the minister and other two such head officers 
of the church in Roxbury as the whole church there shall 
from time to time best approve of, successively from time 
to time forever," in trust "for the maintenance of a school- 
master and free schoolc for the teaching and instructing of 
poore mens children at Roxbury aforesaid forever." Mr. 
Bell was a London merchant and a man of substance. He 
came to Massachusetts in 1635, and was one of the early 
settlers in Roxbury, where he had a homestead near where 
the corner of Boylston and School streets now is, and lands 

356 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to the extent of one hundred and tifty acres or more. Pie 
was one of the founders of the school, having charged his 
land with the annual payment of twenty shillings. After 
living in Roxbury nearly twenty years, he returned to Lon- 
don in 1654, apparently because the affairs of church and 
state were then settled more to his liking, and lived there 
until the restoration and for some years after, dying at last 
in 1671. In view of his prominence among the first 
donors and of the permanence given to the foundation by 
the large estate he devised to it, to Mr. Bell perhaps, more 
than to any other, belongs the honor of being the founder 
of this school. 

The trustees under his will had no doubt of his intention 
to endow with his lands the free school then existing in 
Roxbury, and acted accordingly. But others in the town 
were not content with that disposition of the estate. This 
dispute also was referred to the General Court, which in 
1674 adjudged that "the declared intent of Mr. Thomas 
Bell, both in his life and at his death in his will, wa$ the 
settlement of his estate in Roxbury upon that free school 
then in being at his death in the said town." 

Mr. Bell's estate thenceforward for more than a century 
was managed by the trustees, the minister and two oflicers 
of the church, who paid the income to the feoffees of 
the school. These latter managed the other property, 
appointed the schoolmaster and directed the affairs of the 
school. Yet a few years later a vote of the feoffees is 
recorded authorizing two of their number "to let and sell 
the whole estate of Mr. Thomas Bell belonging to the free 
school * * * for the space of five hundred years." Leases 
were made in accordance with the above vote in which the 
two feoffees joined with the trustees in leasing those lands 
tor the term above named. These leases made in 1686 
and 1688 continued in force until 1717. For some years 
before that time much discontent had been expressed by 
the people of the town with this disposition of the lands, 

1887.] The Roxbury Latin School. 357 

and in that year the trustees under Mr. Bell's will peti- 
tioned the General Court for relief, representing that the 
long lease was made in prejudice of the school and 
"against the will and mind of the donors of that laudable 
charity." The council was willing to give the relief 
desired, but the representatives would not concur. Relief 
was then sought by suits at law, and the matter was finally 
compromised by the surrender of the long leases and the 
execution of others for shorter terms. 

In 1731 the income of the school appears from an 
account on tile to have been from Mr. Bell's farm £45, 
from other land £16, income from Governor Dudley's 
donation £3. From subscriptions £8, Is., lid. ; in all 
£72, 10s., lid. 

In the mean time other small parcels of land had come 
into the possession of the feoffees by devise or by grant, 
the consideration for some of the grants being the release 
of the annual rent charge upon other portions of the 
grantors' lands. A grant by the General Court of five hun-i 
died acres in Oxford to the town of Roxbury "for the 
maintenance of a free school" was claimed by the feoffees, 
but the town and not the school obtained it, sold it in 1770 
and '74 for £233-10 and preserved the proceeds as a dis- 
tinct fund for school purposes until 1790, when they were 
paid into the town treasury and appropriated to the ordi- 
nary expenses of the town. 

Nothing further in the history of the school need be 
noted here until the act of the General Court in 1789 
incorporating the Trustees of the Grammar School in the 
easterly part of the town of Roxbury, abolishing the two 
boards, of Feoffees and trustees of Mr. Bell's lands, and 
giving the control of the property and the school to a single 
board, of not more than thirteen nor less than nine mem- 
bers, of which the act provides that the minister and the 
two oldest deacons of the First Church of Christ in the 
said town of Roxbury shall always, by virtue of their 

358 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

offices, be members. The trustees are made "the true 
and sole Visitors, Trustees and Governors of the said 
school in perpetual succession forever." It is provided 
further that "as often as one or more of the trustees shall 
die, resign, remove, or in the judgment of the major part 
of the said Trustees for the time being, be rendered by age, 
infirmity or otherwise, incapable of discharging the duties 
of his office, then and so often the remaining part of the 
Trustees then surviving or the major part of them, at some 
stated meetings, shall elect by ballot one or more persons, 
being reputable freeholders in the town of lloxbury afore- 
said to fill such vacancy or vacancies." The trustees are 
required to hold annual and quarterly meetings. The 
trustees named in the act as the original members of the 
corporation were : the Honorable John Lowell, Esquire, 
Nchemiah Munroe, James Mears, Reverend Eliphalet Por- 
ter, Clerk, Honorable Increase Sumner, Esquire, Samuel 
Sumner, Joseph Ruggles, Esquire, Thomas Williams, 
Physician and Joseph Williams, Gentleman. I 

The first important action of the new trustees which it is 
necessary to note here, was the leasing of the greater part 
of the school lands for one hundred and twenty years. 
This policy seems to have originated with Judge Lowell to 
whom, says Mr. Dillaway, "the present financial pros- 
perity of the school is in a great degree to be attributed." 
In December, 17 ( J3, the trustees voted to lease a part of 
the lands for the term above mentioned, and leases were 
executed accordingly, reserving an annual rent of ten cents 
if demanded, and with covenants securing to the school 
such buildings and improvements as might be on the lands 
at the end of one hundred years or at any time thereafter, 
to be preserved in good order until the end of the term. 
Other leases with like considerations were executed in the 
next year, and in 179b' the greater part of the remaining 
lands were leased on the same terms. Most of these lands 
are so situated as to be now highly valuable and on them are 

1887. J The Roxbury Latin School. 359 

buildings erected by the lessees which will add to their 
value when they revert to the school at the expiration of 
the leases. The leases were sold at auction and the sums 
received for them were not much if any less than could 
have been obtained by the sale of the fee of the lands. 
The price received for the sale of all these leases in 1794- 
5-(J was about eleven thousand five hundred dollars. 

The wisdom of these acts of the trustees appears to have 
been seriously questioned in later years, but was elabo- 
rately justified in a report presented to the board in 1834 
by a committee of which John Lowell, son of the judge of 
the same name, the originator of the policy of long leases, 
was chairman. The report defends that policy on the 
ground that the trustees needed a capital more productive 
than the lands had been, yet thought it would not comport 
with the views of the original donors to relinquish altogether 
their title to the lands; that their value, which in little 
more than a century had risen from the price of a few 
blankets to the considerable sums for which they were then 
sold, would doubtless go on to increase in the same ratio 
or perhaps a higher one, and that it would be improvident 
in any generation to grant away from posterity property 
designed for that posterity. Their action possibly needed 
a defence then, it certainly needs none now. 

The successors of Mr. Lowell and his colleagues have 
not for the last fifty years rigidly adhered to the policy he 
set forth in that report, but have sold the reversion in a 
large part of the lands held by the trustees in his time. 
Then the lands of the school subject to long leases con- 
siderably exceeded one hundred acres in total area, now 
they are much less than half that. With the growth of 
the city, the increasing number of scholars applying for 
admission, and the higher standards and broader scope of 
educational requirements, the need of a larger working 
capital for the adequate equipment of the school became 
imperative and could only be supplied by the sale of its 

300 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

reversionary title to a portion of it.-, lands. The school, 

however, -till owns the reversion of numcrou- tracts of 
lund in various parte of Boxbory, some ot* them having 
small present or prospective value, while others would 
bring a high price now, and will, it may he presumed, be 

worth much more twenty-eight or thirty year- hence. 
B -ides these leased land-, which yield no income, the 
school has a few tracts which are in -lit occupancy, 

and invested funds yielding an income sufficient to employ 
a principal and six assistant teachers of such quality that 
the school maintains a rank equal to the highest among the 
great schools of the country for the scholarship and general 
performance of its pupils. Of its standard of scholarship 
in the early days it is perhaps as well not to inquire too 
closely. Cotton Mather does indeed -ay in hi- life of John 

"God so Messed his endeavor-, that Roxbury could not 
live quietly without a free school in the town; and the 
issue of it has been one thing which ha- almost made' me 
put the title of Schola illustris upon that little nursery ; 
that is, that Roxbury has afforded more scholars, first for 
the college and then tor the public, than any town of its 
bigness, or. if I mistake not, of twice its bigness in all \ 
England. From the spring of the school at Roxbury there 
has been a large number of the stream- which have- made 
glad this whole city of God." 

Yet only a little earlier, namely in 1681, Thomas 
Bernard, schoolmaster, write- to the feoffees as folk 

" Of inconveniences I shall instance in no other than that 
of the school house, the confused and shattered and nastie 
posture that it ifl in, not fitting to reside in; the glass 
broken and thereupon very raw and cold, the floor very 
much broken and torn up to kindle lire-, the hearth spoiled, 
the -< ats. some burnt and others out of Lilter, so that one 
had as well nigh as goods keep school in a hog stie a- 
in it." 

1887.] The Eoxbury Latin School. 361 

In order to reconcile the statements of these two con- 
temporary authorities it seems necessary to infer that neat- 
ness was not then so near to godliness as has been often 
affirmed in later times. 

In 1674, the master, Mr. Gore, was required to teach all 
scholars that shall attend belonging to the town, "whether 
Latin scholars, writers, readers or spellers." About one 
hundred years later the range of studies pursued was 
equally wide. From a list on tile it appears that there 
were in 1770, eighty-five scholars, of whom nine were in 
Latin, twenty cypherers, seventeen writers, ten were in 
the Testament, ten in the Psalter, nineteen were spellers. 
In 1728, Eben. Pierpont, master, was informed in reply 
to a request for instructions, that he need not receive any 
children for instruction until they can spell "common easy 
English words either in the Primer or in the Psalter in 
some good measure." 

In 1761, Joseph Warren, who some fourteen years later 
died gloriously at Bunker Hill , and whose house waa 
standing in my boyhood almost within a stone's throw of 
the present site of the school, was employed as the teacher. 
In December of that year he had occasion to remind the 
Feoffees of the fact in the following letter, which I have 
copied from the original among the treasurer's papers : 

Boston, December, 1761. 
Gentlemen : 

You may remember that you agreed with me to 
teach the school in Koxbury for forty-four Pounds sixteen 
shillings a year, of which I have received of Deacon 
Gridley twenty-live pounds twelve shillings, of the Kev. 
Mr. Adams about live Pounds, of the school boys to pay 
for the carting of wood two Pounds and eight pence, of 
which by your direction I expended eleven shillings and 
two pence in buying a Lock, Hooks, Staples and Nails for 
the repairing of the School House — So that there remains 

3(32 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

due to me about Thirteen Pounds, by Payment of which to 
my Mother or order you will greatly oblige 

Gentlemen Your 

H. Servant Joseph Warren. 

P. S. I am not certain of the particular sums received 
of the Rev. Mr. Adams, but his Receipts will determine it. 

To the Gentlemen intrusted with 
the care of the School in Roxbury. 

This letter or order bears the following indorsement : 

Roxbury Dec 1 ye 18 th 1761. Received pf Joseph 
Williams Esq 1 , one of the Feoll'ees of the free School in the 
Town of roxbury The Sum of thirteen pounds six shillings 
& eight pence in full of the within order, and in full for 
my son, Mr. Joseph Warren 8 keeping the said school I say 

Mary Warren. 

When my personal acquaintance with the school began, 
with my admission to it at the age of nine years in 18 14, 
the number of scholars was less than half what it had been 
one hundred years before. Mr. Benjamin Apthorp Gould, 
since eminent as an astronomer, was the master. An 
assistant had been employed in the time of his predecessor, 
Daniel Leach, but I think Mr. Gould had none. 

In the documents from which the history of the school is 
derived 1 find continual traces of hostility or jealousy more 
or less prevalent among the people of the town toward the 
school or its trustees. Within twenty-five years after its 
foundation John Eliot and Thomas Weld, in their petition 
to the General Court, ^ay that "some interruption and 
opposition hath risen." Later at many times during the 
first two centuries of the school's existence, the trustees 
were publicly reproached or called to account for their 
management, as if instruction were not so freely provided 
for the children of the poorer people as it ought to have 
been. They always cleared themselves from any direct 

1887.] The Roxbury Latin School. 363 

charges, but the feeling of jealousy remained. Mr. 
Parker, then master of the school, who wrote a sketch of 
its history, which was printed in a pamphlet at Roxbury in 
1826, L wrote: "Unfortunately for the town and also for 
the interests of the institution, an invidious prejudice has 
existed in former years which has prevented many from 
enjoying its benefits, which prejudice had its origin with- 
out doubt, in the circumstance that it was governed by 
individuals and not by the town. This prejudice has 
within a few years been nearly dissipated, and it is thought 
that nothing will tend so effectually to its complete removal 
as a candid statement of its origin, its history and the 
principles upon which it has been conducted." 

Mr. Parker's candid statement may have done some of 
the good which he proposed, but it did not obliterate the 
prejudice, which, though perhaps less violent than formerly, 
has survived him and will doubtless survive us. This in 
part caused the failure of the two attempts, one in 1839 
and the second in 1852 and continuing for five years, t(^ 
connect this school with the town school system, but no 
doubt the unwillingness of the trustees to be in any way 
hampered in their independence by a connection with the 
town or city government, tended to make joint action 
more difficult and a rupture of joint relations easier. 

In my time this jealous feeling found expression in a 
perpetual feud between the town school boys and the Latin 
school boys, with a good deal of fighting, in single combat 
or in companies somewhat carefully organized and skil- 
fully led. Once, I remember, we were besieged in our 
own school-house by a large force of Washington school 
boys exasperated by some recent occurrence. We were 
about ready to make a sortie, armed with ball clubs and 
other weapons of that character, confidently expecting to 

iA Sketch of the History of the Grammar School in the Easterly Part of 
Roxbury. Compiled from the Original Records of the School by B. G. Parker, 
A.M., Master of the Upper Department of the School. Roxbury : Printed by 
Thomas S. Watts, 1826. 

364 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

defeat and disperse the enemy, who numbered about ten 
to our one, or to cut our way through and retreat without 
serious loss, when the higher powers, represented by a 
selectman and a constable, appeared upon the scene and 
raised the siege. 

Toward the end of Mr. Gould's mastership he was ill for 
a week or two and sent one of his classmates as a substi- 
tute. Then occurred one of the two rebellions which I 
remember at the school. The scholars did not actually 
depose the master, for the older boys were shrewd enough 
to see that that would bring about a crisis. They simply 
did as they pleased, allowing the master to remain, but 
paying no more regard to his authority than was needed to 
prevent him from abdicating or appealing to the trustees. 
He tried appealing to force, but was quickly made to 
understand that, if that was the ultima ratio, we were better 
reasoners than he. The temporary master had the form, 
but not the substance of authority, he reigned but did not 
govern. The real power was in the hands of a few 01 the 
big boys. But the facts soon came to the notice of the 
trustees and an investigation was followed by the expul- 
sion of three or four boys who deserved it. 

This rebellion was followed shortly by an exhibition and 
an award of prizes. I gained one, I remember, for a trans- 
lation from the Latin. It was a silver medal, bearing the 
motto "Sic itur ad astra" indicating, I suppose, that, in 
the judgment of the trustees, the way to the stars for me 
was by translation, notwithstanding the very few examples 
in sacred or profane history of the passage being made that 

The principals of the school in my time (I left it in 
1849), were Mr. Gould, Henry B. Wheelwright and 
Charles Short. Mr. Gould I am sure had the respect and 
atfection of all of us. Mr. Short we knew as an exact and 
exacting scholar. I think the idea of scholarship in the 
sense of thorough and precise knowledge first came to us 

1887. J The Roxbury Latin School. 36$ 

through him. He was dissatisfied with the versions of the 
elassics published in this country and insisted upon our 
using as text books eopies of foreign editions imported by 
himself. The revival of learning at this school and the 
attainment of a high standard of proficieney by its scholars, 
as tested by comparison with the pupils of other schools in 
their examinations and work at college, seems to me to 
have begun with him. I am giving my own impressions 
only. Mr. Gould might have left the same impression if I 
had come under his influence later or remained under it 
longer, but a boy of nine or ten years cannot be expected 
to think much of scholarship. 

To my mind the interesting facts in the history of this 
school, unquestionably the oldest by far, if not the only 
free school in this country not supported or aided by the 
proceeds of public taxation, are its continuity and the wis- 
dom and faithfulness with which its property has been pre- 
served and increased for nearly two hundred and fifty 
years, with scarcely any additional endowments after the) 
first fifty years. It has lived within, but always up to its 
income, it has spent nothing in pretentious or stately archi- 
tecture, but its teachers and scholars have been sheltered 
as cheaply as was consistent with comfort and reasonable 
convenience. Some of its trustees did in earlier days 
receive occasionally small sims for special services, but 
for more than forty years all their duties have been per- 
formed without payment, and not a dollar of the funds has, 
I believe, ever been spent for banquets or any form of 
personal gratification to the trustees. 

Among; the eminent and honored men who have been 
connected with the school as trustees or teachers, I will 
mention only a few : John Eliot, whose name should be 
worth more than a title of nobility to those who bear it, 
Governors Joseph Dudley and Increase Sumner, William 
Gushing, Justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, the two John Lowells, father and son, Joseph 

366 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Warren, William Emerson, the father of Ralph Waldo, 
and in our own time the late Rev. George Putnam, besides 
those who have been mentioned in other parts of this 
paper. If the school shall live so long as some of these 
names will be remembered, a posterity more remote in the 
future than the earliest dawn of history is in the past will 
be grateful to its founders. 

18t>7.] Selections from Letters. 307 

DAGGETT, 1786-1802. 

Communicatee »y Fkanklin B. Dexteii. 

The following extracts are selected from the correspondence 
of Chief Justice David Daggett, in the possession of the 
Library of Yale University. 

Judge Daggett was born in Attleborough, Mass., in 17(54, 
and was graduated at Yale in 1783. He remained in New 
Haven, as a student and practitioner of law, and early 
became prominent as a leader of the Connecticut Federalists. 

The iirst extract presented is from a letter of a classmate 
on his return from a prospecting tour in the South. He, 
tinally settled in Philadelphia. \ 

" Baltimore, Oct. 13th, 1786. 

* * 1 have lived a very roving life, since my last con- 
fab with you, and tho' it hath turned out nothing better 
than barely satiating my curiosity, yet I consider myself 
richly paid. I find not so great a disparity between the 
Northern and Southern States as I expected, before I made 
my tour. 1 find in them neither rivers of gold nor rocks 
of diamonds, neither are we fed with the quails of heaven 
nor with the manna that comes down from above. But the 
curse is entailed upon the people in this climate as well as 
in New England — * with the sweat of thy brow shalt thou 
eat thy bread.' 

North Carolina which hath been the Elisium of some as 
has been pretended, is the most wretched place in nature 
and the poorest State in the Union. Virginia is better, 
but the inhabitants are a disagreeable set of beings. What 
militates against the young lads who come this way from 
Yale and Harvard is that many young professional men 
came at the end of the war and are still coming out from 

368 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Great Britain, Ireland and Scotland, and are establishing 
themselves in business, to whom greater credit and confi- 
dence are given than to Yankees ; because they suppose 
that no man can have a tolerable education in America 
unless it is completed in Europe. Yale is not known. 
They suppose in these parts that Boston includes all New- 
England, and I have been asked repeatedly whether New- 
England was not in Boston. Nothing but the essence of 
genius can withstand the torrent of bigotry and prejudice 
that is in action against the New-Englanders I conceive 
that they are jealous of their rights and are fearful that the 
Northern States will be their Law-Givers. Be that as it 
may, 1 think the time is approaching. 

With best respects to all friends, I am, Dear Sir, your's 

Ciias. C. White." 

The following is from a letter written by another college 
acquaintance, Barnabas Bidwell (Yale, 1785), from his 
home in that region in Western Massachusetts which was 
just recovering from the experience of Shays's Rebellion : 

"Tyiungham, June 16th, 1787. 

* * * Since I came from New Haven, I have trav- 
ersed the greatest part of this County and a considerable 
part of Hampshire ; partly for the sake of business, but 
more in order to gratify my curiosity and gain information 
concerning the political state of People. I find the majority 
of the populace have been disaffected to Governmental 
measures. The Gentlemen of learning & the liberal pro- 
fessions, especially the Clergy, are universally for Govern- 
ment. Debtors are generally on the other side ; and this 
class comprehends more than half of the people. Persons 
guilty of crimes, or who wish to commit crimes ; Rhode 
Island Emigrants and almost all of the denomination of 
Baptists; men. of warm passions & but little reason; men 
of tickle minds, fond of every new scheme and proud of an 
enterprising spirit, — such have pretty generally engaged in 
the Insurrection. They have been joined by many, who 
have no attachment to any establishment, but were glad of 
the commotion, as it gave them something to do. They 
have also drawn in a large number of boys ; and also of the 

1887.] Selections from Letters . 3 69 

ignorant, uninformed, but well-meaning common people, 
who hearing such a dreadful outcry against Government, 
believed there were some intolerable grievances, although 
they knew not what. Almost all, with whom I have con- 
versed, acknowledge that they took a wrong method to get 
redress, by resorting to arms and stopping Courts, when 
the alterations which they desired might be procured by 
instructing their Representatives or changing them at the 
ensuing election. Yet they justify themselves, by censur- 
ing the consequent treatment of Government. Artful, 
designing men have had the address to engage the multitude 
in their service, and at the same time make them believe 
they were serving themselves. When this delusion was 
once eifected, the people scorned to give out, especially as 
they believed the majority, and indeed almost the whole, to 
be on their side. This mistake was natural. For let any 
company or any nation be divided, one half for the present 
establishment, and the other half for something new, yet 
the talk will be almost all for the change ; and consequently 
a majority will appear to be on that side. At present each 
party endeavour to triumph, the Friends of Government 
in the total suppression of the rebel force ; & the Malcon-3 
tents in the change of Administration. Yet if the same is 
Hrmly pursued, they will be compleatly baffled, and Govern- 
ment acquire new vigour ; — which is the wish of your 
humble servant, 

B. Bid well." 

The next extract is from the pen of the Rev. Henry 
Channing (Yale, 1781), a native of Newport, Rhode Island, 
and the uncle of the Rev. Dr. W. E. Channing of Boston. 
The convention for framing the Constitution of the United 
States had risen one week before the date of his letter. 
He was settled at this time in New London, Connecticut, 
but was just now spending his honeymoon in Lyme. 

"Lyme, Sept r . 28th, 1787. 

* * * A word on Politics. What say you to the 
result of Convention? Mr. [Pierpont] Edwards, I per- 
ceive, is enthusiastic in its favour & sanguine in his expec- 
tations of its adoption. He tells me your good friend 

370 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Chauncey is as he was. He is representative : I cannot 
think that he is really the representative of the influential. 
The representation in general is good & I hope that we 
shall yet see the reestablishment of government. Rhode 

Island will reject the proposed constitution, for the D 1 

hath great wrath, knowing that his time is short. They 
are a truly wretched people & have no prospect of speedy 
relief, unless there be a union of the other States. In this 
case I should hope to see them governed. You know that I 
have always been a Friend to government. The Paper 
money gentry considered me as greatly reprehensible 
because when at Newport I publicly prayed for & pitied 
them. I don't know that they considered themselves politi- 
cal apostates for whom prayer ought not to be made. I 
pity the minority, their situation is truly unhappy ; they 
keep up their spirits and lash with satire. The Herald you 
doubtless read. The majority call it the Scourge. It 
indeed makes them bleed and groan. I expect to visit 
Newport the next week. I intend to go as far in boldness 
of speech as will consist with the dignity of the Pulpit & 
the spirit of the Gosplc, which is undaunted as well as 
meek." * * * j 

Next is a series of extracts from letters of the Hon. 
Zephaniah Swift (Yale, 1778), of Windham, Connecticut 
(afterwards Chief Justice of the State), written during the 
earlier part of his service as a Member of Congress. 

''Philadelphia, Dec 1 ". 31 th , 1793. 

* * As to Congress I am hardly ready to give you 
my sentiments concerning it. I have had such a vast 
variety of objects to engage my attention, that 1 have not 
been able to form any accurate opinion about any thing. 

We are accommodated with a very elegant, convenient, 
and splendid room, but there is much less dignity in our 
proceedings than I expected. Our Speaker 1 tho' a worthy 
man has not one Talent for his office. He has no grace, 
dignity, or propriety in his conduct. He has the German 
pronunciation and is hardly to be understood when he 
speaks. He was elected by a cursed Intrigue of the Mem- 
bers from Pennsylvania. The Members do not conduct 

Ulon. Frederick A. Muhleuber^, of Peim.sylvuuia. 

370 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Chauncey is as he was. He is representative : I cannot 
think that he is really the representative of the influential. 
The representation in general is good & I hope that we 
shall yet see the recstablishment of government. Rhode 

Island will reject the proposed constitution, for the D 1 

hath great wrath, knowing that his time is short. They 
are a truly wretched people & have no prospect of speedy 
relief, unless there be a union of the other States. In this 
case I should hope to see them governed. You know that I 
have always been a Friend to government. The Paper 
money gentry considered me as greatly reprehensible 
because when at Newport I publicly prayed for & pitied 
them. I don't know that they considered themselves politi- 
cal apostates for whom prayer ought not to be made. I 
pity the minority, their situation is truly unhappy ; they 
keep up their spirits and lash with satire. The Herald you 
doubtless read. The majority call it the Scourge. It 
indeed makes them bleed and groan. I expect to visit 
Newport the next week. I intend to go as far in boldness 
of speech as will consist with the dignity of the Pulpit & 
the spirit of the Gosple, which is undaunted as well as 
meek." * * * | 

Next is a series of extracts from letters of the Hon. 
Zephaniah Swift (Yale, 1778), of Windham, Connecticut 
(afterwards Chief Justice of the State), written during the 
earlier part of his service as a Member of Congress. 

"Philadelphia, Dec r . 31 th , 1793. 

* * As to Congress I am hardly ready to give you 
my sentiments concerning it. I have had such a vast 
variety of objects to engage my attention, that 1 have not 
been able to form any accurate opinion about any thing. 

We are accommodated with a very elegant, convenient, 
and splendid room, but there is much less dignity in our 
proceedings than I expected. Our Speaker 1 tho' a worthy 
man has not one Talent for his office. He has no grace, 
dignity, or propriety in his conduct. He has the German 
pronunciation and is hardly to be understood when he 
speaks. He was elected by a cursed Intrigue of the Mem- 
bers from Pennsylvania. The Members do not conduct 

iHon. Frederick A. Muhlenberg, of Pemisylviiuia. 

1887.] Selections from Letters, 371 

with much propriety. They form parties round the fire 
and talk so loud as to disturb those who wish to attend to 
business, and the speaker has not firmness enough to keep 
them to order. It is really true that we lose much of our 
influence by the undignified mode of our conduct. Con- 
gress do not conduct with so much dignity, propriety, and 
good order as a Connecticut House of Representatives. 
The new Members from Connecticut are yet too modest to 
take a part in the debates, but I presume that their modesty 
will wear Off in due time. 

The conduct of the President is such as merits the sup- 
port of Congress and the Citizens of the United States. 
You may be assured that the Connecticut delegation are 
firm friends to the present administration, but I find in 
Philadelphia many wild furious mad democrats, who wish 
to raise the Devil. They are vexed that Congress close 
their Galleries during their debates upon the confidential 
communications from the President respecting the Algerines. 
They call us the Servants and say they are the Masters, 
but the Servants have had the pleasure to turn their Masters 
out of doors sundry times. 1 have no idea of going from 
Connecticut where the great body of the People are respecta*- 
ble and well informed to have the mob of Philadelphia call 
me their masters." * * * 

"Philadelphia, March 5 th , 1794. 

* * * You have probably heard of the Vote of the 
Senate to open their doors the next session. I am fully of 
opinion that the doors of the Senate ought not to be opened, 
and yet in the present situation of alfairs it became necessary. 
Much jealousy and enmity had been excited against that 
Branch of our Legislature in the Southern States by the 
secrecy of their deliberations, and some in the Senate who 
were disposed to do mischief had it in their power to attack 
particular characters, and their misrepresentations could not 
be counteracted because the transactions were private. In 
particular some of the Southern took advantage of this to 
injure the Eastern Members, and there is a great prejudice 
among the Southern people against the Senators from the 
Eastward. It was thought that opening the doors of the 
Senate would remove this ground of jealousy and enmity 
and take away the power of misrepresentation — that when 

372 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the People in the Southern States hud a chance to see what 
the conduct of the Eastern Senators actually was, that they 
would find them much more deserving their confidence than 
their own, and that in effect the tables would be turned 
against the advocates for the measure — that they would 
lessen in the public estimation, while the characters of the 
Gentlemen against whom the blow was aimed would rise in 
proportion. The abilities of the Eastern Members or rather 
those who have opposed the measure of opening the doors 
are much the most brilliant, and I suspect the Senatorial 
Democrats will repent of their rashness & folly." * * * 

"Philadelphia, April 17"*, 1794. 

* * * In regard to Sequestration [of British debts] 
it ought to be considered as a part of a System of Measures 
pregnant with the deepest Mischief. It is an object with 
the Virginia Members and many others from the Southern 
States to cut off all commercial connection with Great 
Britain. They wish at least to adopt measures that shall 
defeat a Negotiation. * * * While this measura was 
under consideration the President sent a Nomination to the 
Senate of Mr. Jay to be Envoy Extraordinary to the Court 
of Great Britain. * * Mr. Jefferson was never men- 
tioned here as proposed for an Embassador. Mr. Hamil- 
ton was mentioned, but the Southern Democrats made such 
rout that it was thought best by Hamilton himself to 
appoint Mr. Jay against whom one would suppose there 
could be no objection, and yet the Southern Democrats 
object. I once mentioned to some of them Mr. Ellsworth, 
but they objected and declared they had no confidence in 
him. As you know Mr. Ellsworth you may judge what 
opinion to form of these people. There is no such thing as 
conciliation with them. They would not have any confi- 
dence in an Angel if he would not avow himself of their 
party. I wish you could be here a short time to acquire a 
just idea of Virginia politics. You could not help detesting 
them as ruinous to the country. To detail them would be 
impossible in a letter. When I see you again I will tell 
you the whole and you will be convinced that if they should 
pervade the Union that they would destroy the Govern- 
ment." * * * 

1887.] Selections from Letters. 373 

"Philadelphia, Nov r . 11 th , 1794. 

* * * You intimate that some influential characters 
in the country are disposed to give an aristocratic tone to 
our Government. I am sorry to hear a gentleman of your 
information intimate a suspicion so unfounded and ground- 
less. I am satisfied from the fullest enquiry and the best 
information that there are no gentlemen of any influence in 
the United States, that wish to have the principles of Mon- 
archy or Aristocracy introduced into our Government. 
All the leading characters in administration are .strictly 
Kepublicans, and wish to give no other tone to our Govern- 
ment than what is necessary to preserve it against that spirit 
of Jacobinism which under the specious name of Democracy 
would level all distinctions in Society and destroy the princi- 
ples of genuine liberty and good Government. It is people 
of this description who have branded the real friends of order 
and humanity with the odious epithet of Aristocrats, for the 
purpose of destroying their influence and laying the founda- 
tion for the Government of a mob — the most detestable 
Government that ever God suffered to vex the human race. 
But the spirit of Jacobinism is visibly on the decline in this 
Country. The insurrection in Pennsylvania is the happiest 
event that ever happened to the United States. It has 
exhibited Democracy in practice, and even Democrats are 
frightened with the horrid monster. There is an astonish- 
ing change of sentiment among the People here, and the 
suppression of this insurrection will give the Government 
of the United States a tone, an energy, and dignity, which 
will defy all the efforts of Anarchy and Jacobinism. There 
is no danger of our being involved in the war, and the 
most glorious prospect is opening before the United 

You mention that you and Mr. Reeve expect to see a 
millenium in politics and the utter extinction of Royalty in 
the course of this generation. It is quite as probable that 
you will see a Millenium in Religion, and the second coming 
of Christ to live and rule and reign a thousand years in 
America, as some visionaries have supposed. The prog- 
ress of things in France by no means indicates the utter 
extinction of Royalty in that Country, but only that the 
sceptre will be transferred to n different family. Some 

.374 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Individual has governed France in the most absolute man- 
ner ever since the murder of Louis. Danton & Robespierre 
were Kings in effect for a time, and Tallien now reigns. 
Revolutions will continue till some one takes the helm who 
has an armed force to defend his throne and crush all 
opposition. This is the course of things, and there is not 
the remotest prospect of ever establishing a Republican 
Government in France." * * * 

"Philadelphia, Dec r . 13 th , 1794. 

* * * I agree with you in the commendation of the 
speech of Mr. Ames, but can assure you that the speech 
published falls infinitely short of the speech actually 
delivered, both as it respects the elegance of stile, the 
energy of expression, and the wonderful brilliancy of meta- 
phor, for which Ames has the most copious talents of any 
man I ever heard speak. To this must be added that beauti- 
ful, animated and interesting manner for which he is dis- 
tinguished and which is wholly lost in reading. Indeed it 
was the most sublime and eloquent harangue which I ever 
heard, and Ames is the most accomplished orator in the 
United States. The great Maddison, who has acquired so 
much undeserved celebrity, spoke the day following. He 
had full time to collect his ideas, arrange his arguments, 
and round his periods ; but I assure you he is a child in 
comparison with Ames. A hollow, feeble voice, — an 
awkward, uninteresting manner, — a correct stile without 
energy or copiousness, — are his distinguishing traits ; tho' 
correct in expression and solid in judgment, yet he is 
wholly destitute of vigour of genius, ardour of mind, and 
brilliancy of imagination, He has no lire, no enthusiasm, 
no animation ; but he has infinite prudence and industry, 
the greatest apparent candor, he calculates upon everything 
with the greatest nicety and precision ; he has unquestiona- 
bly the most personal influence of any man in the house of 
Representatives. I never knew a man that better under- 
stood to husband a character and make the most of his 
talents ; and he is the most artificial, studied character on 
earth." * * *' 

The following extract from a letter of a townsman of 
Judge Daggett, William Bristol, Esq. (Yale, 1798), illus- 

1887.] Selections from Letters, 375 

t rates the feeling of good Federalists toward John Adams 
in the last year of his Presidency : 

"New Haven, June 30 th , 1800. 

Our President came in town on his Journey to Massa- 
chusetts on Saturday, & has not yet gone on. There have 
been no congratulatory addresses ; no ringing of Bells ; no 
firing of Cannon ; & I believe very little rejoicing at his 
advent. He went to the Chapel yesterday in the forenoon ; 
& to resemble his Predecessor in office, in one particular, 
staid at home in the afternoon. Mr. [Pierpont] Edwards 
is the only Person that, I have yet learned, has visited him. 
The President tells him that Mr. Pickering opposed him in 
every measure of administration & that it was necessary for 
himself to give up his office or that Mr. Pickering should 
surrender his. That in his opinion it would be more con- 
venient to the interest of the Public that Mr. P should give 
up first, &c, &c. All this may be true; but, credat 
Judaeus Apella." * * * 

In 1800 Judge Daggett's classmate and most intimate 
friend, John Cotton Smith, afterwards Governor of thej 
State, was sent to Congress; a few extracts from his early 
letters are here given : 

"Washington, 18. Dec r ., 1800. 

* * * The votes of Kentucky & Tennessee have not 
arrived. But the Jacobins shudder at the sure & certain 
prospect of their being unanimous for Jefferson & Burr, — 
in which case probably the election will devolve upon this 
house. Their civility to us poor federalists becomes every 
hour more conspicuous. They are sure, they say, we shall 
prefer Mr. Jefferson ; at any rate they are confident we 
shall be willing to gratify them in the choice, as they most 
assuredly would have been thus polite & accommodating to 
us if Adams & Pinckney had been placed in a similar situa- 
tion. We tell them the alternative is indeed dreadful, but 
as we have always been inclined towards an efficient admin- 
istration, so the man of the two who shall be found to 
possess the most energy of character, the man most practi- 
cal & least visionary, must undoubtedly be preferred. In 
short the only consolation left us, a horrid one it is true, 

376 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

consists in boring these fellows ; and you may be assured 
that all we have suffered, all that we can suffer, at the loss 
of our hopes is not to be compared with their apparent 
distress at the present position of business. 

But, seriously, a powerful interest is making for the 
parous homo [i. e. Burr] in the event of an cquivote; and 
strange as it may seem, the thing becomes daily more 
plausible to our most sober & respectable members. J give 
no opinion, but I shall be gratified with yours." * * * 

"Washington, 1. Jany., 1801. 

* * * I trust you will approve the plan here proposed 
to worm ourselves out of the vast political embarrassment 
under which we labor. It seems now the undivided senti- 
ment among federalists in the house & indeed in the sur- 
rounding country, to oust Jefferson of the Presidency at all 
hazards. We will support Burr, and if the Jacobins were 
serious & sincere in offering him to the people, they will, a 
sufficient number of them at least, join us. Otherwise let 
them take on themselves the responsibility of an interreg- 
num. The federal part of the house have not yet held a 
caucus, but that we shall come to such a conclusion & 
invariably adhere to it when formed, I think there is little 
doubt." * * * 

"Washington, 13. Jany., 1801. 

* * * We arc waiting anxiously for the 2nd Wednes- 
day of Feb'y. There is a certain '•fearful looking for* 
pictured on the countenances of both parties which can 
admit of no description. Circumstances favorable to 
B[urr]'s election multiply daily. This project, at once 
abhorred and supported by all good federalists, is fast 
ripening for execution. I received last evening a letter 
from Judge Reeve 1 on this subject which ought to be printed 
in letters of gold. His discernment surmounts all preju- 
dice, and his enlightened conception of the policy of the 
measure has enabled him to subdue his abhorrence of the 
man. It is playing a deep & hazardous game, but if we 
all stand our hands I trust the issue will be such as our 
country & Heaven itself shall approve." * * * 

i Brother-in-law of Burr. 

1887.] Selections from Letters. 377 

" Washington, 2. March, 1801. 

* * * This city already exhibits a sad spectacle of 
depravity. I much doubt whether more of those vices 
which go equally to the destruction of all private & social 
happiness have been practiced in any capital town on the 
continent the last three months than in this same dismal 
metropolis. Gambling in all its forms and debauchery of 
every species have prevailed to a degree that must alarm & 
afflict every reflecting mind. The want of elegant amuse- 
ments has been attempted to be supplied by the indulgence 
of the most gross & beastly appetites. 'If these things are 
done in the green tree what will be done in the dry?' * * * 
A project has been on foot to remove back to Philadelphia ; 
it is now abandoned. In truth this place is good enough 
for the men shortly to be in power, & the farther they are 
separated from our country, the better our chance to pre- 
serve entire the principles & habits of the only uncorrupted 
portion of the nation. 

You no doubt have expected that in the course of this 
long, and I fear tedious letter, something should be said of 
the new executive, the new chief justice, &c, &c. A vol- 
ume would be required to pourtray the public sins & private 
follies of the former. There are more ridiculous traits in 
his character than you would believe were I to attempt the 
delineation of them. The latter deserves all that has been' 
said of his talents, but he is equally destitute of firmness & 
the least dignity of manners." * * * 

''Washington, 7. Deer., 1801, 

A quorum of the two houses have assembled. * * A 
joint committee are now waiting on the President of U. S. 
to inform him of the readiness of the legislature to receive 
his communications. Report says no SPEECH to ije 
delivered, but that a written message will be sent us 
tomorrow. The truth of this rumour will probably be 
ascertained by the return of the committee. 

The committee have this moment returned & their report 
confirms the above statement. Every one will make his 
own comment on this unprecedented procedure. However 
I may admire the pusillanimous caution of the measure, I 
do not hesitate to pronounce it a most outrageous indignity 
oll'ered to the National legislature. 

378 American Antiquarian Society. April, 

Whenever the written thing shall make its appearance it 
shall be forwarded to you." * * * 

The closing extract of this series is from a letter of the 
same correspondent, written during the discussions in the 
House on the Judiciary Bill : 

"Washington, 20. Feby., 1802. 

* * * I am doubtful whether the discussion of this 
subject will close even with the next week ; its magnitude 
and importance seem to increase as its fatal issue approaches. 
Our side of the house have hitherto appeared to infinite 
advantage, — but there is no possibility of preventing the 
passage of the bill. No human means can avert the deadly 
blow from the victim. The constitution must be immolated. 
This measure alone might not absolutely destroy the govern- 
ment, but it is only the precursor of other & more fatal 
attacks. Every day discloses facts which leave no room 
for conjecture on this point. What then is to be done? — 
Shall we, who have made every possible exertion to stop 
the progress of vandalism, remain here to witness its 
triumphs? This is a solemn question, and requires much 
deliberation." * * * 

1887.] Explorations in Yucatan. 379 


By Edward H. Thompson. 

At the time of the appointment of Mr. Edward II. Thompson as 
United States Consul at Merida, the hope was confidently entertained 
that he would be able to explore and bring to light some of the many 
ruins which still lie hidden in the interior of Yucatan. Notwithstand- 
ing the limited time which Mr. Thompson has held this position, — a time 
hardly sufficient for him to familiarize himself with the language and 
customs of a people and country new to him, — this hope has been already 

In the interesting article by Mr. Thompson, which was read at the 
last meeting of the Society, upon the general subject of archaeological 
research in Yucatan, he expressed the hope that he would be able before 
many months to submit the results of an exploration of the ruins of 
Labna. Since that time Mr. Thompson has been enabled to carry out 
the purpose thus expressed, and a valuable account of this expedition, 
in the form of a diary, has recently been received. I 

Iu reading the story of this exploration we can but be astonished 
as much by the great number of the ruins of Yucatan as by their vast- 
ness, and by the elaborateness of sculptured work lavished upon them. 
In few parts of the world are clearer indications given by ancient 
remains of a dense population, and of the power of priests and rulers 
to concentrate the energies of a nation upon great public works. Mr. 
Thompson's especial object in his expedition was to attempt the repro- 
duction, on a much larger scale than had before been tried, of the 
facade of one of the buildings in some one of the ruined cities. By the 
use of paper moulds from which could be made casts in plaster of sec- 
tions of a building he hoped to be able to place before us in plaster 
casts the entire front of the structure as it stands to-day with a lidelity 
to nature which could be attained in no other manner. Great perse- 
verance and much ingenuity in the face of unforeseen obstacles were 
necessary to carry out such a design, and even had his idea failed of 
completion he would have won great credit for himself. It is pleasant, 
however, to be able to say that his object has been very successfully 
accomplished, and we may hope before long to see its visible evidence. 

His skill as a photographer has also been effectively shown in the 
twenty illustrative photographs which were forwarded to the Society 
with Mr. Thompson's article. These views, taken during the progress 
of his work, show a high degree of artistic ability, the more creditable 

380 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

for being taken under such disadvantageous circumstances. They show 
also, better than any description can do, how the luxuriance of tropical 
vegetation must have delayed him at every step. 

The diary which Mr. Thompson has sent was written hastily during 
the progress of the work, and covers thirty-live foolscap pages. While 
much of this space is given up to a detailed statement of each day's 
work it yet describes truly and vigorously the dilliculties which lay in 
his way and the successful carrying out of his purpose. 

The following abstract of the diary has been prepared by Mr. Reuben 
Coltou, and is by him communicated to the Society : — 

The region of my explorations is not in itself of suffieient 
importance for a special visit, as it contains now only 
shapeless mounds and fragments of hewn stones, but it is 
one of those places always interesting to pass through, and 
I have never yet found a ruin or fragment of a ruin from 
which I could not glean something new and interesting. 
At Tabi, my last point of contact with civilization, 1 found 
that Senor Antonio Fajardo had, with his accustomed energy 
and kindness, carried out all my wishes in a most ellective 
manner. Men, horses, pack-mules and the stored pre- 
viously forwarded were in readiness. 

Upon my arrival at Labna some of the men were at 
once employed making ladders to be used in the coming 
work, while others cleared a suitable spot for the encamp- 
ment, unpacked the animals, and began to hunt up the 
ramon trees, from whose succulent leaves and twigs the 
horses and mules of this region get their chief sustenance. 
With a native to help carry my measuring line and appara- 
tus I began the examination of one of the best preserved 
of the edifices. Most of the chambers arc unconneeted. 
There are, however, several double chambers, one of which 
is generally placed at the extreme end of, and at right 
angles to, the other ; the two forming a T more or less 
perfect in shape. I have found within each apartment of 
these double chambers two curious recesses or secret cham- 
bers. These recesses are entered by a small square open- 
ing raised about five feet from the floor. This entrance 
appeared at tirst sight to indicate that one of the stones 

1887.] Explorations in Yucatan. 381 

from the wall had fallen out, and I have no doubt that by 
means of such an artful device these entrances were filled 
and their existence was thus kept secret. Through so 
small an opening I had great difficulty in forcing an 
entrance. By dint of much pushing from behind I managed 
to get my body into and through the narrow passage, and 
found myself in a miniature chamber. At the end of this 
was an entrance to a second chamber placed at right angles 
to the first. Thus was formed a double chamber, the 
counterpart in miniature of the larger one. These minia- 
ture apartments (they were scarcely large enough to hold 
one person) were in an absolutely perfect state of preserva- 
tion. The beautifully smooth hard finish of walls and 
arched ceiling showed no signs of the wear of time, and I 
doubt if there exists in Yucatan a more perfect example of 
Maya mason work than these secret chambers at Labna. I 
must confess to much disappointment upon finding them to 
be entirely empty*. 

The facade of which I am about to take the mould wa| 
not only elaborately sculptured and symmetrically finished 
but upon it a story is told. This fact is none the less 
patent because we cannot as yet decipher it. The huge 
serpent symbol with its inscriptions placed directly over 
the principal apartments of the edifice, the curiously cos- 
tumed statues carved in stone, and the wide stretched 
dragon's jaws grasping a human head, I do not believe 
were combined with a view to artistical effect alone but 
were intended to convey some definite page of human 
history, or some narrative of a nature important to those 

In the chambers of the upper terrace I find painted upon 
the apex of the arched ceiling some almost illegible charac- 
ters. They are of a deep sea-green color but so mutilated 
by tho destruction of the cement upon which they arc 
painted that decipherment is impossible. These are the 
only traces of mural paintings that I have been able to 

382 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

discover, and I regret very much their almost complete 

I find myself very much perplexed over the origin of the 
sculptured figures upon the facade of which I am making 
the moulds. On one hand, certain circumstances seem to 
favor the idea that it is a symbol of the serpent god modi- 
fied by custom and the lapse of ages until at last a simple 
combination of head and curving tail served to symbolize 
the great winged serpent. On the other hand, there are 
reasons for believing that these figures were intended as 
symbols of some pachyderm, a mammoth, elephant, or tapir. 
The tapir, danta, was certainly known to the race that 
built these ruins, as he still inhabits the water-courses of 
Yucatan and Guatemala. Between the above mentioned 
symbolical figure and the so-called elephant's trunk adorn- 
ment, many intermediary forms exist ; it is not hard to 
discover that they are only variations from the original 
figure. * 

During Mr. Thompson's stay at Labna he made an examination of 
one of the underground reservoirs similar to those at Ohichcn-ltza 
which Stephens has drscribed. He gives the following account of his 
experiences : 

After determining by sundry experiments that the 
mephitic gas had not accumulated within, I looped a rope- 
around my waist and with candles in hand and my machete 
between my teeth in readiness for the sudden appearance of 
python or cascabel, serpents which delight to frecjuent such 
cavities, I was slowly lowered until my feet touched a solid 
floor covered with debris. I found myself in a subterranean 
chamber similar in appearance and in form to the chambers 
of the ruins, differing only in the entire absence of the 
cavities that in the upper chambers once held wooden cross- 
beams, and lacking also the extra thick coating of the 
cement that overlaid the courses of square stones. After 
having thoroughly but vainly searched the rubbish deposited 
upon the floor for any object that might have been left 

1887.] Explorations in Yucatan. 383 

there by those who were once its owners, I gave the signal 
and was laboriously drawn up to the surface and daylight 
once more. The reservoir is in such a state of preserva- 
tion that all injury caused by time could be easily and 
quickly repaired. 

I find in these edifices proofs conclusive to my mind that 
they are not the finished product of one architectural mind, 
but that the different portions were built at periods of time 
widely separated. In following out their plans the builders 
of one period seem to have had but little regard for those 
who preceded them, and when the two plans conflicted the 
later builders did not hesitate to convert a portion of a 
richly ornamented facade into an unimportant wall or else to 
bury it altogether beneath cement and other material. That 
the periods of construction were widely separated seems to 
me proved by the fact that various portions of plinths and 
ornaments which I found imbedded in the masonry were 
weather-worn in a marked degree. More than this, I do 
not believe the building was fully completed when for some 
unknown cause the inhabitants were presumably forced to 
abandon their labors and perhaps in fact to lay down their 
lives in its defence. From the form of that portion of the 
building which is completed, and the appearance of the 
adjoining terraces, I am of the opinion that the intention 
was to continue the edifice as a facing to the terraced 
mound until by its junction with the portion now standing 
a finished edifice would result bearing in its outline a close 
resemblance to the tau. 

The most interesting part of Mr. Thompson's narrative is that in 
which he describes his visit to a collection of ruins hitherto unmeu- 

I have found the ruined city of Chun Cat Qin. After 
long and tedious labor cutting our way through forest and 
jungle we found ourselves among ruins which have never 
before been seen by white men, or if seen no record was 
made of the visit. In naming these ruins I have followed 

384 American Antiquarian Society. [_ April, 

the idea of iny native guide, and have chosen to desig- 
nate them by the term Chun Cat ^in; a free translation 
being "By the trunk of the great Cat ^in tree." 

The ruins are about a league's distance from Labna, in a 
north-east direction. The country around seemed to be 
covered with mounds, confused heaps of carved stones and 
pillars, evidence of long continued and populous occupa 
tion. The building of which I have taken photographs and 
measurements, is, however, in a comparatively good state 
of preservation, and a description of its general appearance 
may be of interest. The facade faces north-west and has a 
length of ninety-two feet. The edifice was built upon the 
platform of a low double-terraced mound, the dimensions 
of which I should judge to have been when perfect one 
hundred and thirty feet long by forty-five wide. The 
building has now four apartments and appearances indicate 
the former existence of a fifth. The first of these rooms 
has a length of nineteen feet, a width of nine feet seven 
inches, and a height from floor to apex of arched ceiling of 
fifteen feet. The next two rooms closely resemble the first. 
The fourth being formed by a retaining wall has the appear- 
ance of a vertical bi-section of an arched chamber, placed 
at right angles to the adjoining chamber. This building 
differs from many in having its rear wall ornamented less 
elaborately than the front, the pilastered ornaments being 
arranged very simply but in a manner very pleasing to the 

Directly in the rear and almost touching this building 
rises a terraced mound densely overgrown and covered 
with debris. Time did not allow me to seek for the edifice 
which 1 believe must have once surmounted it, but from 
the outcroppings of stone I am inclined to believe that this 
was once a natural elevation formed by artificial means into 
a terraced mound. 

I never left a collection of ruins with more reluctance 
than I did those of Chun Cat Qin. Appearances warranted 

1887.] Explorations in Yucatan, 385 

me in believing that this was^ once a place of some magni- 
tude, and that within the savanna around me or close to the 
base of the surrounding hills I should find other buildings 
belonging to this group, of greater importance than the one 
I photographed upon this visit. A due regard for the 
interests of the object for which the expedition was under- 
taken compelled me to return to Labna in order to hasten 
my work. Besides, this toiling through a league or more 
of dense and thorn-covered growth had nearly deprived me 
of all clothing save my tigerskin leggings. My deerskin 
shoes had given out under the effect of sharp stones and 
sharper spines and my feet were bleeding in many places. 
For these reasons I had to content myself with being able 
simply to record the discovery of these ruins and the 
beginning of my work there. I hope to return this same 
season, if possible, and finish the exploration and investiga- 
tion of a region which I am convinced contains so much of 
interest and value to the archaeologist and scholar. 

I N D E X 

Accessions to the Library, number of, 
40. 130, 137, 232, 333. 

Adams, Charles Francis, 310. 

Adams, V resident John, 210, 375. His 
Letter to Dr. Belknap on Slavery in 
Massachusetts, in the Collections of 
the Mass. Historical Society, cited, 

Adams, John Quincy. 14. 

Agassiz, Alexander, 328. 

Agassiz, Louis, 328. 

Ainsworth, Henry, 97, 101. " His De- 
fence of the Brownists," ciled. His 
" Covnterpoyson," etc.. cited, 98, 

Albert, Prince Consort, 289. 

Alden Fund, 31, 31, 128, 131, 223, 220, 
322, 324. 

Aldrich, P. Emory, 42, 77, 233. Re- 
marks upon the subject of lotteries, 
2. Elected a Councillor, 5, 174. 

Alfred the Great, of England, 284. 

Allen, Charles, 7G. 

Allibone, S. Austin, 08. 

Ailing, James, 207. 

American Academy vs. Harvard Col- 
lege, the case of, 257. 

American Library Association, 142. 

American Antiquarian Society, the 
publication of Volume VII. of the 
Transactions, 0. Bequest to the, by 
Charles O. Thompson, 43. List of 
American newspapers in the posses- 
sion of the. by S. N. Dexter North, 
45. Its collection of perishable ma- 
terial transferred to the l'eabody 
Museum, 131. The scheme of a lot- 
tery for the benefit of the, 113. 114. 
Mr. Salisbury's gift to the Building 
Fund of the. 108. Rev. R. C. Waters- 
ton's gift of one hundred dollars to 
the, 250. The locality of its mem- 
bership, 330, 331. Its Resolution 
regarding the preservation of the 
literature of the Rebellion, 337. 

Ames, Fisher, 374. 

Ames, John (L, 142, 237, 331. 

Anau;nos, Michael, 141. 

Andre, Major John, 302. 

Annual meeting of the Society, Oct. 
21, 1885, 1. Oct. 21, 1880, 107. 

Appleton, Nathaniel, 205. 

" Archaeological Research in Yucatan," 
article on,bv Edward II. Thompson, 

Arnold, Dr. Thomas, 302. 

Assientists, the, 200. 

Astley, Thomas, his "Collection of 
Voyages," cited, 109. 

Augustus Ca'sar, Emperor, 274. 


Backus, Isaac, 125 n. 

Bacon, Henry, 77. 

Bacon, Jephthah, 75. 

Bacon, Joanna, 75. 

Bacon, Peter C, 234. His death 
noticed, 00. Sketch of his life, 75- 

Barley, Col. Jonathan, 175. 

Baker, William, 305 n. 

Baldwin. Christopher C, his services 
as librarian of the Society, 3(5-38. Hisi 
manuscript Report as Librarian,? 
April, 1835, cited, 37, 38. 

Baldwin, Eden, 30. 

Ilalllol, John, 284. 

Balliol College, Oxford, 2S5, 311. 

Bancroft, Aaron, 4. 

Bancroft , George, 178. Elected a Vice- 
Brosident, ft, 173. His method of 
historical statement, 13. His" Histo- 
ry of the United States," cited, 103, 

Bandinel, James, 195 n., 190 »., 200- 

Banister, Col. Seth, 175. 

Banister, William A., 235. His gift to 
the Society of a manuscript Orderly 
Book, 175. 

Hank of England, 274. 

Barnes, Albert, 273 n 

Bar ring ton, Dalnes, his " Observations 
on the Statutes," cited, 195 »., 100 n. 

Bartlett, John 11., his death announced, 
170. Sketch of his life, 170^185. 

Bartlett, Nancy, 170. 

Bartlett, Smith, 179. 

Barton, Edmund M., 2, 3, 02, 108, 250, 
271. Presents his Reports as Libra- 
rian, 3(5-50, 134-147, 228-218. 327-338. 
His paper read at the Milwaukee 
meeting of the American Library 
Association, 234. 

Barton, Ira M., 9, 70, 77, 337, 338. 

Barton, William S., 77, 234. Reads 



American Antiquarian Society. 

extracts from diaries of Hon. Ira M. 
Barton, 9. 

Baxter, James P., elected a member, 

Baxter, Richard, his connection with 
the administration of the will of 
Robert Mayot, 258, 259. 

Baylies, Francis, bis " Historical Me- 
moir of the Colony of New Ply- 
mouth," cited, 104. 

Beddoe, John, elected a member, 258. 

Beecher, Charles, 180. 

Beecber, Lyman, 18"). 

Belknap, Jeremy, 219. His article on 
Slavery in Massachusetts, in the Col- 
lections of the Mass. Historical Socie- 
ty, cited, 210, 211, 210, 217 n., 220, 

Bell, Thomas, his bequest to the liox- 
bury Latin School, 355-357. 

Bellinghani, Gov. Richard, 7. 

Bentley, William, 48, 49. His bequest 
to the American Antiquarian Socie- 
ty, 49. 

Bernard, Kicbard, 98-100. His "Christ- 
ina Advertisements and Councils of 
Peace," cited, 97, 08. 

Bernard, Thomas, 300. 

Bernhard, Duke of Saxe- Weimar 
Eisenach, bis "'Travels through 
North America," cited, 335. 

Bethlehem Hospital, London, 309. 

Bidwell, Barnabas, bis Letter to David 
Daggett relating to Shays's Rebellion, 
308, 309. 

Bigelow, John P., 338. 

Billing, John S., 230. 

Bliss, Frederic, 45. 

Bliss. Mrs. Hannah, 41, 45. 

" Body of Liberties," cited, 213. 

Bond, Henry, his History of Water- 
town, cited, MH n. 

Bookbinding Fund, 30, 32, 128, 130, 
223, 225, 322, 324. 

Boswell, James, 13. 

Boteler, Sir Thomas, 307. 

Bowes, Lisle, 297 n. 

Boylston, Thomas, 209 n. 

Bradford, Tbomas C.,204 

Bradford, Gov. William, 102, 118. 

Bradshaw, Henry, 83. 

Bradstreet, Jobu, 8. 

Bradstreet, Goo. Simon, 207, 210 a. 

Brattle, Tbomas, 207, 2(iS. 

Brevoort, J. Carson. 233. His gift of 
books relating to Japan, 41. 

Brewster, William, 102. 

Bridges, Edward, 351. 

Bridewell, London. 300. 

Brigham, William, 103 n., 10-1 »., 118 n. 

Bright, Francis, 105. 

Bright. John, 337, 338. 

Brinlcy, George, 230. Accessions to 
the Library from the sale of the 
fourth part of the library of , 335, 330. 

Brinton, Daniel G., 138. 

Briscoe, Nathaniel. 115, 110. 

Bristol, William, bis Letter to David 

Daggett. 375. 
Brodie, Sir Benjamin, 291. 
Brodriek, lion. G. C, bis '* History 

of the University of Oxford," cited, 

285, 295 n. 
Brooklyn Library, 235. 
Brooks, Henry M., 143. 
Brougham, lienry, Lord, 280. His 

letter in the " Pamphleteer," Vol. 

XIII., cited, 281, 2S2. 
Biown, Coold, 319 n. 
Brown, John Carter, 182-184. 
Brown, Wm. Haig, 305 n. 
Brownists, their belief in the voluntary 

maintenance of ministers, 90. 
Brvce, .James, 100. 
Bucfc, Edward, 110. 
Buffalo Library, 235. 
Bullcn, George, 81. 
Buik, John, 196 n. 
Burke, Edmund, 204. 
Burns, Robert, 159. 
Burr, Aaron, 370. His private charac- 
ter, 24. 
Burr, George L., 330. 
Butler, Cyrus, 180. 


Calamy, Edmund, 259. 

California Academy of Scicncc<j, 45. 

Cambridge University, En;/., 2§3. 

Campbell, Sir (jleorge, lOOi 

Campbell, James V., 138. 

Campbell, John, 27. 

Cantield, Mrs. Penelope L., 139, 334. 

Carey, Henry C, his "Slave Trade, 
Domestic and Foreign," cited, 201 a. 

Carlotta, Empress, 251. 

Carr, Lucieu, elected a member, 107. 

Chadwick, Sir Andrew, 43. 

Chandler, George, 334. 

Chandler Fund, 31, 35, 128, 132, 223, 
220, 322, 325. 

Chauning, Edward, 137. Elected a 
member, 1. 

Channing, Henry, his Letter to David 
Daggett, 309-370. 

Channing. William Ellery, 170, 300. 

'•Charitable Trusts," article on, by 
Charles A. Chase, 271-315. 

Charnay, Desire, 249. 

Charter House School, London, 304. 

Chase, Anthony, 310. 

Chase, Charles A., 250. Elected a 
Councillor, 5, 174. Elected a mem- 
ber of the Committee of Publication, 
0, 171. Elected an Auditor, 0, 174. 
Certificates as Auditor, 85, 133, 227, 
320. Presents the Report of the 
Council, liT 1 315. 

Chase, Lydia E., 310, 317. 

Chase, Pliny Earle, his death an- 



nounced,271. Memoir of, by Samuel 
S. Green, 816-321. 
Chase, Thomas, 817. 

Chauneey, Charles, 370. 

Chicago Public Library, 235. 

Chichely, Archbishop, 27s n. 

Chichen-Itza, Yucatan, 380. 

Childe, Sir Josiah, his "New Dis- 
course of Trade," cited, 207. 

Christ's Hospital, London. 304, 300. 

Chun Cat oin, Yucatan, 883, .384. 

Clark, Edward Hammond, 69. 

Clifford, Coo. John II., 76. 

Clyfton, llichard, his "An Advertise- 
ment concerning a Hook lately pub- 
lished by C. Lawne aud others, 
against the English Exiled Church 
at Amsterdam," cited, 101, 102. 

Coe, Miss Ellen M., 139. 

Colet, Henry, 299. 

Colet, John, 299. 

Collection and Research Fund, 30, 32, 
128, 130, 223, 225, 322, 323. 

" Colony of Nox," article on the, by 
Andrew McF. Davis. 266-270. 

Colton, Reuben, 75, 131, 237, 270, 333. 
Communicates an abstract of Edward 
H. Thompson's diary of his explora- 
tions in Yucatan, 379-385. 

Colton, Mrs. Samuel II., 234. 

Combe, George, 100. 

"Connection of Massachusetts with 
Slavery and the Slave-Trade," article 
on the, by Charles Deane, 191-222. 

Corrie, Captain, 171, 172. 

Cotton, John, 7, 87 n., 110 »., 123, 124. 

Council of the Society, members of, 
elected Oct. 21. 1885, 5, Oct. 21, 1880, 
174. Annual Reports of the, 11-29, 
178-222. Semi-annual Reports of, 
60-128, 271-315. 

Cove, Morgan, his " Essay on the Rev- 
enues of the Church of England," 
cited, 91. 

Crisp, Samuel, 267. 

Cromwell, Oliver, 92, 197, 282 n. 

Cross, William, 70. 

Cushing, Thomas P., 84. 

Cashing, William, 219, 365. 

Cutler, Ebenczer, 78. 

Cutler, Manasseh, remarks upon the 
character of, 4, 5. An account of 
his life, 29. 

Ctj i>re.s, remarks on the doctrine of, 
by John 1). Washburn, 257-259. 


Daggett, David, Selections from Let- 
ters received by, communicated to 
the Societv by Franklin B. Dexter, 

Dana, John A., 79. 

Dane, Nathan, his "Abridgment and 
Digest of American Law," cited, 
214, 215. 

Daneus, Lambertii8, 121. 

Davis, Andrew McF., 334. Presents 
a paper on the Colony of Nox, 266- 

Davis, Edward L., 333. Elected a 
Councillor, 5, 174. 

Davis, Horace, 137,238. 

Davis, Isaac, 338. 

Davis, Gov. John, 4, 76. His Council 
Report, April, 1851, cited, 50. A 
sketch of, from George Watterston's 
"Gallery of American Portraits," 
264, 205. 

Davis Book Fund, 31, 33, 41, 128, 131, 
223, 225, 322, 324, 335. 

Deane, Charles, 95 n., 118, 108, 338. 
Speaks of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, 4, 
5. Elected Secretary of Domestic 
Correspondence, 6, 173. Elected a 
member of the Committee of Publi- 
cation, 6, 174. Presents the Report 
of the Council, 17S-222. 

Devorguilla, wife of John Balliol, 2S4. 

Dewey, Francis II., 70. 

Dexter, Franklin B., 41, 42, 270. 
Elected a Councillor, 5, 174. Com- 
municates " Selections from Letters 
received bv David Daggett, 1786- 
1802," 367-378. 

Dexter, Henry M., 95 »., 101 n., 118. 
His " Congregationalism of the last 
three hundred vears as seen in its 
literature." cited, 94, 95, 97, 119 n., 
123. 1 

Dexter, Samuel, his Letter to Dr. 
Belknap on Slavery in Massachu- 
setts, in the Collections of the Mass. 
Historical Society, cited, 209 n. 

Dialect, English Sources of American, 
article on, by Thomas Wentworth 
Higginson, 159-166. 

Dillaway. Charles K., 348. His "Histo- 
ry of the Grammar School in Rox- 
bury," cited, 353, 358. 

Dimah, J. Lewis, 125 n. 

Dodge, John C, Dr. Deane's obliga- 
tions to, for his article on Slavery in 
Massachusetts, 192 n. 

Donohoe, Joseph A., 141. 

Donors and Donations, lists of, 51-59, 
148-158, 239-217, 339-347. 

Doyle, John T., 141. 

Drew, A His & (Jo., Messrs., 45, 139. 

Dubourg, Barbeu, 176. 

Dudley, Mr*. Elijah, 234. 

Dudley, Gov. Joseph, 140, 207, 214, 

Dudley, Cov. Thomas, 7, 349, 353. 

Dunton, John, 87 n. 

Dupont, Jacques Charles, 176. 

Durham University, Eng., 283. 

D'Wolf, James, 171. 


Fames, Wilberforce, his work in the 


American Antiquarian Society. 

preparation of Sabiu's Dictionary of 
Books relating to America, 140. 

Earle, John Milton, 316, 317. 

Earle, Pliny, of Leicester, 310, 317 n. 

Earle, Dr. Pliny, 317, 

Earle, Thomas, 317. 

Karle, William B., 317 71. 

Edward I., of Km/land, 278. 

Edward III.; of E>u/land, 278, 207. 

Edward VI., of Em/land. 278; 309. 

Edwards, Brian, 203. His "History 
of the West Indies," cited, 199. 

Edwards, Edward, 80, 83. 

Edwards Pierpont, 309, 375. 

Eliot, Andrew, 209. 

Eliot, John, 349, 353, 302, 305. Ills 
Letter to Dr. Belknap on Slavery in 
Massachusetts, in the Collections of 
Mass. Historical Society, cited, 209 re. 

Elliot, Arthur, his " The State and the 
Church," cited, 91. 

Ellis, Arthur B , his "History of the 
First Church in Boston," cited, 87 n. 

Ellis, George E., 1. lleniarks on the 
connection of New England with the 
Slave-trade, 109-171. 

Ellis, 8W John, 285 re., 280 n. 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 300. 

Emerson, William, 87 »., 124 re., 3<i0. 

Ellsworth-, Oliver, 372. 

Endicott, Gov. John, 8, 117. 

English African Company, 202. 

" lOnglish Sources of American Dia- 
lect," article on, by Thomas Went- 
worth Higginson, 159-100. 

Erasmus, Desiderius, cited, 300. 

Essex: Institute, the Collections of, 
cited, 113 re. 

Eton College, 283, 29!), 303. 

Eusebius, 273 re. 

Everett, Oliver, 88 n. 

Everctte, Willis 10., his letter to Prof. 
Putnam, cited, 64 it. 

Exeter College, Oxford, 280-. 

" Explorations in Yucatan," article on, 
by Edward H. Thompson, 379-385. 


Fajardo, Antonio, 380. 

" Fallacies of History," article on the. 
by Andrew P. Peabodv, 12-29. 

Farley, Frederick A'., 180. 

Farrer, Mn, M., 308. 

Felt, Joseph li., 211, 210 »., 218 re., 
221 n. His "History of Ipswich, 
Essex: and Hamilton," referred to, 
5. His "Annals of Salem," cited, 
124 u. 

Fischer, Heinrich. his death noticed, 
00. Sketch of his life, 74, 75. 

Fischer, Max'. 74. 

Fiske, John, 112 n. 

Flint, Farl, 03. 

Flynf, Henry. 208, 369. 

Folsom, Charles, 338. 

oote, Henry W.. his " Annals of 
King's Chapel," cited, 87 ». Fleeted 
a member, 250. 

brce, Peter, 81. 

oster, D wight, 7, 77. 

owle, William B., 49. 

ox, William B.,70. 

rancis, Convers, his " Historical 
Sketch of Watertown," 10S re. 

rancis, George E., elected a member, 

rankliu, W. Temple, 170. 

roude, James A., 278. 

idler, Deucou, 117. 

'uiler, Thomas, his "Church Histo- 
ry ," cited, 280 re. 


Gallatin, Albert, 181. 

Gamincll, William, 185 re, 

Garnett, Richard, his tribute to Henry 
Stevens, 81,82. 

Garrison, Francis J., 334. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, 170. 

Gere, Henry S., 235. 

Giddiugs us. Browne, the case of , 109, 
114, 115. 

Gilford, Lord, his bequests for Educa- 
tion in Scotland, 313-315. 

Gladstone, William Ewart, 291. 

Goddard, IMward, 44. 

Goddard, Lucius P., 44. 

Goddard, Parley, 44. I 

Goodrich, Samuel G., 204. 

Gookin, Daniel, 349, 353. 

Gore, John, 349, 301. 

Gould, Benjamin A., 302, 304, 305. 

Gould, A. C, his "History of the 
American Card-Clothing Industry," 

Gouhling, Frank P., elected a member, 

Gray, Asa, 4. 

Gray, Horace;, 215 n. 

Gray, Thomas, 279 n. 

Green, Andrew II., 234. 

Green, John Orne, 139. 

Green, John Richard, his " Short His- 
tory of the English People," cited, 92. 

Green, Martin, 234. 

Green, Samuel A., 5, 173, 334. Elected 
a Councillor, 5', 174. 

Green, Samuel S., 01, 142, 271. Elected 
a Councillor, 5, 174. His " Public 
Libraries and Schools," cited, 40. 
Presents a .Memoir of Pllnv 10. Chase, 

Green, William E., 231. 

Greene, Albert G., ISO. 

Greene, Henry, 279 re 

Greene, J. Evarts, 5 
sents a paper on 
Latin School. — An 
History," 348-300. 

Gregson, John, 334. 

200, 334. Pre- 
The Koxbnrv 
Outline of its 



Grinnell, William T., 180. 

Grose, Francis, his " Provincial Glos- 
sary," as illustrative; of English 
Sources of American Dialect, 159- 

Guild, Reuben A., 5, 42. Remarks on 
the connection of Rhode Island with 
the Slave-trade, 171. 


Hakluvt, Richard, 194. 

Hale, Edward E., 62, 70, 145, 318, 338. 
Speaks of a letter of Washington's 
relating to a lottery, 2. Elected a 
Councillor, 5, 174. "Elected a mem- 
ber of the Committee of Publication, 
6, 174. Makes a report in behalf of 
the Committee of Publication, G. 
Gives an account of Lechford's 
Note-hook, 0-0. Remarks upon the 
system of maintenance of ministers 
in Boston, 87 n. His letter of March 
18, 1857, cited, 136. Speaks of Maj. 
Poore's catalogue of government 
publications, 168, 169. Speaks of 
the Franklin papers lately purchased 
by the United States, 176, 177. 

Hale, Edward E., Jr., edits the Socie- 
ty's edition of Lechford's Note-hook, 

Hamilton, Alexander, 372. His private 
character, 24. 

Hancock, Gov. John. 220. 

Hansford, Joseph, 353. 

Harden, William, 233. 

Harding, Chester, 36. 

Hardwick. Lord Chancellor, 280. 

Harrow, England, 303. 

Harvard College, a lottery for the 
beneiit of, 23. 

Hassam, John T., 45. 

Haven, Samuel P., 3. 44, 136, 331, 338. 

Haven, Samuel F., Jr., 145. 

Haven Fund, 31, 35, 41, 128, 132, 223, 
226, 322, 325. 

Hawkins, Sir John, introduces slaves 
in America, 194, 195. 

Haynes, Henry W., 2, 173. 

Hele, Elizaeus, 2S0 n. 

Henry I., of England, 309. 

Henry 111., of England, 288. 

Henry V., of England. 278 n., 298. 

Henry VI., of England, 299. 

Henry VIII., of £n gland, 278, 309. 

Heriot, George, 312. 

Hey wood, Benjamin, 73. 

Higginsou, Erancis, 105. 

Higginson, Thomas W., 65, 69, 70. 
His tribute to the memory of Rufus 
Woodward, 72, 73. Presents an 
article on '* English Sources of 
American Dialect," 159-166. 

Hildreth, Richard, 217. 

Hill, Alonzo, 337, 3;W. 

Hinkley, Thomas, 81). 

Hoar, George F., 41, 70, 137, 142, 159, 
169, 276, 333. President, 1, 167, 255. 
Elected President, 2, 173. Remarks 
on his election as President, 3. Reads 
manuscripts of Lord Percy, 259-364. 
Reads a sketch of John Davis from 
George Watterston's u Gallery of 
American Portraits," 264, 265. 

Hodgson, Margaret, 308. 

Holloway, W., 159. 

Holmes, Sir Robert, 198. 

Holyoke, Edward A., his Letter to 
Dr. Belknap on Slavery in Massa- 
chusetts, in the Collections of the 
Mass. Historical Society, cited, 210 n. 

Hook, Walter P., 27. 

Hopkins, Samuel, his " Dialogue con- 
cerning the Slavery of the Africans," 
cited, 212. 

Hopkins, William S. P., 77. 

Houghton, Lord, his death noticed, 11. 

Hubbard, William, 118. His " History 
of New England," cited, 1 14, 116, 124. 

Hugburne, Samuel, 353. 

Humfrey, John, 8. 

Hull Letter-book, 136. 

Hunnewell, James P., 139. 

Hunt, Sir Thomas, 279 n. 

Huntington, Oliver W., his letters de- 
tailing the result of his examination 
of Central American jades, 64 n., 65 n. 

Huntington, William R., 333. 

Hurd, Rollin C, his "Law of Free- 
dom and Bondage in the Unitoil 
States," cited, 213. ;' 

Hutchinson, Gov. Thomas, 87 ??., 215 n. 
His " History of Massachusetts," 
cited, 89. 

" Hutchinson Papers," cited, 114, 115. 

Huxley, Thomas Henry, 291. 


Iowa Historical Society, 46. 
Izamal, Yucatan, 249. 


Jackson vs. Phillips, the case of, 257. 
Jav, John, minister to Great Britain, 

Jefferson, Thomas, 24, 372, 375, 376. 
Jenks, Henry P., 235. 
Jenks, William, 338. 
Jennison, Samuel, Sr. f 6, 136. 
I Jennison, Samuel, Jr., 6. Loans the 

Lechford Note-book to the Society 

for publication, 6. 
Johnson, F., his "Defence of the 

Brownists," cited, 95 n. 
Johnson, John, 350. 
Johnson, Dr. Samuel, 308. 
Jones, J. Winter, SO. 
Josselyn, John, 87 n., 206. 
Justinian, Emperor, 273. 


American Antiquarian Society. 
K. m. 

Kabah, Yucatan, 251. 

Kansas Historical Society, 331. 

Keats, John, 12. 

Kenny, Courtney, his " Endowed 
Charities," cited, 280 n. 

Kent, England, its peculiarities of 
dialect, 160-160. 

King-, Thomas Starr, 85. 

Kingsbury, Frederick J., elected a 
member, 61. 

Kittredge, Henry G., his "History of 
the American Card-Clothing Indus- 
try," 317 n. 

Knowles, James D., 125 n. 

Knovvlton, Thomas, 68. 

Knox, John, 312. 

Lalma, Yucatan, 251-253, 370, 381, 382, 
384, 385. 

Lafranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

Lamb, Charles, 200. 

Lampson, Sir Curtis, 310. 

Lancaster, Joseph, 135. 

Landa, Diego do, 250. 

Earned, Josephus N., 140. 

Leach, Daniel, 362. 

Lechford, Thomas, 87 n. An account 
of his Note-book, and its publication 
by the Society, 6-0. His " Plain 
Dealing," cited, 110 a., 110, 120. 

Lesley, J. Peter, 321. 

Leverett, Gov. John, 355. His 
11 Diary," cited, 268. 

Lenox, James, 82. 

Librarian, see Barton, Edmund M. 

Librarian's and General Fund,' 30, 31, 
128, 130, 223, 224, 322, 323. 

Library of Congress, 23(5. 

Lilley, Mrs. C. A. B., 44. 

Lincoln, Edward W., 317, 318. 

Lincoln, Gov. Levi, 210, 338. 

Lincoln, Solomon, 167. 

Lincoln, William, 30. 

Lincoln Legacy Fund, 31, 33, 128, 131, 
223, 225, 322, 324. 

Littleton vs. Tuttle, the case of, 213. 

London University, 283. 

Loring, George B., 140. 

Lotteries, discussion upon the subject 
of, 2. 

Lowell, James Russell, his Oration de- 
livered at the 250th Anniversary of 
Harvard College, eitud, 272. 

Lowell, Hon. John, died ISO'J, 358. 

Lowell, Hon. John, died 1840, 350, 

Lyon, John, 303. 

Lyon, Nathaniel, 68. 

Macaulay, Thomas B., 13. 

Macpherson, David, 204. 

Madison, James, 374. 

Maine, Sir Henry, his " Ancient 
Law," cited, 214. 

Mann, Horace, 310. 

Marsh, George P., 3. 

Martyr, Peter, 121. 

Massachusetts, Laws of the Province 
of, eited, 88 n. 

Massachusetts, Slavery and the Slave- 
trade in, article on, by Charles 
Deane, 101-222. 

Massachusetts Bay Company, " Rec- 
ords" of the, cited, 100-100, 111, 112, 

Massachusetts Historical Society, " Col- 
lections," cited, 218 n. 

Mather, Cotton, his "Ratio Dis- 
cipline," cited, 125 n. His " Life 
of John Eliot," cited, 300. 

Mather, Increase, 121, 267, 268. 

Maverick, Jlev. John, 100. 

Maunscll, Andrew, his Catalogue of 
Hooks, cited, 50. 

Maverick, Samuel, 200. 

May, Samuel, 235. 

Mayas, Indians, 248, 252, 254. 

Mayer, Dr. A. B., 75. 

Mayot, Robert, his bequest of 60& for 
the use of sixty pious ejected minis- 
ters, 258, 250. 

McCarthy, Captain, 200 n. 

McMaster, John B., 42. 

Mcars, James, 358. 

Members, names of those present at 
meetings, 1, 61, 107, 255. Election 
of, 1,01, 107,256. 

Mendoza, Gumesindo, his death no- 
ticed, SO. 

Merchant Taylors' School, London, 

Merriam, Daniel, 138. 

Merrick, Pliny, 338. 

Merton College, Oxford, 285. 

Metz, Charles L., liis mound explora- 
tions in Ohio, 0. 

Milton, John, 121, 125. His Works, 
cited, 02, 03. 

Minot, Francis, 60. • 

Mirabeau, Marquis de, 176. 

Montetiore, Sir Moses, 271. 

Moore, George If., 216 u. His " Notes 
on the History of Slavery in Massa- 
chusetts," cited, 215 n., 218. 

Morgan, John S., 310. 

Morgan. Mrs. Mary E., 101. 

Moss, II. Whitehead, 305 n. 

"Mountain Road Lottery," 23. 

Muhlenberg, Frederick A., 370 n. 

Munroe, Neheiniah, 358. 

Murfree, Miss Mary N., 106. 




Now College, Oxford, 286. 

Newspapers, the Society's collection of, 
38, 228-282. The importance of pre- 
serving them, 230, 231. 

Newtc, C. T., 291. 

Noill, Edward 1)., 196 ?i. 

North, S. .N. Dexter, 45, 231. His 
" List of Hound Files of the Ameri- 
can Newspapers in the possession of 
the American Antiquarian Society," 

Nolo, Yucatan, 249. 

Norton, John, 7. 

Noursc, Henry S., 333. 

Nowell, Increase, 8. 

Nox, article on the Colonv of, hy 
Andrew McF. Davis, 260-270. 


O'Callaghan, Edward B., 196 n. 

Oliver, Elizabeth B., 319. 

Orderly books, the Society's collection 
of, 175. 

Oriel College, Oxford, 286. 

Orme, Robert, 259. 

Owen, John, his ''Exposition of the 
'Epistle to the Hebrews," cited, 121, 

Oxford University, 283. The founda- 
tion of, 284. Outline of its history, 


Paddock, Benjamin H.,141. 

Paige, Lucius R., his "History of 

Cambridge," cited, 113 n. 

Paine, George §., 42. 

Paine, Nathaniel, 2, 62, 70, 108, 256, 
271, 336, 338. Elected Treasurer, 6, 
173. Elected a member of the Com- 
mittee of Publication, 6, 174. Pre- 
sents his reports as Treasurer, 30-35, 
127-133, 223-227, 322-326. Notes a 
change in the method of keeping 
the accounts, 127. His Council Re- 
port, April 25, 1886, cited, 134. 
Speaks of an addition to the Socie- 
ty's collection of Orderly Books 174, 

Paine, William, 42. 

Panizzi, Sir Anthony, 80, 81. 

Parker, lOdwin P., his Sketch of Mrs. 
Stowe in the "Eminent Women of 
the Age," cited, 186. 

Parker, Joel, his lecture on the first 
oharterof Massachusetts, cited, 107 n. 

Parker, Richard G., his ''Sketch of 
the History of the Grammar School 
in Roxbury," cited, 363. 

Parsons, Theophilus, 213. 

Patterson, Mark, 291. His "Milton," 
cited, 93, 94. 

Payne, E. J., his " Voyages of the 
Elizabethan Seamen to America," 
cited, 193, 194. 

Peabody, Andrew P., 2, 62, 143. 
Elected a Councillor, 5, 174. Pre- 
sents the Report of the Council, 11-29. 

Peabody, Miss Elizabeth P., her 
" Reminiscences of Dr. Channing," 
cited, 170, 171 . 

Peabody, George, his gift for the bene- 
fit of the poor of London, 310, 311. 

Peabody Museum, Cambridge, 134. 

Pegge, Samuel, his " Anecdotes of the 
English Language," as illustrating 
English Sources of American Dia- 
lect, 100-166. 

Peinberton, Thomas, his Letter to Dr. 
Belknap on Slavery in Massachusetts, 
in the Collections of the Mass. His- 
torical Society, cited, 209 n., 210 n. 

Penoyer, William, his bequest to Har- 
vard College for Exhibitions, 266- 

Percy, Lord, three manuscripts of his, 
read bv Mr. Hoar, 260-264. 

Perry, Win. Stevens, 42. 

Phelps, Edward J., 43. His criticism 
of the pretended prosecution of 
American claims in England, 44. 

Phelps, Robert, 290 »., 291 n. 

Phillips, George, 107. i 

Pickering, Timothy, 375. 

Pierpont, Ebenezer, 361. 

Pilling, James C, 45. 

Pinchbeck, Anthony, 30S. 

Pinckney, Charles C., 375. 

Playfair, Sir Lyon, his Address at the 
250th Anniversary of Harvard Col- 
lege, cited, 312 n. 

Plinius Secundus, Cains, his "Let- 
ters," cited, 79. 

Plutarch, 27. 

Plymouth Colony, the laws of, cited, 
103, 104. Records of, cited, 115. 

Poole, William F., 4, 234. 

Poore, Ben : Perley, his Catalogue of 
Government Publications, 168, 169. 
His " American Constitutions and 
Charters," 109. Remarks upon the 
last cargo of slaves brought into the 
United States, 171-173. 

Porter, Eliphalet, 358. 

Prince, Job, 209 n. 

" Protestant Tutor," 137. 

Prudden, John, 354. 

Publishing Fund, 30, 33, 128, 130, 223, 
225, 322, 321. 

Pulsifer, David, 103 n., 101 n. 

Putnam, Frederick W., 177. Gives an 
account of his mound explorations 
in Ohio, 9, 10. Remarks on" Central 
American Jades," 62-64. 

Putnam, George, 366. 

Putnam, Henry W., 348. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Queen's College, Oxford, 280. 
Quincy, Josiah Jr., 215. 


Rahere, the minstrel, 301). 
Randolph, Edward, 207, 216 n. 
Reeve, Tapping, 373, 37(5. 
Reynolds, Grindall, elected a member, 

" Rhode Island Colonial Records," 

cited, 100. 
Richard II., of England, 278. 
Ridgway, Edward W., 0, 130. 
Rivet, Andreas, 121. 
Robbins, Thomas, his " Diary," cited, 

Robinson, John, 102, 10ft. His "A 

justification of Separation from the 

"Church of England," cited, 101. 
Roe, Alfred S., HO. 
Rogers, Gorham, 848. 
Rolleston, Prof.. 291 n. 
Roinillv, Sir Samuel, 281. 
Rose, Edward, 270 n. 
''Roxbury Latin School— An Outline 

of its History," article on the, by J. 

Evarts Greene, 348-3G0. 
Rugby, an account of the school at, 

302," 303. 
Ruggles, Joseph, 358. 
Rumford, Cdunt, 257. 
Russell, Lord John, 2.S0, 302. 
Russell, Noadiah,207. 
Russell, William, 180. 
Rutherford, W. Gunion, 3()5 n. 
Rynders, Captain, 172. 


St. Andrew's University, Scotland, 

St. Partholomew's Hospital, London, 

St. Francis of Assisi, 89. 

St. Lonis Public Library, 235. 

St. Paul's School, London, 200, 303. 

St. Thomas's Hospital. London, 309. 

Salisbury, Marquis of, 201. 

Salisbury, Hon. Stephen, LL.l)., 83, 

Salisbury. Stephen, 41, 183, 175, 233, 
333. Vice-President, 01. Elected u 
Vice-President, 5, 173. Gives an ac- 
count of his recent visit to Yucatan, 
64, 05. Makes an addition to the 
Salisbury Pudding Fund of five 
thousand dollars, KK His letter 
presenting the same, 178, 170. 

Salisbury Building Fund. 31, 31, 128, 
120, 131, 223, 220, 322, 324. 

Saltonstall, Richard, 8. 

Sargent, Joseph, 70, 338. His tribute 
to the memory of Rufus Woodward, 
71. Elected a Councillor, 5, 171. 

Scott, Sir Walter, his " The Fortunes 
of Nigel," cited, 312, 313. 

Seeley, John R., 291. 

Selden, .John, his opinion upon the 
subject of tithes, 89, 91. 

Semi-annual Meeting of the Society, 
April 28, 1880, 61, April 27, 1887, 255. 

Separatists, their belief in the- volunta- 
ry maintenance of ministers, 90. 

Sewall, Joseph, 205. 

Sewall, Chief Justice Samuel, 210 n. 
His " Diary" referred to, 15, 27, 2.H. 

Shaw, Lemuel, 257. 

Shepard, Thomas, 353. 

Shephard, Samuel, 7. 

Sheriff, Lawrence, 302. 

Short, Charles, 304. 

Shrewsbury, England, the school at, 

Shurtletr, Nathaniel B., 338. 

Sibley, John Langdon, 268. 

Skelton, Samuel, 105. 

Slater, Samuel, 310, 317 n. 

Slave-trade, the connection of New 
England with the, 109-173. 

Slavery, tin: Connection of Massachu- 
setts with, article on, by Charles 
Deane, 191-222. 

Smalley, Elam, 76. 

Smallev, George W., 70. i 

Smith, Adam, 177. 

Smith, Charles C, 256. 

Smith, Henry, 278 n. 

Smith, John Cotton, his Letters to 
David Daggett, while a member of 
Congress, 375-378. 

Smiths William A., 70. Elected an 
Auditor, 0, 174. Certilicates as Audi- 
tor, 35, 133, 227, 320. 

Smith, Lloyd P., 234. 

Smyth, Egbert C, 259. Elected a 
Councillor, 5, 174. 

Smyth, John, 97. His " Parallels, 
Censures, Observations," etc., cited, 
99. 100. 

Spehnan. Sir Henry, 92. 

Sparks, Jared, his services to Ameri- 
can history, 27. 

Spectator, the, cited, 276 n., 277 n. 

Spollbrd, Aiusworth P., his remarks 
on Newspapers in tbe Census Report 
on the Newspaper and Periodical 
Press, cited, 231, 232. 

Sponne, Archdeacon, 307. 

Stanley, Lord, 310. 

Stanton, Henry P., his " Random Rec- 
ollections,'' cited, 09. 

Staples, Hamilton B.. 13S. 

Staunton, Howard, his "The Great 
Schools of England," cited, 295, 290, 
298 n., 304 n. 

Stebbius, Uufus P., his " Historical 
Address," at Wilhraham, cited, 222. 



Stephens, Jeremiah, 91. 

Stevens, Cyprian, 79. 

Stevens, Enos, 80. 

Stevens, Henry, 143, 170. His death 
noticed, 66. Sketehof his life, 79-83. 

Stevens, Joseph, 79. 

Stevens, Phinea-J, 80. 

Stevens, Thomas, 79. 

Stoddard, Elijah B., 70. 

Stovve, Calvin E., his death noticed, 179. 
Sketch of his life, 185-187. 

Stoughton, Israel, 8. 

Stoughton, William, 353. 

Stowe, Mrs. Harriet Beecher, 185. 

Sumner, Gov. Increase, 358, 365. 

Sumner, Samuel, 358. 

Sutton, Thomas, 304. 

Swainson, C. A., his letter on Cam- 
bridge University, cited, 294. 

Swift, Zephaniah, his Letters to David 
Daggett, while a member of Con- 
gress, 370-374. 

Symonds, Samuel, 109, 114, 115. 


Tabi, Yucatan, 380. 

Taft, George S., 39, 235. 

Taft, Henry W., 233. 

Taylor, Alexander S., 233. 

Taylor, Isaac, his article in the k ' Con- 
temporary lleview," cited, 275 n., 
276 u. 

Tennet, Sir J. E., 310. 

Tenney Fund, 31, 34, 128, 131, 223, 226, 
322, 325. 

Thackeray, William M., 135, 296. 

Thomas, Allen C, 319 n. His Me- 
moir of I'liuy E. Chase, cited, 320, 

Thomas, Benjamin F., 338. 

Thomas, Edward I., 65. 

Thomas, Isaiah, 30, 47, 143, 145, 316, 

Thomas Local History Fund, 31,34,41, 
128, 131, 223, 225, 322, 321. 

Thompson, Charles O., his bequest to 
the Society, 43. 

Thompson, Edward II., 175, 270. Pre- 
sents a paper on " Archaeological lie- 
search in Yucatan," 218-254. Elected 
a member, 250. Presents a paper on 
" Explorations in Yucatan," 379-385. 

Thompson, Mrs. Maria G., 43. 

Thurber, Charles, 76. 

Tillinghast, Caleb B., 329. 

Toppan, Robert N., 13S. 

Treasurer, see Paine, Nathaniel. 

Trollope, Anthonv, 282. 

Trumbull, J. Hammond, 42, 137, 234. 
Elected Secretary for Foreign Corres- 
pondence, 0, 173. His edition of 
Lechford's Plain Dealing, referred 
to, 7, 9. Ibid., cited, 119 n. 

Tucker, Beverley, 209. 

Tucker, St. George, 214 n. 

] Tucker man, Edward, his death noticed, 
00. Sketch of his life, 83-86. 
Tuckerman, Henry T., 85. 
Tuckerman, Joseph, 83. 
Tuckerman, Samuel P., 84. 
Tuckerman, Sophia, 83. 
Tufts, George A., 76. 
Tiilum, Yucatan, 249. 
Turgot, Anne-Robert Jacques, 176. 
Twichell, Mrs. Ginery, 139. 
Twichell, Miss Theolotia L., 139. 
Tyler, Bennet, 185. 
Tyng, Edward, 335. 


Uxmal, Yucatan, 249-251. 

United States War Department, 45. 


Valentini, Philipp J. J., 75. 

Vance, Zebulon B., his Speech iu the 

Senate, March 26, 1884, cited, 191, 

Vane, Sir Henry, 125. 
V r eazie, William, 85. 
Vermont Historical Society, 142. 
Yesey, Erancis, his " ( 'ases in Chaucery 

in the Time of Hardwick," cited, 

Voetius, Gisbertus, 121. 
"Voluntary Maintenance of Ministers 

in Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay 

Colonies," article on, by Samuel S. 

Green, 87-12(5. 
Vose, George L., 45. 


Wads worth, Benjamin, 2(58. 

Walker, Francis A., 237, 334. 

Walker, Quork, 219. 

Warren, (}en. Joseph, 366. His letter 
to the feoffees of the Ko.vburv Latin 
School, 861, 862. 

Warren, Mrs. Mary, 362. 

Warham, Ilea. .John, 100, 117. 

Washburn, Emory, 218, 338. 

Washburn, John I)., 4, 168, 333. Pre- 
sents the Council's recommendations 
of candidates for membership, 1, 01, 
167, 255. Elected Recording Secre- 
tary, 6, 173. Remarks on perpetui- 
ties* in connection with charitable 
uses, 257-259. 

Washington, George, 19. His connec- 
tion with lotteries, 23. 

Waters, Henry F., 45. 

Wi'terston, Robert C, his letter an- 
nouncing a gift to the Society of one 
hundred dollars, 256.- 

Watterston, George, his sketch of John 
Davis in his "Gallery of American 
Portraits," cited, 264, 265. 

Watts, Thomas, 80. 

Webb, Miss Eleanore, 134, 136. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Webb, Thorn*-. II., ISO, 181. 

lea, William B„ 87. 
Weld, Thomas, 38>, 338, :;o4, MB. 
Welford, Charles, 181. 
Wesby, Joseph S., Ml death noticed, 

Westminster Si hool. London, 38% 
Whet hrrfcjfet, Henry li.. 364. 
White. Andrew I)., the gift of his 

library to Cornell University, 336. 
White-, Charles Cy hi- Letter to David 

Daggett, 367, MB. 

White. Daniel Applets*. 113 ft. 

Whitgift, Afchbitio.p. _ . 

Whittemore, Laurent, Cist 

Whittlesey, Asaph, 181 

Whittlesey, Charles, his death an- 
nounced, 1ST. Sketch of his life, 

Whittlesey, Vesta. 187. 

Wilbrahani, Mniff . 229 

Willard. Mary, 70. 

Willard. Simon. TO. 

William of Durham, 2*i. 

William of Wykeham. 2*3, 297, 298. 

Williams, Joseph, -i-v*. 

Williams, J. Fletcher, 42, ! I 

William-;, Soger, 12o. His "Hireling 
Ministry," etc., cited. 128. 

William?*, Thomas 

WHsoft, John. T. 

Wilson, 7.'er. John, 10-2. 187. 

Winchester College, England - 
:/j:3. An account" of, 2>7-:5j0. 

Win-low, Gov. Edward, hhl " Brief 
Narration," cited. 117. 

Wiiisor. Justin, 834. If ir first report 
as librarian of Harvard [University, 
cited. 147. Remarks upon the dura- 
bility of modern ueWhpajiers, 188. 

Winthrop, Judge Jamea, his letter to 
Dr. Jielknap on slavery in Massa- 
I jsnsette, in the Collections of the 
Mess. Historical Society, cited, SSI 

Winthrop. Gov. John. T, ST ft»MB, liT, 
Hi- •• Historv of New 
bad," cited, 10-j. MB, 188-138, U-'. 
115, llti, 128, 124, 20-;. 

Winthrop, John, #09. 0/ Conn., 12.J 

Winthrop. Robert C. ; Jr., 14<J. 

Woodhouse, Uobert, 307. 

Woodward, Ashbe'. his death noticed, 
66. Sketch of his life, 68-88. 

Woodward. P. H. (Zl. lib Memoir of 
Dr. Ashbe] Woodward, cited. ' 
Ivrard, Lichard, 66. 

Woodward, Kufus, his death noticed, 
Sketch of his life, 60-73. 
• aid, Samuel Bayar d, 89. 

Woodward, Samuel W.\ (Zi. 

Worcester Free Public Library, 141. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity, I 

Workman, William, IP;. 

Works, William. _ 

Wyclif, John, his Works, cited, 00, 01. 


Youn^. Alexander. MS, US. 
Yucatan, Archaeological stescereh in, 

article- on, by Edward H. Thompson, 
I - 2M. 
Yucatan. Exploration* in, article on, 
by Edward H. Thompson 

Zanchiiuj. Hieronymus. 121 
Zayi. Faeefaa, &). %'A. 












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